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Keyword Why is the sky blue?
Search Urlhttps://www.google.co.uk/search?q=Why+is+the+sky+blue%3F&oq=Why+is+the+sky+blue%3F&num=30&hl=en&gl=GB&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
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Languageen
LocationGB
Search Enginegoogle.co.uk
No. Of Results2100000000
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why is the sky blue for kids?https://www.google.co.uk/search?num=30&hl=en&gl=gb&q=Why+is+the+sky+blue+for+kids&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj2oK-EtqH1AhWNmGoFHRc4As0Q1QJ6BAhbEAE
why is the ocean bluehttps://www.google.co.uk/search?num=30&hl=en&gl=gb&q=Why+is+the+ocean+blue&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj2oK-EtqH1AhWNmGoFHRc4As0Q1QJ6BAhjEAE
why is the sky blue for adults?https://www.google.co.uk/search?num=30&hl=en&gl=gb&q=why+is+the+sky+blue+for+adults%3F&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj2oK-EtqH1AhWNmGoFHRc4As0Q1QJ6BAhkEAE
is the sky blue because of the oceanhttps://www.google.co.uk/search?num=30&hl=en&gl=gb&q=Is+the+sky+blue+because+of+the+ocean&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj2oK-EtqH1AhWNmGoFHRc4As0Q1QJ6BAhgEAE
why is the sky blue and sunsets redhttps://www.google.co.uk/search?num=30&hl=en&gl=gb&q=Why+is+the+sky+blue+and+sunsets+red&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj2oK-EtqH1AhWNmGoFHRc4As0Q1QJ6BAhcEAE
why is the sky blue and clouds are whitehttps://www.google.co.uk/search?num=30&hl=en&gl=gb&q=Why+is+the+sky+blue+and+clouds+are+white&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj2oK-EtqH1AhWNmGoFHRc4As0Q1QJ6BAheEAE
why is the sky blue but space is blackhttps://www.google.co.uk/search?num=30&hl=en&gl=gb&q=Why+is+the+sky+blue+but+space+is+black&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj2oK-EtqH1AhWNmGoFHRc4As0Q1QJ6BAhdEAE
why is the sky blue gcsehttps://www.google.co.uk/search?num=30&hl=en&gl=gb&q=Why+is+the+sky+blue+gcse&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj2oK-EtqH1AhWNmGoFHRc4As0Q1QJ6BAhhEAE
Result 1
TitleWhy Is the Sky Blue? | NASA Space Place – NASA Science for Kids
Urlhttps://spaceplace.nasa.gov/blue-sky/en/
DescriptionLearn the answer and impress your friends!
Date
Organic Position1
H1Why Is the Sky Blue?
H2It's easy to see that the sky is blue. Have you ever wondered why?
What makes a red sunset?
Is the sky blue on other planets, too?
H3Related Resources for Educators
Explore some more!
If you liked this, you may like:
Explore some more!
H2WithAnchorsIt's easy to see that the sky is blue. Have you ever wondered why?
What makes a red sunset?
Is the sky blue on other planets, too?
BodyWhy Is the Sky Blue? The Short Answer: Sunlight reaches Earth's atmosphere and is scattered in all directions by all the gases and particles in the air. Blue light is scattered more than the other colors because it travels as shorter, smaller waves. This is why we see a blue sky most of the time. Watch this video about why the sky is blue! Voiceover provided by NASA scientist Dr. Moogega Stricker. It's easy to see that the sky is blue. Have you ever wondered why? A lot of other smart people have, too. And it took a long time to figure it out! The light from the Sun looks white. But it is really made up of all the colors of the rainbow. When white light shines through a prism, the light is separated into all its colors. A prism is a specially shaped crystal. If you visited The Land of the Magic Windows, you learned that the light you see is just one tiny bit of all the kinds of light energy beaming around the universe--and around you! Like energy passing through the ocean, light energy travels in waves, too. Some light travels in short, "choppy" waves. Other light travels in long, lazy waves. Blue light waves are shorter than red light waves. All light travels in a straight line unless something gets in the way and does one of these things:— reflect it (like a mirror) bend it (like a prism) or scatter it (like molecules of the gases in the atmosphere) Sunlight reaches Earth's atmosphere and is scattered in all directions by all the gases and particles in the air. Blue light is scattered in all directions by the tiny molecules of air in Earth's atmosphere. Blue is scattered more than other colors because it travels as shorter, smaller waves. This is why we see a blue sky most of the time. Closer to the horizon, the sky fades to a lighter blue or white. The sunlight reaching us from low in the sky has passed through even more air than the sunlight reaching us from overhead. As the sunlight has passed through all this air, the air molecules have scattered and rescattered the blue light many times in many directions. Also, the surface of Earth has reflected and scattered the light. All this scattering mixes the colors together again so we see more white and less blue. What makes a red sunset? As the Sun gets lower in the sky, its light is passing through more of the atmosphere to reach you. Even more of the blue light is scattered, allowing the reds and yellows to pass straight through to your eyes. Sometimes the whole western sky seems to glow. The sky appears red because small particles of dust, pollution, or other aerosols also scatter blue light, leaving more purely red and yellow light to go through the atmosphere. Is the sky blue on other planets, too? It all depends on what’s in the atmosphere! For example, Mars has a very thin atmosphere made mostly of carbon dioxide and filled with fine dust particles. These fine particles scatter light differently than the gases and particles in Earth’s atmosphere. Photos from NASA’s rovers and landers on Mars have shown us that at sunset there is actually the opposite of what you’d experience on Earth. During the daytime, the Martian sky takes on an orange or reddish color. But as the Sun sets, the sky around the Sun begins to take on a blue-gray tone. The top image shows the orange-colored Martian sky during the daytime and the bottom image shows the blue-tinted sky at sunset. Both images were captured by NASA’s Mars Pathfinder Lander. Credit: NASA/JPL Related Resources for Educators. Our World: Sunsets and Atmospheres article last updated April 21, 2020 Explore some more! How do hurricanes form? How does GPS work? What is a solar eclipse? If you liked this, you may like:. Tectonic Forces How Does GPS Work? All About Earth More Less More Less Explore some more! How do hurricanes form? How does GPS work? What is a solar eclipse?
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Result 2
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Result 3
TitleWhy is the sky blue? - Met Office
Urlhttps://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/learn-about/weather/optical-effects/why-is-the-sky-blue
DescriptionThe sky appears blue to the human eye as the short waves of blue light are scattered more than the other colours in the spectrum, making the blue light more visible
Date
Organic Position3
H1Why is the sky blue?
H2Why is the sky blue?
Why does the blue fade towards the horizon?
You might also like
Help us improve our website
H3
H2WithAnchorsWhy is the sky blue?
Why does the blue fade towards the horizon?
You might also like
Help us improve our website
BodyWhy is the sky blue? The sky appears blue to the human eye as the short waves of blue light are scattered more than the other colours in the spectrum, making the blue light more visible. To understand why the sky is blue, we first need to understand a little bit about light. Although light from the Sun looks white, it is really made up of a spectrum of many different colours, as we can see when they are spread out in a rainbow. We can think of light as being a wave of energy, and different colours all have a different wavelength. At one end of the spectrum is red light which has the longest wavelength and at the other is blue and violet lights which have a much shorter wavelength. Why is the sky blue? When the Sun's light reaches the Earth's atmosphere it is scattered, or deflected, by the tiny molecules of gas (mostly nitrogen and oxygen) in the air. Because these molecules are much smaller than the wavelength of visible light, the amount of scattering depends on the wavelength. This effect is called Rayleigh scattering, named after Lord Rayleigh who first discovered it. Shorter wavelengths (violet and blue) are scattered the most strongly, so more of the blue light is scattered towards our eyes than the other colours. You might wonder why the sky doesn't actually look purple since the violet light is scattered even more strongly than blue. This is because there isn't as much violet in sunlight to start with, and our eyes are much more sensitive to blue. The blue light that gives the sky its colour, is sufficiently bright to make all the stars that we see at night disappear since the light they emit is much dimmer. Why does the blue fade towards the horizon? You might also notice that the sky tends to be most vibrant overhead and fades to pale as it reaches the horizon. This is because the light from the horizon has had further to travel through the air and so has been scattered and rescattered. The Earth's surface also plays a role in scattering and reflecting this light. As a result of this increased amount of scattering, the dominance of blue light is decreased and so we see an increased amount of white light. You might also like. Learn Weather conditions What weather conditions are typically associated with areas of high and low pressure? Read more Learn Weather fronts Weather fronts mark the boundary or transition zone between two air masses and have an important impact upon the weather. Read more Learn April showers 'March winds and April showers bring forth May flowers' Read more Help us improve our website. Take our short survey
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Result 4
TitleWhy is the sky blue? | Royal Museums Greenwich
Urlhttps://www.rmg.co.uk/stories/topics/why-sky-blue
DescriptionClear skies above the Royal Observatory in Greenwich make for a fantastic view – but why is the sky blue?
Date
Organic Position4
H1What makes the sky blue?
H2What is light?
H3Why is the sky blue?
How is light scattered?
The sky during the day
Why does the sky look red during sunrise and sunset?
Skies on other planets
Why is the ocean blue?
H2WithAnchorsWhat is light?
BodyWhat makes the sky blue? Clear skies above the Royal Observatory in Greenwich make for a fantastic view – but why is the sky blue? Learn more at the Royal Observatory It’s a common misconception that the sky is blue because it reflects the blue of the seas and oceans. In fact, it’s the Earth’s atmosphere, and a process known as 'scattering', that causes our skies to be blue. Learn more with astronomers at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich. Why is the sky blue? Here's the short answer... As white light passes through our atmosphere, tiny air molecules cause it to ‘scatter’. The scattering caused by these tiny air molecules (known as Rayleigh scattering) increases as the wavelength of light decreases. Violet and blue light have the shortest wavelengths and red light has the longest. Therefore, blue light is scattered more than red light and the sky appears blue during the day. When the Sun is low in the sky during sunrise and sunset, the light has to travel further through the Earth’s atmosphere. We don’t see the blue light because it gets scattered away, but the red light isn’t scattered very much – so the sky appears red. Now, read on for a longer explanation... Shop 2022 Guide to The Night Sky by Storm Dunlop and Wil Tirion £6.99 Written and illustrated by astronomical experts, Storm Dunlop and Wil Tirion, and approved by the astronomers of Royal Observatory Greenwich... Buy Now Shop Royal Observatory Greenwich Illuminates Astronomy Guides Set of 2 from £18.00 Special Price. Save £1.98 when you purchase two accessible astronomy titles from the new Royal Observatory Greenwich Illuminates series guides together... Buy Now Shop Sky-Watcher Skyhawk-114 Telescope £179.00 The ideal telescope of choice for beginner to intermediate astronomers who are looking to expand their skygazing experiences... Buy Now What is light? . The Sun gives out or emits all the colours of visible light which we see as being approximately white. As demonstrated by Sir Isaac Newton with a triangular prism, when white light passes through the prism it separates out into the colours of the rainbow. This experiment demonstrates that white light is composed of all the colours of visible light in roughly the same amounts. These different colours have different wavelengths, and this affects how they interact with different substances. Violet and blue light have the shortest wavelengths and red light has the longest. Find more astronomy videos and resources How is light scattered? The Earth’s atmosphere is composed of lots of different air molecules. Sunlight can be redirected by the air molecules and this is known as 'scattering'. The size of these molecules is much smaller than the wavelengths of visible light. The type of scattering that occurs is known as Rayleigh scattering named after Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt) who discovered it. This type of scattering increases as the wavelength of light decreases, so blue light is scattered more than red light by the tiny air molecules in our atmosphere. The sky during the day. At noon, when the Sun is overhead it appears white. This is because the light travels a shorter distance through the atmosphere to get to us; it’s scattered very little, even the blue light. During the day the sky looks blue because it’s the blue light that gets scattered the most. It’s redirected into many different directions all over the sky, whereas the other wavelengths aren’t scattered as much. In reality, violet light has a shorter wavelength compared to blue light and therefore it’s scattered more – so why isn’t the sky violet? It’s because our eyes are actually more sensitive to detecting blue light, and more of the sunlight coming into the Earth’s atmosphere is blue rather than violet. Small air molecules in the Earth’s atmosphere scatter the sunlight during the day to give us a blue coloured sky Why does the sky look red during sunrise and sunset? During sunrise or sunset, the sky appears to change colour. When the Sun is low in the sky, the light has to travel a longer distance through the Earth’s atmosphere so we don’t see the blue light because it gets scattered away. Instead we see the red and orange light that travels towards us since this light hasn’t been scattered very much. Hence the Sun and skies look redder at dawn and dusk. Skies on other planets. Other planets don’t have an atmosphere exactly like ours, and so their skies would look different. Mars’s atmosphere is much thinner than the Earth’s - less than one per cent. The low density of air molecules means that the Rayleigh scattering that causes our skies to be blue on Earth has a very small effect on Mars. We might expect it to have a very faint blue coloured sky, but due to the haze of dust that remains suspended in the air the daytime sky on Mars appears more yellow. This is because the larger dust particles absorb the short wavelength blue light, and scatter the remaining colours to give a butterscotch hue over the Martian sky. However during a sunrise and sunset on Mars, the sunlight travels a longer distance through its atmosphere and it’s alike to the thickness of the atmosphere on Earth. As such, the blue light gets scattered in all directions and the longer wavelengths of light don’t get scattered much at all – providing a blue glow to the sky around the Sun in the hours around dawn and dusk. Spirit Captures a Sunset on Mars. The Martian sky typically appears a butterscotch yellow colour during the day and turns bluer near the Sun during sunrise and sunset (NASA/JPL/Texas A&M/Cornell) If you were standing on the Moon, the sky wouldn’t appear to have any colour except black. The Moon’s atmosphere is so thin that it virtually doesn’t have one. When the air is too thin for gas molecules to collide with each other, we call it an 'exosphere' instead. Because of the lack of an atmosphere, sunlight isn’t scattered, so whether it’s daytime or nighttime on the Moon, the sky appears black. Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, leaps from the lunar surface as he salutes the United States flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (NASA) Why is the ocean blue? So the Earth’s sky isn’t blue due to it reflecting the colour of the seas and oceans. But what makes the sea blue – is it reflecting the blue of the sky? It’s not the sky that makes open water appear blue. It’s once again due to how different wavelengths of light interact with different substances. Water molecules are good at absorbing longer wavelengths of light, so when sunlight hits the water the reds and oranges get absorbed. The shorter wavelength blue light is absorbed very little and much of it is reflected back to our eyes. It’s possible to see hues of green and sometimes other colours in the water, but that’s due to sunlight bouncing off other particles or sediments within it. This article has been written by an astronomer at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich See the universe in a new light Visit Astronomy Photographer of the Year and see the world's greatest space photography Find out more Find more exhibitions and events Royal Museums Greenwich Search Close Visit Us Royal Museums Greenwich Menu Close Want to search our collection? Search here. We use cookies to ensure you have the best browsing experience and to help us improve our website. Find out more Accept Cookies Close cookie banner
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Result 5
TitleWhy Is the Sky Blue? | NOAA SciJinks – All About Weather
Urlhttps://scijinks.gov/blue-sky/
DescriptionThis may sound like an easy question... it's not!
Date
Organic Position5
H1Why Is the Sky Blue?
H2What Makes a Sunset red?
H3
H2WithAnchorsWhat Makes a Sunset red?
BodyWhy Is the Sky Blue? The Short Answer: Gases and particles in Earth's atmosphere scatter sunlight in all directions. Blue light is scattered more than other colors because it travels as shorter, smaller waves. This is why we see a blue sky most of the time. Like most curious people, you have probably asked at some time, “Why is the sky blue?” Or if you saw a beautiful sunset or sunrise, you might have asked, “Why is the sky red?” It’s so obvious that the sky is blue, you might think the reasons would be just as obvious. They aren’t! Of all the colors of the rainbow, why blue? Couldn’t the sky just as easily be green? Or yellow? When we see a rainbow, we do see green and yellow in the sky, as well as blue, violet, orange, yellow, red, and everything in between. The white light coming from the Sun is really made up of all the colors of the rainbow. We see all those colors when we look at rainbows. Raindrops act as tiny prisms when lit by the Sun, bending light and separating it into its different colors. But why are there different colors? The light you see is just one tiny bit of all the kinds of light energy beaming around the Universe - and around you! Like energy passing through the ocean, light energy travels in waves, too. What makes one kind of light different from others is its wavelength - or range of wavelengths. Visible light includes the wavelengths our eyes can see. The longest wavelengths we can see look red to us. The shortest wavelengths we can see look blue or violet. The wavelengths in this picture are not to scale. A red light wave is about 750 nanometers, while a blue or violet wave is about 400 nanometers. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. A human hair is about 50,000 nanometers thick! So these visible light wavelengths are very, very tiny. Another important thing to know about light is that it travels in a straight line unless something gets in the way to reflect it (like a mirror) bend it (like a prism) or scatter it (like molecules of the gases in the atmosphere) As the white light from the Sun enters Earth’s atmosphere, much of the red, yellow, and green wavelengths of light (mixed together and still nearly white) pass straight through the atmosphere to our eyes. The blue and violet waves, however, are just the right size to hit and bounce off of the molecules of gas in the atmosphere. This causes the blue and violet waves to be separated from the rest of the light and become scattered in every direction for all to see. The other wavelengths stick together as a group, and therefore remain white. So what happens to all the “non-blue” wavelengths? They are still mixed together, unscattered by the atmosphere, so they still appear white. The scattered violet and blue light dominates the sky, making it appear blue. What happens to the violet? Some of the violet light is absorbed by the upper atmosphere. Also, our eyes are not as sensitive to violet as they are to blue. Closer to the horizon, the sky fades to a lighter blue or white. The sunlight reaching us from the horizon has passed through even more air than the sunlight reaching us from overhead. The molecules of gas have rescattered the blue light in so many directions so many times that less blue light reaches us. What Makes a Sunset red? Credit: USGS As the Sun gets lower in the sky, its light passes through more of the atmosphere to reach you. Even more of the blue and violet light is scattered, allowing the reds and yellows to pass straight through to your eyes without all that competition from the blues. Also, larger particles of dust, pollution, and water vapor in the atmosphere reflect and scatter more of the reds and yellows, sometimes making the whole western sky glow red.
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Result 6
TitleCurious Kids: Why is the sky blue and where does it start?
Urlhttps://theconversation.com/curious-kids-why-is-the-sky-blue-and-where-does-it-start-81165
DescriptionSome people think the sky is blue because of sunlight reflected off the ocean and back into the sky. But that’s not the real reason
Date25 Jul 2017
Organic Position6
H1Curious Kids: Why is the sky blue and where does it start?
H2
H3Author
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BodyCurious Kids: Why is the sky blue and where does it start? July 25, 2017 4.08pm EDT Duane W. Hamacher, Monash University Author. Duane W. Hamacher Senior ARC Discovery Early Career Research Fellow, Monash University Disclosure statement. Duane W. Hamacher receives funding from the Australian Research Council. Partners. Monash University provides funding as a founding partner of The Conversation AU. View all partners This is an article from Curious Kids, a series for children. The Conversation is asking kids to send in questions they’d like an expert to answer. All questions are welcome – serious, weird or wacky! Why is the sky blue and where does it start? – Oliver Scott, age 7, Wombarra. This is something that parents get asked every day. And it’s a great question, Oliver! Some people think the sky is blue because of sunlight reflected off the ocean and back into the sky. But the sky is blue even in the middle of the countryside, nowhere near the sea! Others think it’s because of the water in our atmosphere. But the sky is blue in places that are extremely dry, like the desert. A blue sky over the Sahara desert in Libya. Wikipedia So what’s the real reason? The sky is blue because of the way sunlight interacts with our atmosphere. If you’ve ever played with a prism or seen a rainbow, then you know light is made up of different colours. The name “ROY G. BIV” helps us remember these colours: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. A rainbow over my house in suburban Melbourne, 2017. Duane Hamacher These colours make up just a tiny portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes ultraviolet waves, microwaves, and radio waves. This means the invisible waves that cause sunburns, allow us to heat-up our leftovers, and let us listen to the radio are all forms of light. The spectrum of light, showing the wavelength with objects of comparable size. NASA Light moves as waves of different lengths: some are short, making bluer light, and some are long, making redder light. As sunlight reaches our atmosphere, molecules in the air scatter the bluer light but let the red light pass through. Scientists call this Rayleigh scattering. The spectrum of light we can see. Each colour from red to blue looks has a shorter distance between the waves. NASA When the Sun is high in the sky, it appears its true colour: white. At sunrise and sunset, we see a much redder sun. This is because the sunlight is passing through a thicker layer of our atmosphere. This scatters the blue and green light along the way, allowing the redder light to pass through and illuminate the clouds in a beautiful array of red, orange, and pink. Red sunlight illuminating the clouds at sunset outside Melbourne during the 2017 winter solstice. Duane Hamacher Rayleigh scattering can affect how we see the Moon. When the Moon passes through the shadow of the Earth during a total lunar eclipse, blue and green light is scattered in the Earth’s atmosphere, letting red light pass through. Our atmosphere acts a like a magnifying glass, refracting (bending) the red sunlight onto the Moon. This can give it an eerie dark red hue. For this reason, many cultures - including some Australian Aboriginal groups - associate lunar eclipses with blood. The dark red colour of the Moon during a total lunar eclipse on 15 May 2003. Frank Schulenburg/Flickr, CC BY-SA Rayleigh scattering works on other planets, too. Did you know that the sky on Mars is also blue? (When there are no big storms kicking red dust into the air, that is!) A photo of the Martian sky from the Viking spacecraft on August 29, 1976. NASA/JPL. And finally, where does the sky start? This is a tricky question. A bird flying 50 meters above us looks like it’s in the sky. But so do aeroplanes, and they fly more than 10,000 metres overhead. “The sky” is just our atmosphere as we see it from underneath. A majority of our atmosphere extends about 16 km upward, and this is where most of the Rayleigh scattering happens. If you’ve ever seen video of a rocket going into space, you can see the blue sky fade away to a black background as it climbs above the atmosphere. Watch a space shuttle launch. You can see the skies turn from blue to black as the shuttle moves above the Earth’s atmosphere. Hello, curious kids! Have you got a question you’d like an expert to answer? Ask an adult to send your question to us. You can: * Email your question to [email protected] * Tell us on Twitter by tagging @ConversationEDU with the hashtag #curiouskids, or * Tell us on Facebook CC BY-ND Please tell us your name, age and which city you live in. You can send an audio recording of your question too, if you want. Send as many questions as you like! We won’t be able to answer every question but we will do our best. Explainer Science Light Sun Earth Particles Sky Curious Kids Want to write? Write an article and join a growing community of more than 138,900 academics and researchers from 4,232 institutions. Register now
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Result 7
TitleWhy Is the Sky Blue? | Britannica
Urlhttps://www.britannica.com/story/why-is-the-sky-blue
DescriptionThe science behind blue skies and beautiful sunsets
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Organic Position7
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BodyWhy Is the Sky Blue? Cite verifiedCite While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Select Citation Style MLA APA Chicago Manual of Style Copy Citation Share Share Share to social media Facebook Twitter URL https://www.britannica.com/story/why-is-the-sky-blue By John P. Rafferty © littlestocker/FotoliaOne of the perennial questions of childhood is “Why is the sky blue?” You may have asked this as a child, or you may have a child now asking you! The explanation begins with the ultimate source of light in our solar system: the Sun. Sunlight appears white, but this white light is made up of all the colors of the visible spectrum, ranging from red through violet. On its path through the atmosphere, sunlight is absorbed, reflected, and altered by different elements, compounds, and particles. The color of the sky depends largely upon the wavelengths of the incoming light, but air molecules (mostly nitrogen and oxygen) and dust particles also play important roles. When the sun is high overhead, the bulk of its rays intercept the atmosphere at nearly vertical angles. Shorter wavelengths of light, such as violet and blue, are more easily absorbed by air molecules than light from longer wavelengths (that is, from red, orange, and yellow bands in the spectrum). Air molecules then radiate violet and blue light in different directions, saturating the sky. However, the midday sky appears blue, rather than a combination of blue and violet, because our eyes are more sensitive to blue light than to violet light. When the sun is near the horizon at dawn and dusk, the sun’s rays strike the atmosphere at more-oblique (slanted) angles, and thus these rays must travel a greater distance through the atmosphere than they would at midday. As a result, there are more nitrogen and oxygen molecules and other particles that can block and scatter incoming sunlight. During this long passage, incoming radiation in the shorter blue and violet wavelengths is mostly filtered out, and the influence of these wavelengths over the color of the sky diminishes. What remains are the longer wavelengths, and some of these rays strike dust and other particles near the horizon, as well as the water droplets that make up clouds, to create the red, orange, and yellow tints we enjoy at sunrise and sunset. Load More
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Result 8
TitleWhy is the sky blue? - Scientific American
Urlhttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-is-the-sky-blue/
DescriptionScientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives
Date7 Apr 2003
Organic Position8
H1Why is the sky blue?
H2Newsletter
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BodyWhy is the sky blue?April 7, 2003Advertisement Anthony D. Del Genio of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Columbia University explains. To understand why the sky is blue, we need to consider the nature of sunlight and how it interacts with the gas molecules that make up our atmosphere. Sunlight, which appears white to the human eye, is a mixture of all the colors of the rainbow. For many purposes, sunlight can be thought of as an electromagnetic wave that causes the charged particles (electrons and protons) inside air molecules to oscillate up and down as the sunlight passes through the atmosphere. When this happens, the oscillating charges produce electromagnetic radiation at the same frequency as the incoming sunlight, but spread over all different directions. This redirecting of incoming sunlight by air molecules is called scattering. The blue component of the spectrum of visible light has shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than the red component. Thus, as sunlight of all colors passes through air, the blue part causes charged particles to oscillate faster than does the red part. The faster the oscillation, the more scattered light is produced, so blue is scattered more strongly than red. For particles such as air molecules that are much smaller than the wavelengths of visible light the difference is dramatic. The acceleration of the charged particles is proportional to the square of the frequency, and the intensity of scattered light is proportional to the square of this acceleration. Scattered light intensity is therefore proportional to the fourth power of frequency. The result is that blue light is scattered into other directions almost 10 times as efficiently as red light. When we look at an arbitrary point in the sky, away from the sun, we see only the light that was redirected by the atmosphere into our line of sight. Because that occurs much more often for blue light than for red, the sky appears blue. Violet light is actually scattered even a bit more strongly than blue. More of the sunlight entering the atmosphere is blue than violet, however, and our eyes are somewhat more sensitive to blue light than to violet light, so the sky appears blue. When we view the setting sun on the horizon, the opposite occurs. We see only the light that has not been scattered into other directions. The red wavelengths of sunlight that pass through the atmosphere without being scattered much reach our eyes, while the strongly scattered blue light does not. The longer distance that the sunlight travels through the atmosphere when it is on the horizon amplifies the effect--there are more opportunities for blue light to be scattered than when the sun is overhead. Thus, the setting sun appears reddish. In a polluted sky, small aerosol particles of sulfate, organic carbon, or mineral dust further amplify the scattering of blue light, making sunsets in polluted conditions sometimes spectacular. Clouds, on the other hand, are made of water droplets that are much larger than the wavelengths of visible light. The way they scatter sunlight is determined by how the light is refracted and internally reflected by, and diffracted around, the cloud droplets. For these particles the difference between the scattering of blue and red light is not nearly so large as it is for gas molecules. Hence, our eyes receive substantial scattered light at all visible wavelengths, causing clouds to appear more white than blue, especially when viewed against a blue sky background. Since scattering by the atmosphere causes the sky to be blue, a planet with no atmosphere cannot have a bright sky. For example, photographs taken by the Apollo astronauts on the moon show them and the moon's surface bathed in sunlight, but a completely dark sky in all directions away from the sun. Rights & Permissions Newsletter. Get smart. Sign up for our email newsletter.Sign UpScroll To Top Support science journalism.Thanks for reading Scientific American. Knowledge awaits.See Subscription OptionsAlready a subscriber? Sign in.Thanks for reading Scientific American. Create your free account or Sign in to continue.Create AccountSee Subscription OptionsContinue reading with a Scientific American subscription.Subscribe NowYou may cancel at any time.Sign in.
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Result 9
TitleWhy is the sky blue?
Urlhttps://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/General/BlueSky/blue_sky.html
Description
Date
Organic Position9
H1Why is the sky blue?
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H3Tyndall Effect
Dust or Molecules?
Why not violet?
Sunsets
Blue Haze and Blue Moon
Opalescence
Why is the Martian sky red?
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BodyWhy is the sky blue? A clear cloudless day-time sky is blue because molecules in the air scatter blue light from the sun more than they scatter red light.  When we look towards the sun at sunset, we see red and orange colours because the blue light has been scattered out and away from the line of sight. The white light from the sun is a mixture of all colours of the rainbow.  This was demonstrated by Isaac Newton, who used a prism to separate the different colours and so form a spectrum.  The colours of light are distinguished by their different wavelengths.  The visible part of the spectrum ranges from red light with a wavelength of about 720 nm, to violet with a wavelength of about 380 nm, with orange, yellow, green, blue and indigo between.  The three different types of colour receptors in the retina of the human eye respond most strongly to red, green and blue wavelengths, giving us our colour vision. Tyndall Effect. The first steps towards correctly explaining the colour of the sky were taken by John Tyndall in 1859.  He discovered that when light passes through a clear fluid holding small particles in suspension, the shorter blue wavelengths are scattered more strongly than the red.  This can be demonstrated by shining a beam of white light through a tank of water with a little milk or soap mixed in.  From the side, the beam can be seen by the blue light it scatters; but the light seen directly from the end is reddened after it has passed through the tank.  The scattered light can also be shown to be polarised using a filter of polarised light, just as the sky appears a deeper blue through polaroid sun glasses. This is most correctly called the Tyndall effect, but it is more commonly known to physicists as Rayleigh scattering—after Lord Rayleigh, who studied it in more detail a few years later.  He showed that the amount of light scattered is inversely proportional to the fourth power of wavelength for sufficiently small particles.  It follows that blue light is scattered more than red light by a factor of (700/400)4 ~= 10. Dust or Molecules? Tyndall and Rayleigh thought that the blue colour of the sky must be due to small particles of dust and droplets of water vapour in the atmosphere.  Even today, people sometimes incorrectly say that this is the case.  Later scientists realised that if this were true, there would be more variation of sky colour with humidity or haze conditions than was actually observed, so they supposed correctly that the molecules of oxygen and nitrogen in the air are sufficient to account for the scattering.  The case was finally settled by Einstein in 1911, who calculated the detailed formula for the scattering of light from molecules; and this was found to be in agreement with experiment.  He was even able to use the calculation as a further verification of Avogadro's number when compared with observation.  The molecules are able to scatter light because the electromagnetic field of the light waves induces electric dipole moments in the molecules. Why not violet? If shorter wavelengths are scattered most strongly, then there is a puzzle as to why the sky does not appear violet, the colour with the shortest visible wavelength.  The spectrum of light emission from the sun is not constant at all wavelengths, and additionally is absorbed by the high atmosphere, so there is less violet in the light.  Our eyes are also less sensitive to violet.  That's part of the answer; yet a rainbow shows that there remains a significant amount of visible light coloured indigo and violet beyond the blue.  The rest of the answer to this puzzle lies in the way our vision works.  We have three types of colour receptors, or cones, in our retina.  They are called red, blue and green because they respond most strongly to light at those wavelengths.  As they are stimulated in different proportions, our visual system constructs the colours we see. Response curves for the three types of cone in the human eye When we look up at the sky, the red cones respond to the small amount of scattered red light, but also less strongly to orange and yellow wavelengths.  The green cones respond to yellow and the more strongly scattered green and green-blue wavelengths.  The blue cones are stimulated by colours near blue wavelengths, which are very strongly scattered.  If there were no indigo and violet in the spectrum, the sky would appear blue with a slight green tinge.  But the most strongly scattered indigo and violet wavelengths stimulate the red cones slightly as well as the blue, which is why these colours appear blue with an added red tinge.  The net effect is that the red and green cones are stimulated about equally by the light from the sky, while the blue is stimulated more strongly.  This combination accounts for the pale sky blue colour.  It may not be a coincidence that our vision is adjusted to see the sky as a pure hue.  We have evolved to fit in with our environment; and the ability to separate natural colours most clearly is probably a survival advantage. A multicoloured sunset over the Firth of Forth in Scotland. Sunsets. When the air is clear the sunset will appear yellow, because the light from the sun has passed a long distance through air and some of the blue light has been scattered away.  If the air is polluted with small particles, natural or otherwise, the sunset will be more red.  Sunsets over the sea may also be orange, due to salt particles in the air, which are effective Tyndall scatterers.  The sky around the sun is seen reddened, as well as the light coming directly from the sun.  This is because all light is scattered relatively well through small angles—but blue light is then more likely to be scattered twice or more over the greater distances, leaving the yellow, red and orange colours. A blue haze over the mountains of Les Vosges in France. Blue Haze and Blue Moon. Clouds and dust haze appear white because they consist of particles larger than the wavelengths of light, which scatter all wavelengths equally (Mie scattering).  But sometimes there might be other particles in the air that are much smaller.  Some mountainous regions are famous for their blue haze.  Aerosols of terpenes from the vegetation react with ozone in the atmosphere to form small particles about 200 nm across, and these particles scatter the blue light.  A forest fire or volcanic eruption may occasionally fill the atmosphere with fine particles of 500–800 nm across, being the right size to scatter red light.  This gives the opposite to the usual Tyndall effect, and may cause the moon to have a blue tinge since the red light has been scattered out.  This is a very rare phenomenon, occurring literally once in a blue moon. Opalescence. The Tyndall effect is responsible for some other blue colorations in nature: such as blue eyes, the opalescence of some gem stones, and the colour in the blue jay's wing.  The colours can vary according to the size of the scattering particles.  When a fluid is near its critical temperature and pressure, tiny density fluctuations are responsible for a blue coloration known as critical opalescence.  People have also copied these natural effects by making ornamental glasses impregnated with particles, to give the glass a blue sheen.  But not all blue colouring in nature is caused by scattering.  Light under the sea is blue because water absorbs longer wavelength of light through distances over about 20 metres.  When viewed from the beach, the sea is also blue because it reflects the sky, of course.  Some birds and butterflies get their blue colorations by diffraction effects. Why is the Martian sky red? Images sent back from the Viking Mars landers in 1977 and from Pathfinder in 1997 showed a red sky seen from the Martian surface.  This was due to red iron-rich dusts thrown up in the dust storms occurring from time to time on Mars.  The colour of the Martian sky will change according to weather conditions.  It should be blue when there have been no recent storms, but it will be darker than the earth's daytime sky because of Mars' thinner atmosphere.
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Result 10
TitleWhy is the sky blue? | Highlights Kids
Urlhttps://www.highlightskids.com/explore/science-questions/why-sky-blue
DescriptionWhy is the sky blue? - Science Questions
Date
Organic Position10
H1Why is the sky blue?
H2
H3For Parents
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BodyWhy is the sky blue? The sky is blue because the air scatters blue light from the Sun across the sky and down to our eyes. We think of air as being clear and transparent, and it is. But air is made up of countless tiny objects, mostly molecules of nitrogen. When sunlight goes thousands of miles through our atmosphere, a tiny amount of light becomes scattered by these objects. White light is made up of all colors of light. Nitrogen molecules scatter blue light more than they do the other colors. So a little bit of blue light bounces around in the sky and then enters our eyes. That makes the sky look blue. Art by: iStock.com/CAEccles slug Created with Sketch. More Explore Science Questions How do cows produce milk? Science Questions Do insects sneeze, cough, or hiccup? Did You Know? Art You Can Hear! See All Explore You are about to leave Continue Stay on Highlights Kids Close
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Result 11
TitleWhy Is the Sky Blue? | HowStuffWorks
Urlhttps://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/climate-weather/atmospheric/sky.htm
DescriptionThe sky is blue because of the way Earth's atmosphere scatters light from the sun. Find out what makes the sky blue in this article
Date
Organic Position11
H1Why Is the Sky Blue?
H2Blue Skies: The Size's the Limit
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BodyWhy Is the Sky Blue? By: Nicholas GerbisShare Content on TwitterShare Content on FacebookShare Content on LinkedInShare Content on FlipboardShare Content on RedditShare Content via Email "" That picture-perfect blue sky punctuated with clouds is compliments of Rayleigh scattering. Manuel Breva Colmeiro/Moment/Getty ImagesBlue skies, smiling at me / Nothing but blue skies do I see ... -- Irving BerlinIf you've ever wondered why, like Irving Berlin, you see "nothing but blue skies," you're in good company. It took many centuries and a lot of smart people -- including Aristotle, Isaac Newton, Thomas Young, James Clerk Maxwell and Hermann von Helmholtz -- to puzzle out the answer, in part because the solution encompasses so many components: the colors in sunlight, the angle at which solar illumination travels through the atmosphere, the size of airborne particles and atmospheric molecules, and the way our eyes perceive color.Let's take the sky out of the equation for a moment and begin by looking at color. From a physics standpoint, color refers to the wavelengths of visible light leaving an object and striking a sensor, such as a human eye. These wavelengths might be reflected, or scattered, from an external source, or they might emanate from the object itself.AdvertisementThe color of an object changes depending on the colors contained in the light source; for example, red paint, viewed under blue light, looks black. Isaac Newton demonstrated with a prism that the white light of the sun contains all colors of the visible spectrum, so all colors are possible in sunlight.In school, most of us learned that a banana appears yellow because it reflects yellow light and absorbs all other wavelengths. This is not accurate. A banana scatters as much orange and red as it does yellow, and scatters all of the colors of the visible range to some degree or other [source: Bohren]. The real reason it looks yellow relates to how our eyes sense light. Before we get into that, however, let's look at what color the sky actually is.We'll do that next.AdvertisementBlue Skies: The Size's the Limit. Like bananas, atoms, molecules and particles in the atmosphere absorb and scatter light. If they didn't, or if the Earth had no atmosphere, we would perceive the sun as a very bright star among others in a sky of perpetual night. Not all wavelengths in the visible light spectrum scatter equally, however. Shorter, more energetic wavelengths, toward the violet end of the spectrum, scatter better than those toward the longer, less energetic, red end. This tendency is due in part to their higher energy, which allows them to ping-pong around more, and in part to the geometry of the particles that they interact with in the atmosphere.In 1871, Lord Rayleigh derived a formula describing a subset of these interactions, in which atmospheric particles are much smaller than the wavelengths of the radiation striking them. The Rayleigh scattering model showed that, in such systems, the intensity of scattered light varies inversely with the fourth power of its wavelength. In other words, shorter wavelengths -- like blue and violet -- scatter a lot more than long ones when particles -- such as oxygen and nitrogen molecules -- are relatively small. Under these conditions, scattered light also tends to disperse equally in all directions, which is why the sky appears so saturated with color [source: Bohren].AdvertisementIf we were foolish enough to look directly at the sun, we would see all wavelengths, because light would be reaching our eyes directly. That's why the sun and the area around it look white. When we look away from the sun, at the clear sky, we see light mostly from shorter, scattered wavelengths like violet, indigo and blue.So why doesn't the sky appear violet instead of light blue? The eyes have it. Your peepers perceive color using structures called cones. Your retinas bristle with about 5 million cones each, made up of three types that specialize in seeing different colors [source: Schirber]. Although each kind of cone is most sensitive to certain peak wavelengths, the ranges of the cone types overlap. As a result, different spectra and spectral combinations can be detected as the same color.Unlike our auditory senses, which can recognizing individual instruments in an orchestra, our eyes and brains interpret certain combinations of wavelengths as a single, discrete color. Our visual sense interprets the blue-violet light of the sky as a mixture of blue and white light, and that is why the sky is light blue.Do you have more burning questions about the planet? Keep reading for more links you might like.Sunset's StripThe sky’s color can change based on dust, pollution and water vapor, which affect the absorption and scattering of sunlight differently. The reddish tinge of sunsets is due mostly to the fact that the sunlight travels through more atmosphere to reach our eyes. By the time the light arrives, it’s been stripped of shorter wavelengths, which have scattered away, leaving only the longer-wavelength, direct illumination of sunlight’s redder tones.AdvertisementLots More Information. Related Articles. How Auroras WorkWhat causes a rainbow?Why does the sky get dark at night?How the Earth WorksHow Clouds WorkHow Weather WorksDoes smog really make for beautiful sunsets?Is there a light 10 billion times brighter than the sun?How Light WorksHow Rainbows WorkMore Great Links. NASA's The Space Place: Blue SkiesThe Physics Classroom: Blue Skies and Red SunsetsSources. Bohren, Craig F. and Eugene Edmund Clothiaux. "Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation: An Introduction with 400 Problems." Wiley-VCH. March 21, 2006.Boyd ,Padi. "Why is the sky blue and why is the Sun red at sunrise and sunset (taking into account the properties of interstellar dust)?" NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: Ask an Astrophysicist. June 11, 1997. (June 16, 2011) http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/970611f.htmlEncyclopedia Britannica. "Scattering (Color)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 2011. (June 14, 2011) http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/126658/colour/21861/ScatteringFitzpatrick, Richard. "Rayleigh Scattering." Feb. 2, 2002. (June 13, 2011) http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/em/lectures/node97.htmlGibbs, Philip. "Why is the Sky Blue?" Usenet Physics FAQ. May 1997. (June 13, 2011) http://www.desy.de/user/projects/Physics/General/BlueSky/blue_sky.htmlNASA's The Space Place. "Why is the Sky Blue?" May 12, 2011. (June 14, 2011) http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/blue-sky/en/Nave, R. "Blue Sky." Georgia State University Physics and Astronomy: Hyperphysics. (June 15, 2011) http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/atmos/blusky.htmlSchirber, Michael. "Why Skies are Blue Instead of Purple." MSNBC. July 19, 2005. (June 16, 2011) http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8631798/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/why-skies-are-blue-instead-purple/Stern, David P. "The Many Colors of Sunlight." Goddard Space Flight Center. Sept. 23, 2011. (June 15, 2011)http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Sun4spec.htm Cite This! . Please copy/paste the following text to properly cite this HowStuffWorks.com article: Close CitationGames. Try Our Crossword Puzzles!Can You Guess the Answer?Try Our Sudoku Puzzles!More Awesome Stuff. "" Up NextHow Auroras WorkExplore More "" You May LikeWhat Causes a Rainbow?Explore More "" Keep ReadingWhy does the sky get dark at night?Explore MoreAdvertisementAdvertisementLoading...AdvertisementAdvertisementAdvertisement
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TitleWhy is the Sky Blue? - Lesson for Kids | Study.com
Urlhttps://study.com/academy/lesson/why-is-the-sky-blue-lesson-for-kids.html
DescriptionWhy is the sky blue? It's not because a blue lava volcano erupted and painted the sky blue or because the sky ate a lot of blueberries. Come find..
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Organic Position12
H1Why is the Sky Blue? - Lesson for Kids
H2Blue Skies
The Sun Plays an Important Part
Our Eyes Play an Important Part
What Happens at Sunrise and Sunset?
Lesson Summary
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Unlock Your Education
H2WithAnchorsBlue Skies
The Sun Plays an Important Part
Our Eyes Play an Important Part
What Happens at Sunrise and Sunset?
Lesson Summary
BodyWhy is the Sky Blue? - Lesson for Kids Instructor: April DeBord Show bio April has taught Spanish and English as a Second Language and she has her Ed. S. in Foreign Language Education. Why is the sky blue? It's not because a blue lava volcano erupted and painted the sky blue or because the sky ate a lot of blueberries. Come find out in this lesson on blue skies. Blue Skies. One thing most people in the world have in common, besides breathing the same air, is that we have all seen a blue sky. Maybe you've even heard sayings like 'clear blue sky' or songs that talk about them, such as Irving Berlin's song, 'Blue skies, smiling at me / Nothing but blue skies do I see...' However, the reasons why the sky is blue may surprise you. Lesson Quiz Course The Sun Plays an Important Part. The sun is very close to Earth, so it is a lot brighter than all of the stars (this is why you can't see stars during the day, even though they are there). And during the day we are able to see the sun as a disc-shaped object on a background of a blue sky. Why is this? Well, in the air there are atoms, which are super-small particles, of the gases nitrogen and oxygen. These are two of the most important elements that make up the air in the sky, and they have an effect on the way we see the sky. When the white light from the sun passes through these atoms, the nitrogen and oxygen atoms cause the light to scatter. Usually, all light goes in a straight line, unless something gets in its way and reflects it, bends it or scatters it, like the atoms in the air do to sunlight. We know sunlight is important in seeing a blue sky because at night, when the sun isn't visible, the sky is dark. We can usually see the stars, which look like white pinpoints of light in the sky. We also see the moon, which generally appears like white on a black background. But we cannot see the blue sky at night because we can't see the sun. Our Eyes Play an Important Part. Your eyes help you see the blue sky. Let's find out how. We can use the prism to show us how this works. See how white light goes into the prism, and as it disperses, or spreads out, we can see the colors separate. Prism showing dispersion Light travels in waves that look like ocean waves or mountains and hills. In the image of the prism, notice how the red, orange and yellow at the top spread out more. It looks like a rolling hill. There is more space between the peaks of the hills, so we say that the waves are longer. When you get to the blue and purple at the bottom it looks taller, like a mountain. There is less space between the peaks of the blue wave, meaning it is shorter. Because of the shortness of the waves, blue and purple are the colors we should see most in the sky as sunlight comes through the particles of nitrogen and oxygen. Your eyes are engineered to see the color blue more than the color purple, so that is why the sky is blue. It is a combination of sunlight, the atmosphere and the way your eyes view things. What Happens at Sunrise and Sunset? Image showing how sunlight scatters The sky is sometimes red, orange and yellow at sunset and sunrise. This is because the light has scattered the blues even more. Therefore, as the sun goes down in the sky, its light has to pass through more of the atmosphere to get to you. As the blue light is scattered or dispersed, this lets the reds and yellows pass straight through to where you can see them. Lesson Summary. The sky is blue because the white light coming from the sun is scattered by the molecules of nitrogen and oxygen in the air. Because blue is the color with one of the shortest wave lengths, the sky appears blue to us. Blue skies depend on the sun and conditions in the atmosphere. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. Create your account Register to view this lesson. Are you a student or a teacher? I am a student I am a teacher Unlock Your Education. See for yourself why 30 million people use Study.com. Become a Study.com member and start learning now. Become a Member Already a member? Log In  Back What teachers are saying about Study.com Try it now Already registered? Log in here for access Why is the Sky Blue? - Lesson for Kids Related Study Materials. 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Result 13
TitleWhy is the sky blue? - BBC Science Focus Magazine
Urlhttps://www.sciencefocus.com/nature/why-is-the-sky-blue/
DescriptionAsked by: Natalie Weaver (aged 11)
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BodyWhy is the sky blue? Get 3 Issues for just £5 when you subscribe to BBC Science Focus Magazine Asked by: Natalie Weaver (aged 11) By Robert Matthews Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Whatsapp Share on Reddit Email to a friend It’s often thought it’s because of light reflected back into the sky from the blue sea. In fact, it’s the result of sunlight being scattered when it strikes the air molecules in the atmosphere. Advertisement Sunlight is made up of – literally – all the colours of the rainbow, and the complex physics of how light interacts with molecules means shorter-wavelength blue light is more strongly scattered than red light. As a result, it is blue-coloured light that ends up spread most widely across the sky, dominating its appearance. Read more: Advertisement Is there any truth behind the saying ‘red sky at night, shepherd’s delight’? Why does the sky change colour on the brink of a hurricane? What colour is the sky on an exoplanet? What colour is space? Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Whatsapp Share on Reddit Email to a friend Authors. Robert Matthews . Science writer Robert is a science writer and visiting professor of science at Aston University. He likes maths, West End musicals and hamsters. Tags. Colour Physics Q&A Subscription offer Try 3 issues for just £5 Receive every issue delivered direct to your door with FREE UK delivery SUBSCRIBE NOW
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Result 14
TitleWhy is the sky blue on Earth, but black in space or on the Moon? | Science Guys | Union University, a Christian College in Tennessee
Urlhttps://www.uu.edu/dept/physics/scienceguys/2000Oct.cfm
Description
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H2WithAnchorsWhy is the sky blue on Earth, but black in space or on the Moon?
BodyPhysics Home Academics Department of Physics Science Guys Article Why is the sky blue on Earth, but black in space or on the Moon? . October 2000. Almost everyone admires the lovely blue sky displayed on a crisp, cool autumn day. As early as 1500, Leonardo da Vinci tried to explain the sky’s color. His notebooks show he monitored sunlight passing through wood smoke, suggesting he understood the basic phenomenon of light scattering. Although the complete physical explanation for the blue sky is complex because of length limitations we will focus on the primary mechanism. In the 1870’s the English scientist, Lord Rayleigh, weighed in with part of the explanation. But to understand his rationale, we need to know two things about how we perceive light. First, all colors of visible sunlight from the short-wave violet to blue, green, yellow, orange, and the long -wave red, are emitted by the Sun, yet not in equal amounts. The predominant color in the visible spectrum is blue. Second, our eyes detect green light better than the other colors and they perceive blue light pretty well. Mixed together, all the colors of visible light appear white to us. Imagine a cork at rest on the surface of a tranquil pond. A stone is then dropped into the pond, sending out waves that cause the cork move up and down. The cork receives wave energy and then oscillates up and down, and in a similar manner light waves can interact with air molecules. However, the air particles do not keep the energy from light waves that fall upon them, but quickly re-radiate that light energy in random directions. Hence the initial light that was coming from a specific direction is now scattered (re-radiated) in all directions. This scattering depends upon particle or molecule size and the wavelength of the incident light. Scattering is proportional to one divided by wavelength to the fourth power. The long waves of sunlight (red) are less effectively scattered than the shorter ones (blue) by the small air particles in our atmosphere. Since red light has a wavelength (700nm) about 1.7 times greater than blue light (400nm) Rayleigh's findings show that blue light has about 9 times greater chance of scattering than red light. This scattered blue light goes out in all directions through the atmosphere and comes to us from throughout the sky during the day. However, when the sun is near the horizon sunlight must pass through a thicker amount of atmosphere than when it is overhead. As the light travels the longer distance through the atmosphere most of the blue light gets scattered out and the light that remains has proportionally more orange, leading to the beautiful sunrises and sunsets we are often blessed to see. These scattering effects are not however constant. Lord Rayleigh’s explanation ignores the effect of water vapor, dust particles, ozone, chemical pollutants, and eye response. All of these mechanisms can enhance or diminish the beauty or color of a sunrise or sunset. In space or on the Moon there is no atmosphere to scatter light. The light from the sun travels a straight line without scattering and all the colors stay together. Looking toward the sun we thus see a brilliant white light while looking away we would see only the darkness of empty space. Since there is virtually nothing in space to scatter or re-radiate the light to our eye, we see no part of the light and the sky appears to be black. Science Guys The Science Guys thank the Jackson Sun for permission to reprint these archived Inquiring Minds columns online! The Jackson Sun chose to discontinue monthly articles in 2005 and now they only appear as requested. List of Articles Study Physics at Union University The Science Guys were: Kyle Hathcox Glenn Marsch David Ward
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Result 15
TitleWhy is the sky blue? Why are sunsets red? | Optics for Kids
Urlhttps://www.optics4kids.org/what-is-optics/scattering/why-is-the-sky-blue-why-are-sunsets-red
DescriptionBlue Sky. Within the visible range of light, red light waves are scattered the least by atmospheric gas molecules. So at sunrise and sunset, when the ...
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TitleWhy is the sky blue?
Urlhttp://www.planet-science.com/categories/under-11s/our-world/2011/07/why-is-the-sky-blue.aspx
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TitleWhy The Sky Is Blue, According To Science
Urlhttps://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2017/09/08/why-the-sky-is-blue-according-to-science/
DescriptionWhen sunlight strikes the atmosphere, it turns our view of the heavens that familiar 'sky blue' color. Here's the science of how that happens
Date8 Sept 2017
Organic Position17
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BodyWhy The Sky Is Blue, According To ScienceEthan SiegelSenior ContributorStarts With A BangContributor GroupOpinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own.ScienceThe Universe is out there, waiting for you to discover it.This article is more than 4 years old.Share to FacebookShare to TwitterShare to Linkedin The combination of a blue sky, dark overhead, lighter near the horizon, along with a reddened Sun at... [+] either sunrise or sunset, can all be explained scientifically. Here's how. Robert Villalta / Pexels One of the first questions a curious child often asks about the natural world is "why is the sky blue?" Yet despite how widespread this question is, there are many misconceptions and incorrect answers bandied about — because it reflects the ocean; because oxygen is a blue-colored gas; because sunlight has a blue tint — while the right answer is often thoroughly overlooked. In truth, the reason the sky is blue is because of three simple factors put together: that sunlight is made out of light of many different wavelengths, that Earth's atmosphere is made out of molecules that scatter different-wavelength light by different amounts, and the sensitivity of our eyes. Put these three things together, and a blue sky is inevitable. Here's how it all comes together. Light of many different wavelengths, not all of which are visible, are emitted by the Sun. The... [+] atmosphere affects every unique wavelength differently, resulting in the full suite of optical phenomena we can observe. Negative Space / Pexels Sunlight is made up of all the different colors of light... and then some! The photosphere of our Sun is so hot, at nearly 6,000 K, that it emits a wide spectrum of light, from ultraviolet at the highest energies and into the visible, from violet all the way to red, and then deep into the infrared portion of the spectrum. The highest energy light is also the shortest-wavelength (and high-frequency) light, while the lower energy light has longer-wavelengths (and low-frequencies) than the high-energy counterparts. When you see a prism split up sunlight into its individual components, the reason the light splits at all is because of the fact that redder light has a longer wavelength than the bluer light. Schematic animation of a continuous beam of light being dispersed by a prism. If you had ultraviolet... [+] and infrared eyes, you'd be able to see that ultraviolet light bends even more than the violet/blue light, while the infrared light would remain less bent than the red light does. LucasVB / Wikimedia Commons The fact that light of different wavelengths responds differently to interactions with matter proves extremely important and useful in our daily lives. The large holes in your microwave allow short-wavelength visible light in-and-out, but keep longer-wavelength microwave light in, reflecting it. The thin coatings on your sunglasses reflect ultraviolet, violet, and blue light, but allow the longer-wavelength greens, yellows, oranges, and reds to pass through. And the tiny, invisible particles that make up our atmosphere — molecules like nitrogen, oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, as well as argon atoms — all scatter light of all wavelengths, but scatter the shorter-wavelength light much more efficiently. When the Sun is high overhead, the sky towards the zenith is a much darker blue, while the sky... [+] towards the horizon is a lighter, brighter cyan color. This is due to the larger amount of atmosphere, and the larger amount of scattered light, that is visible at low angles on the sky. Karsten Kettermann / Pixabay Because these molecules are all much smaller than the wavelength of light itself, the shorter the light's wavelength is, the better it scatters. In fact, quantitatively, it obeys a law known as Rayleigh scattering, which teaches us that the violet light at the short-wavelength limit of human vision scatters more than nine times more frequently than the red light at the long-wavelength limit. (The scattering intensity is inversely proportional to the wavelength to the fourth power: I ∝ λ-4.) While sunlight falls everywhere on the day side of Earth's atmosphere, the redder wavelengths of light are only 11% as likely to scatter, and therefore make it to your eyes, as the violet light is. Some opalescent materials, like the one shown here, have similar Rayleigh scattering properties to... [+] the atmosphere. With white light illuminating this stone from the upper right, the stone itself scatters blue light, but allows the orange/red light to preferentially pass through undeterred. optick / flickr When the Sun is high in the sky, this is why the entire sky is blue. It appears a brighter blue the farther away from the Sun you look, because there's more atmosphere to see (and therefore more blue light) in those directions. In any direction you look, you can see the scattered light coming from the sunlight striking the entirety of the atmosphere between your eyes and where outer space begins. This has a few interesting consequences for the color of the sky, depending on where the Sun is and where you're looking. From very high altitudes in the pre-sunrise or post-sunset skies, a spectrum of colors can be seen,... [+] caused by the scattering of sunlight, multiple times, by the atmosphere. Public domain If the Sun is below the horizon, the light all has to travel through large amounts of atmosphere. The bluer light gets scattered away, in all directions, while the redder light is far less likely to get scattered, meaning it arrives at your eyes. If you're ever up in an airplane after sunset or before sunrise, you can get a spectacular view of this effect. The atmosphere of Earth, as seen during sunset in May of 2010 from the International Space Station. NASA / ISS It's an even better view from space, from the descriptions and also the images that astronauts have returned. With a large amount of atmosphere to pass through, light from the Sun (or Moon) reddens tremendously... [+] when it's close to the horizon. Farther away from the Sun, the sky turns gradually bluer. Max Pixel / FreeGreatPicture.com During sunrise/sunset or moonrise/moonset, the light coming from the Sun (or Moon) itself has to pass through tremendous amounts of atmosphere; the closer to the horizon it is, the more atmosphere the light must pass through. While the blue light gets scattered in all directions, the red light scatters much less efficiently. This means that both the light from the Sun's (or Moon's) disk itself turns a reddish color, but also the light from the vicinity of the Sun and Moon — the light that hits the atmosphere and scatters just once before reaching our eyes — is preferentially reddened at that time. The total eclipse, as seen in Madras, Oregon in this picture, resulted in not only a spectacular... [+] view of the Sun, but of the horizon surrounding everyone in the path of totality. Rob Kerr/AFP/Getty Images And during a total solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow falls over you and prevents direct sunlight from hitting large sections of the atmosphere near you, the horizon turns red, but no place else. The light striking the atmosphere outside the path of totality gets scattered in all directions, which is why the sky is still visibly blue in most places. But near the horizon, that light that gets scattered in all directions is very likely to get scattered again before it reaches your eyes. The red light is the most likely wavelength of light to get through, eventually surpassing the more-efficiently-scattered blue light. Rayleigh scattering affects blue light more severely than red, but of the visible wavelengths,... [+] violet light is scattered the most. It's only due to the sensitivity of our eyes that the sky appears blue and not violet. Dragons flight / KES47 of Wikimedia Commons So with all that said, you probably have one more question: if the shorter-wavelength light is scattered more efficiently, why doesn't the sky appear violet? Indeed, there actually is a greater amount of violet light coming from the atmosphere than blue light, but there's also a mix of the other colors as well. Because your eyes have three types of cones (for detecting color) in them, along with the monochromatic rods, it's the signals from all four that need to get interpreted by your brain when it comes to assigning a color. The light response of the human eye, normalized, in terms of the three types of cones and (dashed... [+] line) the monochromatic rods. George Wald / Hektoen International Journal Each type of cone, plus the rods, are sensitive to light of different wavelengths, but all of them get stimulated to some degree by the sky. Our eyes respond more strongly to blue, cyan, and green wavelengths of light than they do to violet. Even though there's more violet light, it isn't enough to overcome the strong blue signal our brains deliver. The gravitational pull on the gases in our atmosphere cause a substantial surface pressure, giving... [+] rise to liquid oceans. Image credit: . NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Image by Reto Stöckli, Terra Satellite / MODIS instrument It's that combination of three things together: the fact that sunlight is made up of light of many different wavelengths, that atmospheric particles are very small and scatter the shorter-wavelength light much more efficiently than longer-wavelength light, and that our eyes have the responses they do to various colors, that makes the sky appear blue to humans. If we could see into the ultraviolet very efficiently, the sky would likely appear more violet and ultraviolet; if we only had two types of cones (like dogs), we could see the blue sky during the day, but not the reds, oranges, and yellows of sunset. But don't be fooled: when you look at the Earth from space, it's blue, too, but the atmosphere has nothing to do with it! Follow me on Twitter. Check out my website or some of my other work here. Ethan SiegelPrintReprints & Permissions
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Result 18
TitleWhy is the sky blue? A simple explanation on how we see light | The Independent | The Independent
Urlhttps://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/why-is-the-sky-blue-b1811792.html
DescriptionWhy is the sky blue?
Date3 Mar 2021
Organic Position18
H1Why is the sky blue? A simple explanation on how we see light
H2A basic understanding of how light works will clear everything up
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Subscribe to Independent Premium to bookmark this article
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H2WithAnchorsA basic understanding of how light works will clear everything up
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BodyWhy is the sky blue? A simple explanation on how we see lightA basic understanding of how light works will clear everything up. Matty EdwardsWednesday 03 March 2021 13:23Comments Article bookmarked. Find your bookmarks in your Independent Premium section, under my profileDon't show me this message again✕ Why is the sky blue? Or more accurately, why do we see the sky as blue? The answer lies in why we see rainbows when the sun shines during or after rainfall. Whereas the colour of a rainbow is determined by how light passes through water droplets, the colour of the sky comes from how light passes through the air.To understand why this is, a brief physics lesson is required – about how we see light.When the sun’s light reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, it is scattered by the tiny nitrogen and oxygen molecules present in the air. Sunlight is made up of a spectrum of different colours that look white when we see them all mixed together, so when it is scattered, or refracted, we see different colours. Colours with shorter wavelengths, violet and blue, are scattered the most, so more of the blue light is scattered towards our eyes than other colours.'So why isn’t the sky a violet colour?' you may ask. This is because our eyes are much more sensitive to the colour blue.The reason we can’t see stars during the day is because the blue light that gives the sky its colour is much brighter.The sky also tends to fades to pale as its nears the horizon, because the light from the horizon has had further to travel through the air and so has been scattered more.So what about rainbows?Just like with the gas particles in the air, rainbows form when the colours in sunlight are scattered by water droplets, whether it be from rain, or the spray from a fountain or waterfall.Light travels slower through water than air, so the light is bent as it enters the raindrop and the light is split into the spectrum of colours.Rainbow over rolling hills (istock)Does the sea reflect the sky?A common misconception is that the sea is blue because it reflects the blue sky. In actual fact, the sea is blue for similar reasons as the sky.When sunlight hits the ocean, the colours with longer wavelengths, red, orange, yellow and green, ar absorbed so that blue is left over. The amount of water also alters how much light is absorbed, which is shallower sea appears lighter and deep oceans darker.What’s in the sea, for example how much mud or seaweed is present, will also affect how blue the water appears because it alters how the sunlight is absorbed. This article has been updated. It was originally published in June 2018.Register for free to continue reading Registration is a free and easy way to support our truly independent journalismBy registering, you will also enjoy limited access to Premium articles, exclusive newsletters, commenting, and virtual events with our leading journalistsAlready have an account? sign inBy clicking ‘Register’ you confirm that your data has been entered correctly and you have read and agree to our Terms of use, Cookie policy and Privacy notice.This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy policy and Terms of service apply. Join our new commenting forum. Join thought-provoking conversations, follow other Independent readers and see their repliesComments ✕Subscribe to Independent Premium to bookmark this article. Want to bookmark your favourite articles and stories to read or reference later? Start your Independent Premium subscription today.SubscribeAlready subscribed? Log in Thank you for registering. Please refresh the page or navigate to another page on the site to be automatically logged inPlease refresh your browser to be logged in✕Or if you would prefer:SIGN IN WITH GOOGLEWant an ad-free experience?View offersThis site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy notice and Terms of service apply. My Independent Premium Account details Help centre Logout
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Result 19
TitleWhy Is the Sky Blue? | Wonderopolis
Urlhttps://www.wonderopolis.org/wonder/why-is-the-sky-blue
DescriptionWhy Is the Sky Blue?
Date
Organic Position19
H1Why Is the Sky Blue?
H2Have You Ever Wondered..
Try It Out
Congratulations!
You Got It!
Not Quite!
H3Did you get it?
Wonder Contributors
Wonder Words
Why Is the Sky Blue?
Why Is the Sky Blue?
What physical property of light determines which colors you see?
Which color has the longest wavelength?
Which colors get absorbed by gas molecules and scatter across the sky?
Not Bad
H2WithAnchorsHave You Ever Wondered..
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BodyWhy Is the Sky Blue? Previous wonder Next wonder Listen Immersive Reader Print 28 Comments SCIENCE — Earth and Space Have You Ever Wondered... Why is the sky blue? What color is sunlight? Why does the sky turn red and orange at dawn and dusk? Tags:. See All Tags atmosphere, blue, color, green, horizon, indigo, light, molecule, orange, prism, red, scattered, science, sky, spectrum, violet, wavelength, yellow Today’s Wonder of the Day was inspired by ryan from AL. ryan Wonders, “why is the sky blue” Thanks for WONDERing with us, ryan! The sunlight we see each day, called “white light," may appear colorless, but it is actually full of a lot of colors mixed together. This is why you see a rainbow when you shine white light through a prism. The prism separates the white light into each of its colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.Each of the colors is made up of its own wavelengths, kind of like a unique fingerprint. Red has the longest wavelength, violet has the shortest and all the other colors are somewhere in the middle.When you look at an object, such as a yellow sunflower or a red wagon, the color you see is actually the color of light the object reflects to your eye. A yellow sunflower reflects yellow wavelengths while absorbing all the other colors. A red wagon, on the other hand, reflects red.So how does the air in the sky have a color? The Earth's atmosphere is filled with gas molecules. As white light from the Sun passes through the atmosphere, colors with longer wavelengths, such as red, orange and yellow, pass through. Blue and violet wavelengths, on the other hand, are absorbed by the gas molecules and scattered across the sky. Your eye sees these reflected wavelengths as blue.Of course, you've probably seen the sky turn brilliant shades of orange and red during a sunrise or sunset. When the Sun is low near the horizon as it rises or sets, the wavelengths have farther to go in order to reach your eyes. This causes the shorter blue wavelengths you see during the day to scatter even more, clearing the way for longer wavelengths like red and orange to reach your eyes. Wonder What's Next? Tomorrow’s Wonder of the Day will be music to your ears! Try It Out. Grab a friend or family member and explore one or more of the following colorful activities at home: Fill your clear glass or jar with water and add about 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of milk powder and stir slowly. Turn off the lights and shine the flashlight on the surface of the water. Watch the water in the glass from the side near the flashlight. You may notice a bluish tinge. Now, hold the flashlight to the side of the glass and look through the water directly at the light. It will now look red. If you put the flashlight under the glass, the light will appear redder than before. Why does this work? The fat molecules from the milk powder in the water behave like air molecules. They scatter the light from the flashlight. When the light shines in the top of the glass, blue light is scattered and a bluish tinge can be seen out the sides. When you look through the water directly at the light, you peer through more of the milk fat molecules. This causes more scattering of the blue light and makes way for red wavelengths. Do you think you could get used to the sky being a different color? What if you were to travel to a distant planet in another galaxy? Suppose on that planet the atmosphere bent light in different ways, leading to skies that were green or purple. How might life change? Do you think it would affect your mood? Why or why not? Take some time to imagine what it would be like to live on such a planet. Share your thoughts with your friends and family members. Do they agree? What do they think life would be like? Want to experiment with light at home? Why not jump online to check out How To Create a Prism? You'll need just a few simple items, such as paper, aluminum foil and clear glass. Have fun separating light into its different colors! Up for a challenge? Would you believe you can make blue skies and brilliant sunsets in a jar at home? It's true! You will need the following items: clear glass jar or a drinking glass water milk powder flashlight dark room Did you get it? Test your knowledge Wonder Contributors. We’d like to thank: Dani, Nora, Susan, madelyn and tariq for contributing questions about today’s Wonder topic! Keep WONDERing with us! What are you wondering? Wonder Words. blue violet sky object wagon fingerprint colorless horizon scattered brilliant tinge atmosphere molecule signature prism indigo wavelength absorbed Take the Wonder Word Challenge Related Wonders for You to Explore #2845 Are Lions Really the Kings of the Jungle? #2839 Can Dogs Talk? #2838 Can We Reverse Carbon Emissions? #2837 Can Plants Grow in Winter? #2835 What Is Mental Health? Quit Select a Word #306 Why Is the Sky Blue? Quit Drag a word to its definition WordMatch Select a Wonder Word: object sky indigo brilliant prism fingerprint signature wagon wavelength violet Match its definition: a tangible and visible entity; an entity that can cast a shadow the atmosphere and outer space as viewed from the earth a blue dye obtained from plants or made synthetically of surpassing excellence a polyhedron with two congruent and parallel faces (the bases) and whose lateral faces are parallelograms a print made by an impression of the ridges in the skin of a finger; often used for biometric identification in criminal investigations a distinctive pattern, product, or characteristic by which someone or something can be identified any of various kinds of wheeled vehicles drawn by an animal or a tractor the distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave the color of purple violets; the last color in the color spectrum WordMatch Congratulations! You’ve matched all of the definitions correctly. Share results Play Again Quit #306 Why Is the Sky Blue? Print/Save as PDF Quit Question 1 of 3 What physical property of light determines which colors you see? aintensity Not Quite! bwavelength Correct! cdepth Not Quite! dfrequency Not Quite! Next Question Print/Save as PDF Quit Question 2 of 3 Which color has the longest wavelength? aRed Correct! bGreen Not Quite! cBlue Not Quite! dYellow Not Quite! Next Question Print/Save as PDF Quit Question 3 of 3 Which colors get absorbed by gas molecules and scatter across the sky? aRed and Orange Not Quite! bYellow and Green Not Quite! cBlue and Violet Correct! dIndigo and Red Not Quite! See your results Exit Quiz Results Not Bad. You have answered 0 of 3 questions correctly and your score is: Share Results Retake The Quiz × Spread the Joy of Wonder GET YOUR WONDER DAILY. Subscribe to Wonderopolis and receive the Wonder of the Day® via email or SMS Join the Buzz. Don’t miss our special deals, gifts and promotions. Be the first to know! twitter facebook pinterest youtube instagram Share with the World. Tell everybody about Wonderopolis and its wonders. Share Wonderopolis Wonderopolis Widget. Interested in sharing Wonderopolis® every day? Want to add a little wonder to your website? Help spread the wonder of families learning together. Add widget You Got It! Continue Not Quite! Try Again http://www.wonderopolis.org/wonder/why-is-the-sky-blue © National Center for Families Learning (NCFL)
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Result 20
TitleWhy is the sky blue?
Urlhttps://www.atoptics.co.uk/atoptics/blsky.htm
Description
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Organic Position20
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Body  Home    OPOD   What's New   Rays & Shadows     Anti-crepuscular     Cloud shadows     Mountain Shadow     Earth's Shadow     Blue Sky     Sunsets     Sunset Mirages     Green Flash     Moonrise & set     Opposition effect   Water Droplets   Rainbows   Ice Halos   High Atmosphere   Links & Resources   Search - Index   123456789012345678   Why is the sky blue?     Why is the Sky Blue? Beyond the freshly cut hedgerow a blue sky grades to near white towards the horizon. Image ©Les Cowley Blue skies make the heart soar and poets rush for quill and ink. The blue dome has subtle variety.  Overhead it is darker - noticeably so from mountains or airplanes.   Near the horizon it pales almost to white.   The best skies are after heavy rain has washed out dust and aerosol saying the colour is conjured from sunlight and pure air alone. The sun's light is a mix of violet, blues, greens through to reds.   Blues and violets have the shortest wavelengths, that of blue is ~450 nanometres or 0.45 thousandths of a mm. Air molecules, mostly nitrogen and oxygen, are 1000X smaller still.   They interact only very weakly with visible light but with their enormous numbers in the atmosphere we see the effects.   Air molecules individually scatter sunlight it into all directions.  Blue light is scattered much more strongly than longer wavelengths.    The air above us looks blue from that scattered sunlight.   At the risk of disillusioning poets, it is not a pure blue.  All other colours are scattered as well but progressively more weakly towards red. Why is the sky whiter near the horizon?   Overhead there are only a few miles of dense atmosphere and sunlight photons are scattered once - if at all.    Near the horizon the air path is 10X or more longer.   Along it, photons are scattered several times and the reds and greens eventually become as strong as blues to yield white.   The near horizon sky cannot become arbitrarily bright with the extra scattering because beyond a certain atmospheric path length it effectively becomes opaque. In fact the sky often darkens slightly very close to the horizon for this reason. Rayleigh scattering: When scatterering particles are much smaller than the wavelength of light the process is known as Rayleigh scattering after Lord Rayleigh, John William Strutt, (1842 - 1919) who first described it mathematically.    The scattering is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength.  For example, blue light of 450nm wavelength is scattered 4.4X more strongly than 650nm red light.     The wavelength dependence come from the extent of coupling between the frequencies associated with bound electrons within the atoms and the oscillating electric field of the light waves. Coupling increases as the oscillation frequencies get more similar. Rayleigh scattering requires that there be no coherence between the individual scatterers.   In dense gases when molecules are closer together this condition is not satisfied and light is predominantly scattered forwards rather than in all directions.  In dense gases and liquids another process can operate, Einstein-Smoluchowski scattering.   Molecular motion and collisions produce exceedingly transient local density and refractive index fluctuations that act as scattering centres.   The wavelength dependence is the same as for Rayleigh scattering. Violet sky? Violet is shorter wavelength than blue and is scattered more strongly.  The sky is not violet because sunlight is weaker in violet compared to blue and the eye is less sensitive to it. Dust, aerosol, moisture: All these desaturate the sky's blue to give in the limit a milky white.    These scatterers are of comparable size or larger than light wavelengths and they scatter all colours more or less equally (Mie scattering).   Other worlds: Space artists love green skies, see that in "Forbidden Planet".    Sadly, all gases act as Rayleigh scatterers and would give blue skies in the absence of dust or aerosol.  The exceptions are when gaseous components absorb light, like chlorine or nitrogen dioxide, to give a coloured sky.  Dust and aerosol also colour. The thin Martian atmosphere is pink from its high dust content. Air molecules are 1000X smaller than visible light wavelengths. They act as Rayleigh scatterers and scatter blue light ~4X more strongly than longer wavelength reds. Sunlight photons of all colours stream through the air. Its molecules scatter a tiny proportion in every direction. The scattered photons have the same colour and energy. Blue photons are more strongly scattered than greens and reds. The scattered light makes the sky appear blue. The sky is not pure blue as it also contains a small proportion of other scattered colours.
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TitleJohn Tyndall's blue sky apparatus | The Royal Institution: Science Lives Here
Urlhttps://www.rigb.org/our-history/iconic-objects/iconic-objects-list/tyndall-blue-sky
DescriptionHave you ever wondered why the sky is blue? The answer was first discovered over 150 years ago right here at the Royal Institution using this tube
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John Tyndall (1820-1893)
John Tyndall’s radiant heat apparatus
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BodyJohn Tyndall's blue sky apparatus Have you ever wondered why the sky is blue? The answer was first discovered over 150 years ago right here at the Royal Institution using this tube. Credit: Paul Wilkinson Date. 1869 Place made. The Royal Institution of Great Britain, Basement Laboratory People. John Tyndall Materials. Copper alloy, iron, glass, wax Measurements. H: 495mm, W: 888mm, D:109mm Key words. Light, sunset, sky, particles, smoke Description. John Tyndall was a keen mountaineer and spent quite a lot of time in the Alps, both climbing and investigating phenomena such as glaciers. This interest in nature can also be seen in many of his other diverse discoveries, including his discovery in the 1860s of why the sky is blue in the day but red at sunset. Tyndall began to experiment with light, shining beams through various gases and liquids and recording the results. He used this simple glass tube to simulate the sky, with a white light at one end to represent the sun. He discovered that when he gradually filled the tube with smoke the beam of light appeared to be blue from the side but red from the far end. Tyndall realised that the colour of the sky is a result of light from the sun scattering around particles in the upper atmosphere, in what is now known as the ‘Tyndall effect’.  He thought that the light scattered off particles of dust or water vapour in the atmosphere, like the smoke particles in the tube, but it’s now known that the light scatters off the molecules of the air itself. Tyndall knew that white light was made up of a whole rainbow of coloured light and thought that the blue light appeared because it was more likely to scatter off the particles. We now know that this is because it has a much shorter wavelength than red light and is much more easily scattered, so to our eyes the sky looks blue. This experiment also explains why the sky often appears to be red in colour as the sun sets. As the sun gets lower in the sky the angle means that the light we see passes through more atmosphere. By the time it reaches us the blue light has already scattered off, leaving the longer frequency red light to be seen. Tyndall’s blue sky tube is a very simple but effective way of demonstrating this scattering effect. You can easily create your own version using a glass beaker of water: shine a white light through the water and slowly stir in a few drops of milk at a time and see what happens. Where can I view this? This object is currently on display in the lower ground floor of the Royal Institution. More images. John Tyndall's blue sky apparatus - full view Credit: Paul Wilkinson John Tyndall's blue sky apparatus - full view Credit: Paul Wilkinson Further reading. National STEM centre - Why is the sky blue? Share this. Facebook Twitter Email LinkedIn Related pages. John Tyndall (1820-1893). Find out more John Tyndall’s radiant heat apparatus. Find out more Iconic objects. Find out more Heritage and Collections. Find out more Learn. Masterclasses L'Oréal Young Scientist Centre Events for the whole family Science in schools shows Interactive games CHRISTMAS LECTURES Visit. News What's on Food & drink The Faraday Museum Heritage tours Visiting the archive Find us Support. Donate to the Ri Become an Ri Member Become an Ri Patron Corporate support Jobs © Royal Institution Facebook Twitter Youtube Tumbler Instagram Venue Hire Press Terms and conditions Privacy Policy Accessibility Contact Us
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Result 22
TitleWhy the sky is blue
Urlhttps://www.futurelearn.com/info/courses/learn-about-weather/0/steps/28848
DescriptionWhy is the sky blue? Why does the sky go red at sunrise and sunset? This Met Office video explains how colour wavelengths affect how we see the skies
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Organic Position22
H1Why the sky is blue
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BodyWhy the sky is blue Why is the sky blue? Why does the sky go red at sunrise and sunset? This Met Office video explains how colour wavelengths affect how we see the skies. Share this post. The video explained why the sky is blue, and that it’s all to do with how the atmosphere preferentially scatters different wavelengths of light. What about when the sky is red, often at sunrise and sunset? Is there any truth to the weather lore Red sky at night, shepherd’s delight, red in the morning, shepherd’s warning? Firstly, we need to understand why we get the red tinge in the first place. At the beginning and end of the day, the Sun is low in the sky, so the angle of the Sun is low and the rays are travelling through a greater depth of the atmosphere than at the middle of the day when the Sun is overhead. This results in an increased amount of violet and blue light being scattered out of the beam by the nearly infinite number of scattering ‘events’ that occur along the way. This leads to the reddish skies we see at sunrise and sunset, as the blue and violet end of the spectrum is scattered away before it reaches us, leaving just the reds that we see. So you could say that sunsets are red because the daytime sky is blue. In the diagram below, a beam of sunlight that helps produce a red sunset across London, is at the same time contributing to a bright blue sky in the middle of the day over New York. It is worth noting here that the red tinge to the sky at sunrise and sunset can be enhanced by scattering from particles in the stratosphere. This can be particularly spectacular after volcanic eruptions, which can lift huge amounts of particulates into the stratosphere. This can lead to consistently vivid sunsets around the world for years after an eruption, before the dust settles back down to the ground. It is often thought that pollution can enhance the red colour, but this is a bit of a misnomer. The truth is that particles close to the Earth’s surface in the troposphere do not enhance sky colors – they subdue them. Clean air is the main ingredient common to brightly colored sunrises and sunsets which explains why the deserts and tropics are noted for their beautiful sunsets; as air pollution in these parts of the world is comparatively minimal. Want to keep learning? This content is taken from University of Exeter online course, Learn About Weather. View Course Finally, we need to think about how clouds play their part in ‘red sky at night’. In the mid latitudes, weather systems tend to travel from west to east. If the sun is setting in the west, and we have a red sky, firstly we can infer that there is clear weather to the west as we can see the sun, but if there is a weather system clearing to the east, the departing clouds would be illuminated, and this can enhance further the red sky at night, with the assumption that the fair weather would continue in time for the following day. Similarly, if the sun rising in the east is illuminating approaching medium and high level clouds to create a red sky in the morning, then a front may well be on the way in a few hours’ time. So there is certainly more than a grain of truth to this particular weather lore, though a number of assumptions have been made, so it is not always reliable. Want to keep learning? This content is taken from University of Exeter online course Learn About Weather View Course Share this post. See other articles from this course This article is from the online course: Learn About Weather. Created by Join Now This article is from the free online Learn About Weather. Created by Join Now Our purpose is to transform access to education. We offer a diverse selection of courses from leading universities and cultural institutions from around the world. These are delivered one step at a time, and are accessible on mobile, tablet and desktop, so you can fit learning around your life. We believe learning should be an enjoyable, social experience, so our courses offer the opportunity to discuss what you’re learning with others as you go, helping you make fresh discoveries and form new ideas. You can unlock new opportunities with unlimited access to hundreds of online short courses for a year by subscribing to our Unlimited package. Build your knowledge with top universities and organisations. Learn more about how FutureLearn is transforming access to education Register to receive updates . Create an account to receive our newsletter, course recommendations and promotions. Register for free Learn more about this course.
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Result 23
TitleWhy is the sky blue? – Aurora Labs Blog
Urlhttps://auroralabsnorway.com/blog/why-is-the-sky-blue/
Description
Date2 May 2020
Organic Position23
H1Why is the sky blue?
H2By Sergiu
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H3
H2WithAnchorsBy Sergiu
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BodyWhy is the sky blue? Post author By Sergiu Post date 2 May 2020 1 Comment on Why is the sky blue? Sunny blue sky Now that the polar day starts to make itself felt more and more in high latitudes, we’ll experience daylight round the clock here in Vadsø in less than 2 weeks! More daylight means more blue skies! But do you know why the sky is blue? Keep on reading to find out! Light is an electromagnetic wave, just like radio waves, microwaves, and even the radiation resulted from radioactivity! The only difference between all these different electromagnetic waves is their wavelength. Even the light that we actually perceive with our own eyes is made up of multiple wavelengths. And to each and all of these wavelengths of light corresponds a different colour! So, the light that comes to us from the Sun and which we see, is made up of multiple colours! Of all colours, to be exact! Just like an ocean’s waves, light travels the same way: in waves! Blue light travels in shorter waves (with a shorter wavelength) and red light travels in longer waves (longer wavelengths). When the sunlight, with all its colours, reaches Earth, it meets the planet’s atmosphere! Thus, it starts interacting with various particles in the air, such as tiny ice crystals, dust, water droplets and even gas molecules that make up the air itself! And once the light waves interact with these particles, it gets scattered! For a wave to interact with a particle, the two must be of the same order of size. Smaller particles scatter short wavelength light (blue) stronger. Small air molecules, which make up the entire atmosphere, scatter the blue component of sunlight the most, and in all directions, because of its short wavelength! And this is why, during a sunny day, everywhere you look, the sky is blue! Do you know why sunsets are reddish? If not, read this article to find out! Tags Science, sky, Sun, Universe By Sergiu . I accomplished my dearest dream, to be a Northern Lights hunter in the Arctic. In fact, my love for this region of the world is so intense, that I decided to create here Aurora Labs, to be able to carry out my activities. The beauty of the landscapes of Vadsø, the people, its tranquility, they have all marked me for life, and I realized that I never wanted to leave this place. Here is my "home". And what I want more than anything, is to induce you, at least part of this love, thanks to my activities that are unique in the world. Check out my website and see what we can do together if you decide to visit me here in Finnmark in Northern Norway (among others, you can experience the Northern Lights, even in summer!) View Archive → Leave a Reply Cancel reply.
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Result 24
TitleSky blue - Wikipedia
Urlhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sky_blue
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H1Sky blue
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Light sky blue[edit]
Medium sky blue[edit]
Vivid sky blue[edit]
Deep sky blue[edit]
French sky blue[edit]
Spanish sky blue[edit]
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BodySky blue From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is the latest accepted revision, reviewed on 6 December 2021. Jump to navigation Jump to search Color "Sky (color)" redirects here. For other uses, see Sky Blue (disambiguation). Sky blue Common connotationsboys, daylight, water, air, paleness     Colour coordinatesHex triplet#87CEEBHSV       (h, s, v)(197°, 43%, 92%)sRGBB  (r, g, b)(135, 206, 235)SourceX11 color namesISCC–NBS descriptorVery light greenish blueB: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred) Sky blue is a colour that resembles that of an unclouded sky around noon (azure) reflecting off a metallic surface. The entry for "sky-blue" in Murray's New English Dictionary (1919) reports a first sighting of the term in the article on "silver" in Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia of 1728. However, many writers had used the term "sky blue" to name a colour before Chambers. For example, we find "sky blue" in A Collection of Voyages and Travels (London: Awnsham and John Churchill, 1704), vol. 2, p. 322, where John Nieuhoff describes certain flowers: "they are of a lovely sky blue colour, and yellow in the middle". The sense of this colour may have been first used in 1585 in a book by Nicolas de Nicolay where he stated "the tulbant [turban] of the merchant must be skie coloured".[1] Bright blue sky with clouds Displayed at right is the web colour sky blue. Contents. 1 Variations 1.1 Celeste 1.1.1 Gradations 1.2 Light sky blue 1.3 Medium sky blue 1.4 Vivid sky blue 1.5 Deep sky blue 1.6 French sky blue 1.7 Spanish sky blue 1.8 Dark sky blue 2 In culture 3 See also 4 References Variations[edit]. Celeste[edit]. For other uses, see Celeste. Celeste      Colour coordinatesHex triplet#B2FFFFHSV       (h, s, v)(180°, 30%, 100%)sRGBB  (r, g, b)(178, 255, 255)SourceS.Fantetti e C.Petracchi (2001). Il dizionario dei colori: nomi e valori in quadricromia. Zanichelli. ISBN 8808079953.ISCC–NBS descriptorVery light bluish greenB: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred) Celeste (Spanish: [θeˈleste, se-], Italian: [tʃeˈlɛste], English: /sɪˈlɛst/) is the colloquial name for the pale turquoise blue colour. In Spanish and Italian, as the name indicates (celestial), it is an attempt to reproduce the colour of clear skies. In English, this colour may also be referred to as Italian sky blue. The Japanese equivalent is known as sora iro or mizudori, referring to the colour of the sky or its reflection on the sea.[2] Bleu celeste ("sky blue") is a rarely occurring tincture in heraldry (not being one of the seven main colours or metals or the three "staynard colours"). This tincture is sometimes also called ciel or simply celeste. It is depicted in a lighter shade than the range of shades of the more traditional tincture azure, which is the standard blue used in heraldry.[3] Gradations[edit]. The Italian Wikipedia cites Il dizionario dei colori: nomi e valori in quadricromia by S.Fantetti and C.Petracchi and describes multiple variants of Celeste as shown below, plus details as defined in the infobox above.[4] colour name C M Y K R G B HEX   celeste (sky blue, heavenly blue) 030 000 000 000 178 255 255 B2FFFF   celeste polvere powdery 010 000 000 000 230 255 255 E6FFFF   celeste pallido (pale) 016 000 003 000 204 255 255 CCFFFF   celeste velato Veiler overcast 020 010 010 000 204 230 230 CCE6E6   celeste opaco opaque 050 020 020 000 128 204 204 80CCCC Light sky blue[edit]. Light sky blue      Colour coordinatesHex triplet#87CEFAHSV       (h, s, v)(203°, 46%, 98%)sRGBB  (r, g, b)(135, 206, 250)SourceX11 color namesISCC–NBS descriptorBrilliant greenish blueB: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred) Displayed at right is the web colour light sky blue. It is close in shade to baby blue. Medium sky blue[edit]. Medium sky blue      Colour coordinatesHex triplet#80DAEBHSV       (h, s, v)(190°, 46%, 92[5]%)sRGBB  (r, g, b)(128, 218, 235)SourceCrayolaISCC–NBS descriptorVery light greenish blueB: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred) Displayed at right is the colour medium sky blue. This is the colour that is called sky blue in Crayola crayons. This colour was formulated by Crayola in 1958. "Sky blue" appears in the 32, 48, 64, 96 and 120 packs of crayons. Vivid sky blue[edit]. Vivid sky blue      Colour coordinatesHex triplet#00CCFFHSV       (h, s, v)(192°, 100%, 100[6]%)sRGBB  (r, g, b)(0, 204, 255)SourceCrayola C.P.ISCC–NBS descriptorBrilliant greenish blueB: Normalized to [0–255] (byte) Displayed at right is the colour vivid sky blue. Deep sky blue[edit]. Deep sky blue      Colour coordinatesHex triplet#00BFFFHSV       (h, s, v)(195°, 100%, 100%)sRGBB  (r, g, b)(0, 191, 255)SourceX11ISCC–NBS descriptorBrilliant greenish blueB: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred) Deep sky blue is an azure-cyan colour associated with deep shade of sky blue. Deep sky blue is a web colour. This colour is the colour on the colour wheel (RGB/HSV colour wheel) halfway between azure and cyan. The traditional name for this colour is Capri.[7] The first use of Capri as a colour name in English was in 1920.[8] The colour Capri in general is named for the azure-cyan colour of the Mediterranean Sea around the island of Capri off Italy, the site of several villas belonging to the Roman Emperor Tiberius, including his Imperial residence in his later years, the Villa Jovis. Specifically, the colour Capri is named after the colour of the Blue Grotto on the island of Capri.[9] as it appears on a bright sunny day. Today the island of Capri is a resort island popular with tourists. The colour name deep sky blue for this colour did not come into use until the promulgation of the X11 colour list in 1987. Sky-blue waters of the Blue Grotto in Capri The name Capri is still used for this colour as well as the name deep sky blue. French sky blue[edit]. French sky blue      Colour coordinatesHex triplet#77B5FEHSV       (h, s, v)(212°, 53%, 100[10]%)sRGBB  (r, g, b)(119, 181, 254)SourcePourpre.comISCC–NBS descriptorBrilliant blueB: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred) At right is displayed the colour French sky blue, which is the tone of sky blue that is called sky blue (bleu ciel) in the Pourpre.com colour list, a colour list widely popular in France. Spanish sky blue[edit]. Spanish sky blue      Colour coordinatesHex triplet#00AAE4HSV       (h, s, v)(195°, 100%, 89%)sRGBB  (r, g, b)(0, 178, 228)SourceGallego and Sanz[11]ISCC–NBS descriptorBrilliant greenish blueB: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred) Spanish sky blue is the colour that is called celeste (the Spanish word for "sky blue") in the Guía de coloraciones (Guide to colourations) by Rosa Gallego and Juan Carlos Sanz, a colour dictionary published in 2005 that is widely popular in the Hispanophone realm. Dark sky blue[edit]. Dark sky blue      Colour coordinatesHex triplet#8CBED6HSV       (h, s, v)(199°, 35%, 84[12]%)sRGBB  (r, g, b)(140, 190, 214)SourcePantone TPX[13]ISCC–NBS descriptorLight greenish blueB: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred) Displayed at right is the colour dark sky blue. This is the colour called sky blue in Pantone. The source of this colour is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" colour list, color #14-4318 TPX—Sky Blue.[14] In culture[edit]. Sports Argentina: Following the colours of the Flag of Argentina, in which sky blue (celeste in Spanish) is the predominant colour, many Argentine sport teams feature the colour, including Racing Club de Avellaneda, Belgrano de Córdoba, Racing de Córdoba, Club Atlético Temperley, Atlético Rafaela, Villa San Carlos, Gimnasia y Esgrima de Jujuy, Gimnasia y Tiro de Salta, and Gimnasia y Esgrima de Concepción del Uruguay. In addition, the Argentina national football team is known as the albicelestes due to the white-and-sky blue striping on their jerseys. This colour scheme is featured in other prominent national squads in popular sports such as rugby, field hockey, polo or volleyball, to name a few. Australia: Sky blue is the main colour of the Australian rugby league team, New South Wales Blues, as it is the official colour of the state they represent. Italy: Celeste is the main colour of the football team S.S.Lazio of Rome, and one of the two main colours (the other being dark blue) of the football team Calcio Lecco 1912 of Lecco. United Kingdom Manchester City adopted sky blue as the main colour of their home jersey in 1894 and have used that ever since then.[15] Uruguay: The Uruguay national football team has worn a sky blue jersey since 1910, after Uruguayan club team River Plate F.C. wore sky blue while defeating contemporary Argentine powerhouse Alumni Athletic Club. The national team is nicknamed La Celeste. As in Argentina, a number of Uruguayan club teams use sky blue in their uniforms, such as C.A. Cerro, Club Atlético Torque, Club Oriental de Football, and Rocha F.C. See also[edit]. Azure Bleu celeste (in heraldry) List of colours Marian blue Shades of blue RAL 5015 Sky blue References[edit]. ^ Cited as 1585 in Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 204; Color Sample of Sky Blue: Page 89 Plate 33 Color Sample E6; the quote is from the English translation of Nicolay's Navigations, peregrinations...faicts en la Turcquie (1577). ^ Japanese colours ^ Scott-Giles, C. W. (1958). Boutell's Heraldry (rev. ed.). London & New York: Frederick Warne & Co. ^ S.Fantetti e C.Petracchi (2001). Il dizionario dei colori: nomi e valori in quadricromia. Zanichelli. ISBN 8808079953. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #80DAEB (Medium Sky Blue): ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #00CCFF (Vivid Sky Blue): ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Color Sample of Capri: Page 93 Plate 35 Color Sample L7; The color Capri is shown as lying halfway between Cyan and Azure. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 191 ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 152 Discussion of the color Capri ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #77B5FE (French Sky Blue): ^ Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2005). Guía de coloraciones (Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2005). Guide to Colorations) Madrid: H. Blume. ISBN 84-89840-31-8 ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of colour #8CBED6 (Dark Sky Blue): ^ Type the words "Sky Blue" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the colour will appear. ^ Pantone TPX Pantone Color Finder—Type the words "Sky Blue" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the colour will appear: ^ "Manchester City". Historical Kits. Retrieved 19 November 2020. vteShades of blue Air Force blueAir superiority blueAlice BlueArgentinian BlueAzureAzulBaby blueBerkeley BlueBice blueBleu de France          BlueBlue-grayBondi blueBrandeis blueByzantine blueCambridge blueCarolina blueCelestial BlueCeltic BlueCerulean          Chefchaouen BlueChrysler blueCobalt blueColumbia blueCornflower blueBlue (Crayola)Dark blueDeep Sky BlueDelft BlueDenim          Dodger blueDuke blueEgyptian blueFederal blueGlaucousGreen-blueElectric indigoFrench BlueIce blueIndigo          Indigo dyeInternational Klein BlueJordy BlueLapis LazuliLight blueLight Sky BlueMajorelle BlueMarian blueMaya blueMedium blue          Medium slate blueMidnight blueBlue (Munsell)Navy blueBlue (NCS)Neon blueNon-photo blueOxford BluePalatinate bluePale azure          Penn BluePeriwinklePersian bluePhthalo bluePicton BluePolynesian bluePowder bluePrussian blueResolution BlueRoyal Blue (web color)          Royal blue (traditional)Ruddy BlueSapphireHonolulu BlueSavoy blueSilver Lake BlueSky blueSpace cadetSteel blueTang Blue          True BlueTufts BlueUCLA BlueUltramarineUnited Nations BlueUranian BlueViolet-blueVista BlueYale BlueYInMn Blue          Zaffre  Related topics:Ao (color)St. Patrick's blueTemplate:Shades of cyan vteShades of cyan Alice blueAquaAquamarineAzureAzure (web)Blue-greenCapriCaribbean CurrentCelesteCerulean          Cyan (RGB)Dark cyanElectric blueFluorescent cyanJungle greenKeppelIce blueLight cyanLight sea greenMint green          MintMoonstoneMyrtle GreenPacific cyanPersian greenPine greenProcess CyanRobin egg blueSea greenSkobeloff          Sky blue (Crayola)Spring greenTealTiffany BlueTurquoiseVerdigrisVivid sky blueZomp         A typical sample is shown for each name; a range of color-variations is commonly associated with each color-name. vteColor topics Red Orange Yellow Green Cyan Blue Indigo Violet Purple Magenta Pink Brown White Gray Black Color scienceColor physics Electromagnetic spectrum Light Rainbow Visible Spectral colors Chromophore Structural coloration Animal coloration Color of chemicals Water On Vision and Colours Metamerism Spectral power distribution Color perception Color vision Color blindness Achromatopsia test Tetrachromacy Color constancy Color term Color depth Color photography Spot color Color printing Web colors Color mapping Color code Color management Chrominance False color Chroma key Color balance Color cast Color temperature Eigengrau The dress Color psychology Color symbolism Color preferences Lüscher color test Kruithof curve Political color National colors Chromophobia Chromotherapy ColorphilosophyColor space Color model additive subtractive Color mixing Primary color Secondary color Tertiary color (intermediate) Quaternary color Quinary color Aggressive color (warm) Receding color (cool) Pastel colors Color gradient Color scheme Color tool Monochromatic colors Complementary colors Analogous colors Achromatic colors (Neutral) Polychromatic colors Impossible colors Light-on-dark Tinctures in heraldry Color theory Chromaticity diagram Color solid Color wheel Color triangle Color analysis (art) Color realism (art style) Color termsBasic terms Blue Green Red Yellow Pink Purple Orange Black Gray White Brown Cultural differences Linguistic relativity and the color naming debate Blue–green distinction in language Color history Color in Chinese culture Traditional colors of Japan Human skin color Color dimensions Hue Dichromatism Colorfulness Luminance Lightness Darkness Brightness Iridescence Fluorescence Grayscale Tint, shade and tone Colororganizations Pantone Color Marketing Group Color Association of the United States International Colour Authority International Commission on Illumination (CIE) International Color Consortium International Colour Association Lists List of colors: A–F List of colors: G–M List of colors: N–Z List of colors (compact) List of colors by shade List of color palettes List of color spaces List of Crayola crayon colors history Color chart List of RAL colors List of web colors Related Vision Digital image processing Multi-primary color display Quattron Qualia Lighting Local color (visual art) Category Index Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sky_blue&oldid=1058891114" Categories: Shades of blueShades of cyanShades of azureLight blueHidden categories: Articles with short descriptionShort description is different from WikidataWikipedia pending changes protected pagesUse British English from August 2016Color articles with suppressed CMYK data Navigation menu. Search .
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Result 25
TitleWhy is the Sky Blue?. The selective removal of the colour… | by Joe Marshall | Medium
Urlhttps://medium.com/@jj_marshall/why-is-the-sky-blue-c3f84fd7a438
DescriptionTo answer this question, we need to look at 2 main areas. Firstly, what is light and why does it appear in different colours? Secondly, what happens when light from the Sun enters our atmosphere? In…
Date5 Sept 2021
Organic Position25
H1Why is the Sky Blue?
H2The selective removal of the colour blue from sunlight on its journey to the Earth’s surface
H3
H2WithAnchorsThe selective removal of the colour blue from sunlight on its journey to the Earth’s surface
BodyWhy is the Sky Blue?The selective removal of the colour blue from sunlight on its journey to the Earth’s surface.Joe MarshallSep 5, 2021·2 min readPhoto by Jelleke Vanooteghem on UnsplashOverviewTo answer this question, we need to look at 2 main areas. Firstly, what is light and why does it appear in different colours? Secondly, what happens when light from the Sun enters our atmosphere? In answering both questions we can…
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TitleWhy is the Sky Blue? | Nature
Urlhttps://www.nature.com/articles/002007a0
DescriptionCAN any of your readers inform me why the sky is blue? Is it that the predominant colour of sunlight being orange, the regions devoid of sunlight appear of the complementary colour? If so, the planets of Sirius and Vega would have a black sky, those of Betelgeux a green sky, while those of the double stars would have different coloured skies at different times, according to their position with respect to their two luminaries. Or again, is the blueness merely the colour of our atmosphere, as Prof. Tyndall's experiments have led some to believe? In favour of the former explanation, is the fact that the maximum intensity of the light of the solar spectrum is in the orange, and indeed that the sun looks orange, and if we close our eyes after gazing a moment at him when high up in the sky, we see a blue image. When the sun is low, his colour changes from orange to red, and this would explain the green tintsso often seen in the cloudless parts of the sky at sunset. Possibly Mr. Glaisher, who has seen the sky through a thinner stratum of air than most of us, could help us to a solution
Date
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H1Why is the Sky Blue?
H2Abstract
Author information
Rights and permissions
About this article
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Search
H3Affiliations
Cite this article
Share this article
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H2WithAnchorsAbstract
Author information
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About this article
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BodyWhy is the Sky Blue? H. A. N.1  Nature volume 2, page 7 (1870)Cite this article 1127 Accesses 1 Altmetric Metrics details Abstract. CAN any of your readers inform me why the sky is blue? Is it that the predominant colour of sunlight being orange, the regions devoid of sunlight appear of the complementary colour? If so, the planets of Sirius and Vega would have a black sky, those of Betelgeux a green sky, while those of the double stars would have different coloured skies at different times, according to their position with respect to their two luminaries. Or again, is the blueness merely the colour of our atmosphere, as Prof. Tyndall's experiments have led some to believe? In favour of the former explanation, is the fact that the maximum intensity of the light of the solar spectrum is in the orange, and indeed that the sun looks orange, and if we close our eyes after gazing a moment at him when high up in the sky, we see a blue image. When the sun is low, his colour changes from orange to red, and this would explain the green tintsso often seen in the cloudless parts of the sky at sunset. Possibly Mr. Glaisher, who has seen the sky through a thinner stratum of air than most of us, could help us to a solution. Download PDF Author information. Affiliations. HampsteadH. A. N.AuthorsH. A. N.View author publicationsYou can also search for this author in PubMed Google ScholarRights and permissions. Reprints and PermissionsAbout this article. Cite this article. N., H. Why is the Sky Blue?. Nature 2, 7 (1870). https://doi.org/10.1038/002007a0Download citationIssue Date: 05 May 1870DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/002007a0Share this article. Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:Get shareable linkSorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.Copy to clipboard Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative Comments. By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Search. Advanced search Quick links. Explore articles by subject Find a job Guide to authors Editorial policies Close banner Close Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Close banner Close Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing
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Result 27
TitleBlue Sky: Waves & Light Science Activity | Exploratorium Teacher Institute Project
Urlhttps://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/blue-sky
DescriptionWhen sunlight travels through the atmosphere, blue light scatters more than the other colors, leaving a dominant yellow-orange hue to the transmitted light. The scattered light makes the sky blue; the transmitted light ultimately makes the sunset reddish orange
Date
Organic Position27
H1Blue Sky
H2Discover why the sky is blue and the sunset is red
H3Tools and Materials
Assembly
To Do and Notice
What’s Going On?
Going Further
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H2WithAnchorsDiscover why the sky is blue and the sunset is red
BodyBlue Sky Discover why the sky is blue and the sunset is red. When sunlight travels through the atmosphere, blue light scatters more than the other colors, leaving a dominant yellow-orange hue to the transmitted light. The scattered light makes the sky blue; the transmitted light ultimately makes the sunset reddish orange. Grade Bands: 3-56-89-12 Subject: Astronomy & Space SciencesSpace ExplorationPlanetary ScienceEarth ScienceAtmospherePerceptionLight, Color & SeeingPhysicsLightWaves Keywords: light scatteringwavelengthwater NGSS and EP&Cs: ESSESS2PSPS4CCCsCause and EffectSystems and System Models Tools and Materials. Transparent plastic box, or a large beaker, jar, or aquarium Tap water Flashlight A few drops of milk (or some powdered milk) to add to the aquarium water to make the beam visible Polarizing filter, such as a lens from an old pair of polarized sunglasses Optional: Blank white card Assembly. Fill the container with water. Place the light source so the beam shines through the container. (See diagram below; click to enlarge.) Add milk a few drops at a time (or add powdered milk a pinch at a time). Stir until you can clearly see the beam shining through the liquid. To Do and Notice. Look at the beam from the side of the tank and then from the end of the tank (see diagram above). You can also let the light project onto a white card held at the end of the tank. From the side, the beam looks bluish-white; from the end, it looks yellow-orange. If you’ve added enough milk to the water, you’ll be able to see the color of the beam change from blue-white to yellow-orange along the length of the beam. What’s Going On? The sun produces white light, which is made up of light of all colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. Light is a wave, and each of these colors corresponds to a different frequency and therefore a different wavelength of light. The colors in the rainbow spectrum are arranged according to their frequencies: Violet and blue light have higher frequencies than yellow, orange, and red light. When the white light from the sun shines through the earth’s atmosphere, it collides with gas molecules. These molecules scatter the light. The shorter the wavelength of the light, the more it is scattered by the atmosphere. Because its wavelength is so much shorter, blue light is scattered approximately ten times more than red light. In addition, the frequency of blue light, compared to red light, is closer to the resonant frequency of the atoms and molecules that make up the air. That is, if the electrons bound to molecules in the air are pushed, they will oscillate with a natural frequency that is even higher than the frequency of blue light. Blue light pushes on the electrons with a frequency that is close to their natural resonant frequency, which causes the blue light to be re-radiated out in all directions in a process called scattering. The red light that is not scattered continues on in its original direction. When you look up in the sky, the scattered blue light is the light that you see. Why does the setting sun look reddish orange? When the sun is on the horizon, its light takes a longer path through the atmosphere to your eyes than when the sun is directly overhead. By the time the light of the setting sun reaches your eyes, most of the colors of light have been scattered out. The light you finally see is reddish orange. Violet light has an even shorter wavelength than blue light: It scatters even more than blue light does. So why isn’t the sky violet? Because there’s just not enough of it. The sun puts out much more blue light than violet light, so most of the scattered light in the sky is blue. Going Further. Scattering can polarize light. Place a polarizing filter between the flashlight and the tank. Turn the filter while one person views the transmitted beam from the top and another views it from the side. Notice that when the person looking down from the top sees a bright beam, the person looking in from the side will see a dim beam, and vice versa. You can also hold the polarizing filter between your eyes and the tank and rotate the filter to make the beam look bright or dim. The filter and the scattering polarize the light. When the two polarizations are aligned, the beam will be bright; when they are at right angles, the beam will be dim. Scattering polarizes light because light is a transverse wave. The direction of the transverse oscillation of the electric field is called the direction of polarization of light. The beam of light contains photons of light that are polarized in all directions—horizontally, vertically, and all angles in between. Consider only the vertically polarized light passing through the tank. This light can scatter to the side and remain vertically polarized, but it cannot scatter upward! To retain the characteristic of a transverse wave after scattering, only the vertically polarized light can be scattered sideways, and only the horizontally polarized light can be scattered upward. This is shown in the diagram below (click to enlarge). Related Snacks. Glue-Stick Sunset Why is the sky blue? That's a sticky question. Critical Angle Discover why your favorite cat videos don't leak out of optical fibers. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Attribution: Exploratorium Teacher Institute EducationTeacher Institute Tools for Teaching and LearningScience SnacksBrowse by Subject Special Collections Science Snacks A-Z NGSS Planning Tools Frequently Asked Questions Connect with us!   Sign up for our educator newsletter   Follow #ExploEDU   Teacher Institute YouTube   Teacher Institute Facebook  teacherinstitute @exploratorium.edu Visit Join Give Pier 15 (Embarcadero at Green Street) San Francisco, CA 94111 415.528.4444 Contact Us Plan Your Visit Calendar Reserve Tickets Getting Here Store Event Rentals About Us Become a Member Donate Jobs Volunteer Press Office Land Acknowledgment Get at-home activities and learning tools delivered straight to your inbox The Exploratorium is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Our tax ID #: 94-1696494© 2021 Exploratorium | Terms of Service | Privacy Policy | Your California Privacy Rights |
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Result 28
TitleWhy Is The Sky Blue? And Other Questions Kids Ask — The Father Hood
Urlhttps://www.the-father-hood.com/article/why-is-the-sky-blue-and-other-questions-kids-ask/
Description
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Organic Position28
H1Why Is The Sky Blue? And Other Questions Kids Ask
H2Why is the sky blue?
Why do I need to go to bed so early but you and mummy don’t?
What are clouds made of?
What are the stars and the sun made of?
Why did the dinosaurs disappear?
Is there life on other planets?
Where do babies come from?
H3
H2WithAnchorsWhy is the sky blue?
Why do I need to go to bed so early but you and mummy don’t?
What are clouds made of?
What are the stars and the sun made of?
Why did the dinosaurs disappear?
Is there life on other planets?
Where do babies come from?
BodyWhy Is The Sky Blue? And Other Questions Kids AskBy Barry Divola.1 shares« Backsocial sharingResearch has shown that the kids who ask the most questions are four-year-old girls, a finding that will surprise absolutely no-one who has a four-year-old girl. A study in Britain last year claimed that these inquisitive little tykes can crank out 73 questions a day. That’s roughly one every ten minutes while they’re awake. I have a four-year-old daughter and I would just like to say that estimate seems a little on the low side. The comedian Louis C.K. used to do a bit in his act about the questions his children asked him all the time: “You can’t answer a kid’s questions. They don’t accept any answer. A kid never goes ‘Oh thanks, I get it.’ They never say that. They just keep coming with more questions – Why? Why? Why? Why?” My daily walks to school and daycare with my two daughters are a bit like a moveable game of Trivial Pursuit, deviously designed to reveal how little I know about the world. One day last week the special subject was slimy animals. Questions included: Why do snails have shells? Then why don’t slugs have shells? Do worms have mouths? And if they don’t, then how do they eat? And what do they eat? And how do they move? And if they don’t have eyes, how do they know where they’re going? This all happens before I’ve had coffee. After drop-offs I usually arrive at the café a mental wreck, then proceed to order a double-shot and frantically Google for answers in anticipation of the school pick-up. The UK study also did a survey of the most common questions kids ask.   You’ve probably been asked a lot of these yourself and been stumped. Well, you’re in luck, because I decided to find out the answers. You’re welcome.   Why is the sky blue? Ah, starting with the easy ones, are we? Okay, stay with me here. Light travels from the sun in waves and is made up of many colours. Blue is a short wavelength, red is long and all the others are in between. By the time the light gets to us here on earth, it has had to pass through and bend around a lot of things, so it gets scattered. It’s the waves that are shorter that get through to us. So that’s why the short blue ones get through, but the longer ones don’t.   Why do I need to go to bed so early but you and mummy don’t? Because we just want a bit of a life, okay? Is that too much to ask? Oh, sorry, you wanted a scientific reason. Your brains and your bodies, my little ones, are growing at an incredible rate. Your body needs much more rest than we do to help it grow. And your brain is taking in so much information. When you sleep, your brain takes all the information from the day (short-term memory) and starts storing it in a place where you’ll be able to get it later (long-term memory). You’ve seen Inside Out, right?   What are clouds made of? Warm and moist air rises. It cools down as it gets higher and billions of tiny drops of water and ice crystals get together and form into clouds. You’ve seen Frozen, right?   What are the stars and the sun made of? Much like you after we go out to a Mexican restaurant, my little darlings – very, very hot gas. The stars and the sun are like gigantic ovens that burn a thing called hydrogen into a thing called helium and that’s what makes them glow so brightly.   Why did the dinosaurs disappear? Disappeared? What do you mean? Look out! There’s one behind you right now! And he looks hungry! But seriously, there are a few different theories about this one. One is that a big asteroid hit the earth 65 million years ago; another is that the earth went through an ice age; another is that there was a series of huge volcanic explosions; and another is that a disease killed them off. Maybe when you grow up you can become a scientist and work it out.   Is there life on other planets? What? You don’t like it here? Earth isn’t good enough for you? But seriously, good question. And the truth is we’re not sure. There’s an organisation called SETI (Search For Extraterrestrial Intelligence) that has been looking for life on other planets for a long time. For there to be life, a planet needs water, it needs to be not too hot and not too cold and it needs certain chemicals (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen). Earth’s got all that. But we’re not sure whether any other planets do. SETI is still looking though.   Where do babies come from? Ask your mother. Seriously. Ask your mother. GeniusKidsShare Article
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TitleBlue Sky and Rayleigh Scattering
Urlhttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/atmos/blusky.html
Description
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BodyBlue Sky The blue color of the sky is caused by the scattering of sunlight off the molecules of the atmosphere. This scattering, called Rayleigh scattering, is more effective at short wavelengths (the blue end of the visible spectrum). Therefore the light scattered down to the earth at a large angle with respect to the direction of the sun's light is predominantly in the blue end of the spectrum. Note that the blue of the sky is more saturated when you look further from the sun. The almost white scattering near the sun can be attributed to Mie scattering, which is not very wavelength dependent. Measurement of the progression of saturation and brightness Clouds in contrast to the blue sky appear white to achromatic gray. The water droplets that make up the cloud are much larger than the molecules of the air and the scattering from them is almost independent of wavelength in the visible range. This is an outstanding image of the blue sky and its extent relative to the diameter of the Earth. It was taken from a U.S. Air Force U-2 craft at about 70,000 feet. IndexScattering conceptsAtmospheric optics concepts   HyperPhysics***** Light and Vision R Nave Go Back Rayleigh Scattering Rayleigh scattering refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and can be extended to scattering from particles up to about a tenth of the wavelength of the light. It is Rayleigh scattering off the molecules of the air which gives us the blue sky. Lord Rayleigh calculated the scattered intensity from dipole scatterers much smaller than the wavelength to be: Rayleigh scattering can be considered to be elastic scattering since the photon energies of the scattered photons is not changed. Scattering in which the scattered photons have either a higher or lower photon energy is called Raman scattering. Usually this kind of scattering involves exciting some vibrational mode of the molecules, giving a lower scattered photon energy, or scattering off an excited vibrational state of a molecule which adds its vibrational energy to the incident photon. Compare with Mie scattering IndexScattering conceptsAtmospheric optics concepts   HyperPhysics***** Light and Vision R Nave Go Back Mie Scattering The scattering from molecules and very tiny particles (< 1 /10 wavelength) is predominantly Rayleigh scattering. For particle sizes larger than a wavelength, Mie scattering predominates. This scattering produces a pattern like an antenna lobe, with a sharper and more intense forward lobe for larger particles. Mie scattering is not strongly wavelength dependent and produces the almost white glare around the sun when a lot of particulate material is present in the air. It also gives us the the white light from mist and fog. Greenler in his "Rainbows, Haloes and Glories" has some excellent color plates demonstrating Mie scattering and its dramatic absence in the particle-free air of the polar regions. Compare with Rayleigh scattering IndexScattering conceptsAtmospheric optics conceptsMeyer-Arendt 2nd Ed., Sec 3.3Williamson & Cummins Sec 14.4   HyperPhysics***** Light and Vision R Nave Go Back Rayleigh and Mie Scattering Mie ScatteringRayleigh ScatteringBlue sky Rayleigh and Mie scattering and sky color. Possible Mie scattering from fogged eyeglasses IndexScattering conceptsAtmospheric optics concepts   HyperPhysics***** Light and Vision R Nave Go Back Sky Saturation and Brightness As a qualitative examination of sky brightness and the saturation of the blue sky color, measurements of the color of the sky photograph were made from a computer monitor using Adobe Illustrator's color tools. None of the data should be taken as quantitatively reliable since the original photo had been transformed several times, and the measurements were taken from a non-calibrated computer monitor. Nevertheless, it might be useful as an example of the progressions of sky color. A series of points on the sky image were chosen starting from the left, indicated by the white dots superimposed on the image above. It is clear to the eye that the progression leads to a brighter sky and to a blue color which is less saturated, or more pastel. Measurements of the color and brightness were made at each point based on amounts of red, green and blue present. In the graph at upper left, the blue brightness was normalized to 1 and the red and green expressed as a fraction of the blue. One result was that the green was significantly brighter than the red. This is consistent with Rayleigh scattering which emphasizes the shorter wavelengths. Another result was that the red and green increased as a fraction of the blue, indicating that the color was becoming less saturated. This can be interpreted as blue mixed with an increasing fraction of white light, which is consistent with the light being a combination of Rayleigh and Mie scattering. As you approach the sun's direction, the Mie scattering accounts for a larger fraction of the total light, and the Mie scattered light is essentially white. The graph of overall brightness above is just the sum of all three colors, with a maximum of 1 being white on the monitor. The increasing brightness along the path of the data is again consistent with a combination of Rayleigh and Mie scattering. The Mie scattering has a strong forward lobe and increases as you approach the sun's direction. Mie ScatteringRayleigh ScatteringBlue sky IndexScattering conceptsAtmospheric optics concepts   HyperPhysics***** Light and Vision R Nave Go Back
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