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Keyword Guide to getting a masters in psychology
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Result 1
Title[email protected]
Urlhttps://requestinfo.onlinepsych.pepperdine.edu/index.html
Description
Date
Organic Position
H1Online PsychologyMaster’s Programs from Pepperdine University
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BodyOnline PsychologyMaster’s Programs from Pepperdine 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{"id":299,"fields":[{"name":"which_best_describes_you","type":3,"label":"Which best describes your academic background in psychology?","value":{"options":[{"label":"I am starting my education","value":"I am starting my education"},{"label":"I have taken some courses","value":"I have taken some courses"},{"label":"I have a BA or BS in the field","value":"I have a BA or BS in the field"}],"defaultOption":""},"hidden":false,"helpText":"","required":true,"mountPoint":1},{"name":"stated_gpa_range","type":3,"label":"What was your undergraduate GPA?","value":{"options":[{"label":"4.00 and above","value":"4.00 And Above"},{"label":"3.99 - 3.50","value":"3.99-3.50"},{"label":"3.49 - 3.00","value":"3.49-3.00"},{"label":"2.99 - 2.50","value":"2.99-2.50"},{"label":"2.49 and below","value":"2.49 And Below"}],"defaultOption":""},"hidden":false,"helpText":"","required":true,"mountPoint":1},{"name":"level_of_education","type":3,"label":"What is your highest level of education completed?","value":{"options":[{"label":"High School","value":"High School"},{"label":"Associate's","value":"Associates"},{"label":"Bachelor's in progress","value":"Bachelors In Progress"},{"label":"Bachelor's","value":"Bachelors"},{"label":"Master's in progress","value":"Masters In Progress"},{"label":"Master's","value":"Masters"},{"label":"Doctorate","value":"Doctorate"}],"defaultOption":""},"hidden":false,"helpText":"","required":true,"mountPoint":1},{"name":"employed_in_relevant_field","type":3,"label":"Are you a behavior therapist, behavior technician, or in a related role? 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You may opt out of receiving communications at any time."},"hidden":false,"mountPoint":2}],"screens":[{"out":{"1":["$next",[{"data":"$valid"}]]},"allFields":[13,19],"conditional":{}},{"out":{"2":["$next",[{"data":"$valid"}]]},"allFields":[14,15,16,17,18,0,2,1,3],"conditional":{"3":[1,"",[{"data":"state.program_track"},{"data":"ABA"},{"op":0}]],"14":[1,"",[{"data":"state.program_track"},{"data":"LMFT"},{"op":0}]],"15":[1,"",[{"data":"state.program_track"},{"data":"LPC"},{"op":0}]],"16":[1,"",[{"data":"state.program_track"},{"data":"MAP"},{"op":0}]],"17":[1,"",[{"data":"state.program_track"},{"data":"ABA"},{"op":0}]]}},{"out":{"3":["$next",[{"data":"$valid"}]]},"allFields":[4,5,8],"conditional":{}},{"out":{"-1":["$next",[{"data":"$valid"}]]},"allFields":[10,9,7,6,11,12,20],"conditional":{"6":[3,"",[{"data":"state.no_klondike_gdpr_setting"},{"data":"always"},{"op":0},{"data":"state.no_klondike_gdpr_setting"},{"data":"geo"},{"op":0},{"data":"state.no_klondike_carmen_sandiego_region"},{"data":"eu"},{"op":0},{"op":7},{"op":8}]],"11":[1,"",[{"data":"state.no_klondike_gdpr_setting"},{"data":"never"},{"op":0},{"data":"state.no_klondike_gdpr_setting"},{"data":"geo"},{"op":0},{"data":"state.no_klondike_carmen_sandiego_region"},{"data":"eu"},{"op":1},{"op":7},{"op":8}]],"12":[1,"",[{"data":"state.no_klondike_gdpr_setting"},{"data":"always"},{"op":0},{"data":"state.no_klondike_gdpr_setting"},{"data":"geo"},{"op":0},{"data":"state.no_klondike_carmen_sandiego_region"},{"data":"eu"},{"op":0},{"op":7},{"op":8}]]}}],"version":"1.0.1","grouping":"pep-psy","published":"2021-07-09T17:42:30.256Z","featureFlags":{"formType":"STANDARD"},"degreeOffering":"pep-psy","inferredFields":{"country":"country_name"},"admissionsEmail":null,"programsOfStudy":"5deaba1f-323a-4b1b-a4e9-955738e5d4b8, 5deaba1e-d813-4ba3-912a-91a6a3879774, 5deaba1f-1b0f-45a7-aabd-19242088de5c"} The Pepperdine University Graduate School of Education and Psychology offers three online psychology master’s programs that prepare you to advance your career in the human services or a related field. Master of Arts in Clinical Psychology . Prepare to serve individuals, couples, and families, and pursue licensure as an LMFT (licensed marriage and family therapist) or an LPC (licensed professional counselor). Master of Arts in Psychology . Gain a thorough understanding of human behavior and psychological principles so you can enter the human services field, advance in a related field, or pursue doctoral study in psychology. Master of Science in Applied Behavior Analysis. This program explores applied behavior analysis (ABA) and is designed for individuals who want to work as a behavior analyst helping clients with autism and other developmental disabilities develop the adaptive skills they need for optimal functioning. Graduates will be prepared to pursue certification as a board certified behavior analyst (BCBA).Why [email protected]? . No GRE scores are required for admission. Choose from four cohort start dates per year. Learn from Pepperdine faculty with diverse expertise. Request information to learn more about Pepperdine’s online graduate psychology programs.
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Result 2
TitleBest Online Education Hub
Urlhttps://bestonlineeducationhub.com/degrees/psychology/master
DescriptionBest Online Education Hub
Date
Organic Position
H1
H2
H3
H2WithAnchors
BodyOur #1 Choice For Online Degrees Haven’t Found What You’re Looking For? 200+ ProgramsLow tuition ratesDedicated career advisorsFully Accredited Learn More The listings featured on this site are from companies from which this site receives compensation. This influences where, how and in what order such listings appear on this site. Advertising Disclosure bestonlineeducationhub.com is a free online resource that strives to offer helpful content and comparison features to our visitors. We accept advertising compensation from companies that appear on the site, which impacts the location and order in which brands (and/or their products) are presented, and also impacts the score that is assigned to it. Company listings on this page DO NOT imply endorsement. We do not feature all providers on the market. Except as expressly set forth in our Terms of Use, all representations and warranties regarding the information presented on this page are disclaimed. The information, including pricing, which appears on this site is subject to change at any time. Close Best Online Courses Python AWS SQL JavaScript Data Science Reviews Blog Best Online Degrees Best Online Colleges Business Psychology Nursing Criminal Justice IT Education Reviews Articles Best Student Loans Student Loans Reviews Articles Best Student Loans Refinance Student Loans Refinance Reviews Articles Best Online Courses Python AWS SQL JavaScript Data Science Reviews Blog Best Online Degrees Business Psychology Nursing Criminal Justice IT Education Reviews Articles Best Student Loans Student Loans Reviews Articles Best Student Loans Refinance Student Loans Refinance Reviews Articles Best Universities for Online Psychology Master’s 2022 Compare online graduate programs in psychology Enhance your career with a Master in Psychology online from one of these top online psychology master’s degree programs. Best Online Psychology Master’s Programs 2022 Enhance your career with a Master in Psychology online from one of these top online psychology master’s degree programs. Best Online Psychology Master’s Programs 2022 Last Updated January 2022 Our top choices for online universities: 9.8 1 Editor's Choice Our #1 Choice For Online Degrees Start Here 9.1 2 Rolling Admissions, Maximum Flexibility Start Here 8.9 3 Highly Accredited Institution Start Here Select a Program Psychology All Business Psychology Nursing Criminal Justice IT Education Select a Degree Level Master Bachelor Master + Filters Filters Select a Program All Business Psychology Nursing Criminal Justice IT Education Select a Degree Level Bachelor Master 1 Editor's Choice Designed to be completed as fast as 15 monthsLow online tuition - frozen at 2012 ratesRespected online school, ACBSP-accreditedCombines real-world experience with superior levels of education and learning Start Here 455 people visited SNHU this week Read Review 2 Rolling admissions for maximum flexibilitySome of the most affordable tuition pricesTrusted online university, fully accreditedUseful learning resources, including online study guides and textbook rental library Start Here Read Review 3 Two competency-based online learning formatsTransfer credits to continue your degreeFlat-rate fee for all 12-week session coursesHighly accredited institution with excellent reputation among employers Start Here Read Review Thinking of pursuing a degree in psychology online? Congratulations! You’ve taken your first step towards fulfilling your dream. Online schools for psychology degrees abound, and there is no shortage of information, advertisements, and gimmicks to be found across the web. But with so much coming at you all at once, it might be a bit of information overload for most students or would-be psychologists to digest. Where can you go for a Bachelor’s in psychology online? A Master’s in psychology online? Should you try for online psychology master’s degree programs, or can you do something with a bachelor’s degree in psychology? What is an online psychologist degree worth? Is it worth specializing, e.g. by doing an online master’s school psychology? How much is all this going to cost you? And how many pencils are you going to need?! Patience grasshopper. Read on, and you’ll discover all (or at least most - that pencil one still has us stumped!) the answers to your questions along with a good amount of information about the who, what, and where of getting a psychology degree online. Types of Online Psychology Degrees Online psychology degrees come in many shapes and sizes, or at least degree types. Which one is right for you depends on the niche that you are interested in, how much you want to get paid, and how much time and money you want to invest in the degree. For example, you can get an Associate degree in psychology in around two years and earn yourself a decent $47K. Meanwhile, a Bachelor’s degree in psychology takes twice as long and can earn you roughly $60K. Industrial organizational psychologists can earn on average $102,500 annually, but it’ll take you a doctorate to really land this type of salary. Then there are online master’s degrees in psychology and Doctoral versions, each increasing the time and salary expectations. Remember that you may be required to hold a certain level of degree in order to legally practice in your state. Psychology online degrees include: Marriage and family therapistSchool counselorCareer counselorSocial workerSubstance abuse counselorBehavioral disorder counselorMental health counselorPsychologist (clinical and counseling)Child psychology Forensic psychology Health psychologyIndustrial organizational psychologySports psychology Our Top 3 Psychology Degrees Services #1 Start Here Pros Helpful advisors and student resources Affordable tuition & financial aid packages/scholarships Easy to transfer credits Cons Can be difficult to follow tech-focused programs online Not a lot of break time between sessions Online degrees are not for everyone, but it does provide you with a more flexible, more convenient, and more affordable option than traditional universities. So if a digital degree sounds like a good idea to you, SNHU is one of your best bets. With the advantage and experience of an on-campus college, SNHU’s online programs deliver a high quality of education with all the benefits previously mentioned. The tuition is lower than most schools out there, and the university excels at helping its students through every step of their educational journey. #2 Start Here Pros Rolling admissions Affordable tuition and no credit checks Helpful student resources Cons You need discipline to complete coursework on your own No single courses available Proctor needed for final exam California Coast University takes online learning to a new level. A 100% digital university, California Coast has invested a lot of time and effort into making remote learning successful for anyone. From the useful study guides and low-cost textbooks to the flexible timeframes, rolling admissions, and degree advisors, California Coast certainly gives students plenty of resources to help them thrive. The extremely low costs of tuition and helpful student aid opportunities just seal the deal with this online degree opportunity. #3 Start Here Pros FlexPath & GuidedPath learning options Highly-recognized, accredited university Lots of support and guidance Cons Not all courses available in fast-track Capella is a well-reputed online degree university with accreditation. The school offers a dizzying number of courses and degrees that you can take from home or while you’re working. Capella also provides loads of guidance and assistance for students during their learning journey, and helps with career advice after graduation. The FlexPath allows you to finish a large amount of course material in a shorter, more cost-effective way. What it Takes to Complete Psychology Online Degrees The best online psychology degree programs will help you decide which program is right for you, so you don’t have to do it alone. Once you’ve narrowed down your choices to the right online psychology degree program for you, you’re nearly done. Before you dive in, though, there are a few things you need to know about getting a degree in psychology online, whether it is a psychology online master’s or bachelor’s. Most importantly: Psychology online degrees take time Even the best online psychology degree program is going to take you time to complete. And we’re talking years, like ten of them. At least. Of course, that’s one of the benefits of an accelerated online course. If you are going for a BA in psychology online, it could take you as little as 3.5 years. Meanwhile, a Master’s degree in psychology online can take an additional two years to complete. This is all if you are dedicated to taking the full course semester. If you are planning on spreading out your courses, then the time frame will obviously be extended. But since you’re getting your degree in psychology online, taking your time is not a problem. Oh, and if you’re thinking of online psychology graduate programs or other doctorates, you can expect to tack another 7 or so years onto your total! Not all degrees are created equal Going for an industrial organizational psychology Master’s online degree? Or maybe the educational psychology Master’s online program is more your speed? Don’t know the difference between a school psychology Master’s program online and the online psychology graduate programs? If your head is spinning, don’t feel too bad. You’re not alone. Most people don’t even realize how many options there are when it comes to psychology degrees. But it’s an important distinction to learn for two reasons. One is because you cannot get a job just anywhere with just any psychology degree. Specifications matter in this field, so you want to go for the best online bachelor in psychology, or the best online psychology Master’s program for you and your field of interest. Secondly, those initials are more than just a bunch of letters tacked onto the back of your job title. They can make a major difference in the number of zeros that appear after the one on your paycheck. So choose a specification that you enjoy, and know the salary bracket it’ll put you in from the outset. Watch out for accreditation You want to check that your psychology bachelor’s, or psychology master’s programs are online accredited. Did you know that not all online psychology graduate programs are accredited by the American Psychological Association's Commission on Accreditation? That’s because a regulation was passed that actually limits the accreditation of completely online courses in this field. Due to the personal nature of the profession, truly accredited online psychology degree programs are required to have in-person interactions between students and schools at some point during the education process. How much and when is not clearly specified, but what you need to know is that the online graduate programs psychology department you are working with and its psychology degrees online accredited. This goes for online Master’s programs in psychology as well—you want to find the best online master’s in psychology for you. You can check potential colleges or universities at the CHEA website. Some of the subjects you can expect to cover during your psychology online degree program include: Study of human behavior Behavioral developmentHuman motivationCognitive developmentHuman behavior learningPerception across a lifespanStatistics Research methods for behavioral sciencesChild developmentAdult developmentPersonality theoryPsychological assessmentSocial psychologyHealth psychologyIndustrial organizational psychology Abnormal psych What to Look for in a Psychology Online Degree Program It’s important to go into your research with some sort of idea of your overall goals. Your course will be very different if you’re aiming for an online psychology Bachelor's degree than if you are committing yourself to, say, a master’s in school psychology online, or even a full Doctoral degree. But regardless of what your endgame is, from a Bachelor’s degree in psychology online to accredited online psychology master’s programs, you want to make sure that the degree gives you everything you need to successfully practice psychology in the real world. Good learning materials and curriculum Obviously, the best online colleges for psychology degrees offer a top-notch education. This starts with a clear and easily accessible curriculum and learning materials and continues with excellent educators. Look at the reviews left by alumni or past students to see what kind of experience they’ve had. Obviously, take this with a grain of salt because people often only leave feedback when they’ve had a negative experience. But if the majority of comments are positive, this is a good sign. Additional resource In addition to a good education, the best online psychology degrees programss come with additional benefits and resources you can utilize to maximize your academic experience and help make it easier to get an online psychology degree. Texas A & M for example has an Academic Success Center, career center, and other beneficial resources.. Online schools for master’s in psychology, or indeed a bachelor’s, often offer an online library of interesting discourses, a community to chat with, or faculty support to help guide you through your academic decisions and career choices, perks certainly will make you want to get a psychology degree online from one school over another. Post-degree assistance Navigating your way through one of these online psychology degree programs is one thing. Making a career of your efforts is an entirely different thing. Fortunately, the best online psychology Master’s programs will help you out on that front. Many of them have post-graduate assistance to help set you up with internships, hands-on fieldwork, and possibly employment opportunities. So look for this benefit; it could make all the difference to your career. Affordability The cheapest online psychology degree isn’t always the best option, even if you are on a budget. Fortunately, there are plenty of well-known colleges that provide you with a proper education at a reasonable price. Because of the online learning format, tuition costs are considerably less for these programs than their in-person counterparts. So, if you are on a budget, you can even get an accredited online Master’s in psychology for less than you would pay for an Associate’s degree at an out of state college. Editorial Reviews SNHU Read Review California Coast Read Review Capella Read Review Must Reads Read All 10 Tips for Taking Online Courses Read More 6 Reasons You Should Seriously Consider an Online Degree Read More 9 Things You Need to Know Before Starting an Online Degree Program Read More Online Degree Vs. On Campus: Which is Better? Read More About Us Advertising Disclosure bestonlineeducationhub.com is a free online resource that strives to offer helpful content and comparison features to our visitors. We accept advertising compensation from companies that appear on the site, which impacts the location and order in which brands (and/or their products) are presented, and also impacts the score that is assigned to it. Company listings on this page DO NOT imply endorsement. We do not feature all providers on the market. Except as expressly set forth in our Terms of Use, all representations and warranties regarding the information presented on this page are disclaimed. The information, including pricing, which appears on this site is subject to change at any time. Close Terms of Use Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Contact Us Copyright © 2022 Cappsool Technologies Ltd. All Rights Reserved. By using our content, products & services you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Do Not "Sell" My Info Designed to help users make confident decisions online, this website contains information about a wide range of products and services. Certain details, including but not limited to prices and special offers, are provided to us directly from our partners and are dynamic and subject to change at any time without prior notice. Though based on meticulous research, the information we share does not constitute legal or professional advice or forecast, and should not be treated as such.Reproduction in whole or in part is strictly prohibited.
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Result 3
TitleOnline Masters in Psychology Degree | Walden University
Urlhttps://info.waldenu.edu/walden-programs/psychology/masters/m-s-in-psychology
DescriptionEarn your accredited online masters in psychology from Walden. Choose from seven MS specializations to expand your impact and grow your career. Learn more
Date
Organic Position
H1MS in Psychology
H2Tempo Learning
Course-based
Course-based
Course-based
Course-based
Course-based
Course-based
Course-based
Course-based
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Course-based
H3Fast Facts
Request Free Information
Two Ways to Learn
General Psychology
General
Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA)
Applied Psychology
Educational Psychology
General Psychology
General Psychology
Health Psychology
Self-Designed
Social Psychology
Digital Psychology
More about our MS in Psychology program
Why earn your MS in Psychology at Walden?
Testimonials
H2WithAnchorsTempo Learning
Course-based
Course-based
Course-based
Course-based
Course-based
Course-based
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BodyMS in Psychology Be the voice that helps make a difference. Gain a better understanding of human behavior. Learn sought-after skills that prepare you for a wide array of roles as a psychology professional. In Walden's MS in Psychology program, you can: Earn your degree your way—Course Based or Tempo Competency-Based options available. Think critically and independently about theory and research. Conduct basic or applied research. Apply psychological concepts to a variety of settings.Which Track is Right for You?Track I (MS in Psychology only): Prepare to apply psychology knowledge and research to real-world situations.Track II (Doctoral Preparation): Prepare to further your studies at the doctoral level. If you go on to pursue a PhD in Psychology at Walden, you will have a shorter program of study, saving you time and money. Fast Facts. Next Start Date: TBD Transfer Credits: Up to 24 credits Request Free Information. Take the next step. We are here to help. Fill out the form and we will contact you to provide information about furthering your education. By submitting this form, I agree to receive emails, text messages, telephone calls, and prerecorded messages from or on behalf of Walden University and its affiliates as listed in the Privacy Policy regarding furthering my education. I understand that such calls, emails, and messages may be sent using automated technology. You may opt out at any time. Please view our Privacy Policy or Contact Us for more details. Two Ways to Learn. Choose the learning path that fits your life and experience. Here are the two ways to earn your degree:. Two ways to learn Course-Based LearningThe standard, guided pace to earn your degree. Tempo Competency-Based LearningThe flexible pace, ideal for some students. Time Structured schedule Flexible schedule Pace Deadlines to make steady progress Set your own pace, and speed up or slow down when needed Tuition Pay by the course All-you-can-learn subscription fee Support Faculty guide you through your courses as you earn your degree Faculty support when you need it and a personal academic coach Expert Walden Faculty Tuition Savings and Financial Aid* Accreditation Specializations Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) Applied Psychology Digital Psychology Educational Psychology General Psychology Health Psychology Self-Designed Social Psychology General Psychology  Tempo Learning. General Psychology. Benefit from comprehensive study of the social, cultural, and cognitive aspects of human behavior as you explore the fundamentals of psychology, including its theories, methods, and principles. You can evaluate and design research methods and examine multicultural and/or global perspectives of psychology. Course-based. General. Gain critical business skills and expertise to become an effective decision-maker and business leader in today's global environment. Course-based. Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA). Help people with autism and developmental disabilities engage more successfully with the world. This specialization offers a course sequence verified by the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI), which meets the coursework requirements to sit for the Board Certified Behavior Analyst® (BCBA®) exam.* Course-based. Applied Psychology. Explore the fundamentals of psychology, including methods, theory, and principles of the field while learning about psychopathology, intervention, and principles of ethics in professional psychology practice. Course-based. Educational Psychology. Study cognition, motivation, lifespan development, and learning for individuals ranging from high achievers to those whose needs are more specialized. Course-based. General Psychology. Become a leader in a critical, ever-growing industry and learn how to address common challenges. Offered as part of Walden’s Tempo Competency-based Learning option. Course-based. General Psychology. Benefit from comprehensive study of the social, cultural, and cognitive aspects of human behavior as you explore the fundamentals of psychology, including its theories, methods, and principles. You can evaluate and design research methods and examine multicultural and/or global perspectives of psychology. Course-based. Health Psychology. Explore the biological, psychological, and social factors that influence health. Gain a broad understanding of psychological theories, principles, and research strategies while focusing on the knowledge and skills required to prevent illness and to promote healthy behaviors. Course-based. Self-Designed. The Self-Designed specialization lets you design your own program of study. This offering provides you with maximum flexibility to design a program that closely matches your personal and professional goals. Course-based. Social Psychology. Explore the way individuals socially construct thoughts, attitudes, and feelings, and gain an understanding of how this process affects both individual and group behavior. Course-based. Digital Psychology. This digital psychology master’s program prepares you to pursue careers in digital psychology and work in roles such as social media analyst, digital marketer, digital data analyst, and data ethics advocate. Two ways to learn Course-Based LearningThe standard, guided pace to earn your degree Tempo Competency-Based LearningThe flexible pace, ideal for some students. Time Structured schedule Flexible Schedule Pace Deadlines to make steady progress Set your own pace, and speed up or slow down when needed Tuition Pay by the course All-you-can-learn subscription fee Support Faculty guide you through your courses as you earn your degree Faculty support when you need it and a personal academic coach Expert Walden Faculty Tuition Savings and Financial Aid* Accreditation Specializations Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) Applied Psychology Digital Psychology Educational Psychology General Psychology Health Psychology Self-Designed Social Psychology General Psychology *May not be available for all degree programs. More about our MS in Psychology program. Career Options . As a graduate of Walden's MS in Psychology program, your career options may include a role as a:† Human resource manager Market researcher Project coordinator/manager Family services worker Instructor at a community college Social service manager Health project coordinator Research assistant Data analyst/manager Organizational consultant†Career options may require additional experience, training, or other factors beyond the successful completion of this degree program. Entry Requirements . A bachelor's degree or higher is required for entrance into this program. You will also be required to submit a completed online application, employment history, and official transcripts.Your enrollment specialist will help you gather all of the required materials, starting with your application and continuing all the way through your first day of classes. Tuition, Financial Aid & Offers . Tuition costs will vary depending on your previous education. Get in touch with a Walden Enrollment Specialist today at 855-203-5779855-203-1384, to learn more about tuition costs for this program and financial aid options.Walden’s Enrollment Specialists are committed to helping identify and leverage opportunities for you to save money on your education. How to Apply . Our Enrollment Specialists are ready to answer any questions you may have regarding this program. Fill out the form on this page to be contacted or call 855-203-5779855-203-1384. Why earn your MS in Psychology at Walden? Psi Chi. Join Walden’s virtual chapter of The International Honor Society in Psychology. Social Change. Become a change-maker with Walden; make a difference in your community. Exceptional Student Services. Thrive in your degree program with the help of 24/7 tech support, a Writing Center, a Career Services Center, and more. Psi Chi. Join Walden’s virtual chapter of The International Honor Society in Psychology. Social Change. Become a change-maker with Walden; make a difference in your community. Exceptional Student Services. Thrive in your degree program with the help of 24/7 tech support, a Writing Center, a Career Services Center, and more. Testimonials. “I had to make sure the college I chose was accredited and user-friendly with a challenging curriculum." Ginger Jenkins | MS in Forensic Psychology Graduate, PhD in Psychology Student *The MS in Psychology program’s Applied Behavior Analysis specialization has been designed to offer acceptable graduate coursework in behavior analysis (Verified Course Sequence as approved by ABAI and accepted by Behavior Analyst Certification Board) and prepare students to sit for the Board Certified Behavior Analyst® (BCBA®) exam, which is administered by the BACB. Walden University does not offer the fieldwork experience required for eligibility to sit for the BCBA exam. Walden enrollment specialists can provide information relating to national certification exams; however, it remains the individual student’s responsibility to understand, evaluate, and comply with all requirements relating to national certification exams for the state in which he or she intends to practice. Walden makes no representations or guarantee that completion of Walden coursework or programs will permit an individual to obtain national certification. For more information on applying for certification from BACB®, visit www.bacb.com/bcba.ONGOING MILITARY OFFER:A 15% tuition reduction for servicemembers, veterans of the U.S. armed forces, employees of the Department of Veterans Affairs, and their spouses.**A 15% tuition reduction is available to new students who are servicemembers, veterans of the U.S. armed forces, or employees of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This tuition reduction is also available if you are a spouse of a servicemember, veteran, or employee of the VA. This tuition reduction cannot be retroactively applied. Tuition reductions are applicable to tuition only and do not apply toward books, materials, and other supplies or fees needed for a course.Walden may change the tuition reduction offered hereunder at any time, but such change will not affect the tuition reduction for students who are currently enrolled at Walden and using the existing tuition reduction. All tuition reductions, grants, or scholarships are subject to specific eligibility requirements. Contact a Walden University Enrollment Specialist for details.Walden University is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission, https://www.hlcommission.org/. Walden University is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission, www.hlcommission.org.The Higher Learning Commission (HLC) is a regional accrediting association recognized by the U.S. Department of Education. The HLC is a U.S. membership organization for educational institutions that was created to develop and maintain high standards of academic excellence. When evaluating credentials, employers and universities often look for applicants who earned their degree from an accredited university.Privacy Policy.Walden University is a member of Adtalem Global Education, Inc. www.adtalem.com©2021 Walden University LLC. All rights reserved. © 2021 Walden University
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Result 4
TitleMasters In Psychology Guide
Urlhttps://mastersinpsychologyguide.com/
Description
Date
Organic Position1
H1
H2Specializations
Featured Articles
Psychological Effects of Hearing Loss in Teens
Is Psychology For You?
What You Should Consider in Your Master’s in Psychology Program
Popular Master’s in Psychology Programs
Other Considerations for Master’s in Psychology
H3Featured Faculty
Explore Careers
H2WithAnchorsSpecializations
Featured Articles
Psychological Effects of Hearing Loss in Teens
Is Psychology For You?
What You Should Consider in Your Master’s in Psychology Program
Popular Master’s in Psychology Programs
Other Considerations for Master’s in Psychology
Bodys for Juggling Family, Work, and Grad SchoolLet's face it. Sometimes, graduate school is your whole life. You disappear into those hallowed halls and emerge about two years later with greater career prospects and...Read MorePreparing for Psychology Grad School: The Do's and Don'tsA careers in psychology - whether in research or direct client services - usually requires a graduate degree. Graduate school is a much different experience from undergrad...Read MoreTips for Talking to Your Kids About School ShootingsParents, still reeling from the news of another horrific mass shooting, may be struggling with how to talk with their children about it...Read More200+ Best Paying Careers in Psychology & CounselingOne of the defining aspects of a career in psychology is its sheer variety. People with Masters' degrees in psychology can go in many different directions. Psychologists who choose...Read MorePsychology of Color in Unicorn CompaniesRead More Featured Programs:Sponsored School(s) George Mason UniversityFeatured Program: MPS in Applied I/O Psychology Request Info University of West AlabamaFeatured Program: Master of Science in Experimental Psychology with multiple specializations Request Info Purdue University GlobalFeatured Program: Bachelor or Master of Science in Psychology Request Info Grand Canyon UniversityFeatured Program: M.S. in Psychology with multiple specializations Request Info Southern New Hampshire UniversityFeatured Program: Online Bachelor's and Master's in Psychology Request Info Capella UniversityFeatured Program: Online Psychology Programs Request Info Specializations. As you are considering which university to attend, you should start to think about which specialization you want to pursue. There are many possible specializations to focus on, which will have a major influence on your career direction. Remember that different universities have different specializations available, so you will want to select your school with a specialization in mind.Applied PsychologyBehavioral PsychologyClinical PsychologyCognitive PsychologyCounseling PsychologyDevelopmental PsychologyEducational PsychologyForensic PsychologyGeneral PsychologyHealth PsychologyIndustrial/Organizational PsychMental Health PsychologyNeuropsychologyQuantitative PsychologySchool PsychologySocial PsychologySports PsychologyFeatured Articles. What Do #Selfies Say About The Psychology Of You?Selfies are popping up everywhere throughout the world of social media, and these days even some of …Read more...Top 7 Best & Highest Paying Social Work CareersThe U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics has projected that the field of social work will grow …Read more...What is the Salary Outlook for Psychology Grads?The field of psychology is part of the larger social sciences. Graduates in this discipline may …Read more...Psychological Effects of Hearing Loss in Teens. Authored by Ann Steele, Psy.D., LMFTTypically hearing loss is a problem we associate with the elderly, or perhaps with long-time operators of heavy machinery. Rarely do we think of it in conjunction with children and teens, and even when we do, we tend to assume that the disability has existed since birth.Download the PDFWhat is a Master’s in Psychology? – A master’s degree in psychology is a post-bachelor’s graduate degree that typically provides two years of advanced training to prepare for jobs in counseling, social work, occupational health and mental wellness. A master’s may offer a specialized education in counseling or therapy and qualify graduates for licensure in many jurisdictions, but by itself does not meet state requirements for a full-authority psychologist license.Welcome to MastersinPsychologyGuide.com – your guide for everything you should know about earning a master’s degree in pscyhology. You may be thinking about earning a master’s in psychology in many specialities; you might have many questions about where you should go to school, how much it costs, how to pay for it, which are the best schools, and so on. We created this simple yet functional website to showcase what is out there! So read on!On our information-packed psychology website, you will learn in depth about the following topics:Dozens of the recommended campus and online master’s in psychology degree programsExtensive information about accreditation of psychology programsMore than 50 free online psychology courses you can take to advance your skillsThe most important qualifications for psychologistsExtensive information about the different psychology specializations you can chooseDetails about specific scholarships and grants that you can apply for to pay for your educationThe latest research and videos about breakthroughs in psychology scienceComprehensive salary information for the most popular psychology careers students seek todayWhatever path you choose in psychology, it is our sincere hope that you find all of the information you need here to make an informed decision about your education.Is Psychology For You?If you are going to put the time and money into earning your psychology degree, you should be sure that you have the personality and skills to be a good psychologist. Do you have most or all of the following?Compassion – To be a good psychologist, you will need to have exemplary listening and people skills. Having a high level of compassion and empathy for others will make you much more effective as a psychology professional.Strong math and science skills – You will not be doing research necessarily, but you will still need to have good skills in both of these areas to fully understand the brain and nervous system.Excellent communication skills – You have to be able to communicate well with people of all backgrounds, especially those who may be very different from you.Emotionally stable – In this profession, you are often going to hear things that are troubling and upsetting. You need to have a great deal of emotional stability to be able to handle the stress that goes along with this job.What You Should Consider in Your Master’s in Psychology Program. There are many directions in which you can go with a master’s degree in psychology. One of the first things you need to think about with your potential program is what area you want to study. Some of the different types of master’s in psychology degrees you can obtain include:Master’s in Clinical PsychologyMaster’s in Industrial/Organizational PsychologyMaster’s in Applied PsychologyMaster’s in Forensic PsychologyYou will find that some universities are specifically geared towards various psychology specialties. So, once you know which speciality you’re interested in, you can find the best program tailored to your needs. FIND SCHOOLSSponsored ContentAnother critical aspect of going to graduate school in psychology is accreditation. You want to be sure that your graduate program is of the highest quality.The most prestigious accreditation body for the field of psychology is the American Psychological Association or APA. There also are many other highly regarded accreditation bodies for colleges and universities in the US, including the following. You should be sure that your university is accredited by one of these organizations that are recognized by the Department of Education:Middle States Association of Colleges and SchoolsNew England Association of Schools and CollegesNorth Central Association of Colleges and SchoolsNorthwest Accreditation CommissionSouthern Association of Colleges and SchoolsWestern Association of Schools and CollegesAlso, consider whether you want to attend an online or a campus-based program. You can now earn most of your degree online at many quality universities around the country. You may need to complete your clinical hours in a local setting, but most of your class hours can be done online. Or, you can choose a traditional, campus based program.Popular Master’s in Psychology Programs. Some popular Campus and Online master’s in psychology programs around the US include:Master in Psychology – Pepperdine UniversityMaster in Psychology – New York UniversityMaster in Psychology – Boston UniversityMaster in Psychology – American UniversityOther Considerations for Master’s in Psychology. Note that some master’s in psychology programs are what are referred to as terminal degrees. That is, they are designed to complete your psychology education so that you can become licensed and begin to practice in the field, usually under the supervision of a psychologist with a Ph.D. FIND SCHOOLSSponsored ContentHowever, other master’s programs are designed for you to go on to earn your Ph.D. in psychology. This will be the advisable path for you if you want to practice psychology on your own, pursue research, or even become a professor at a university.Featured Faculty. Interview: Dr. Kristi Cordell-McNulty, Angelo State University. Dr. Kristi Cordell-McNulty, Assistant Professor of Psychology and Director of the Applied Psychology Program at Angelo State ... Read More Before You ApplyGeneral InfoTaking the GRERecommendation LettersBuilding a ResumeFinancing Graduate SchoolChoosing A ProgramOnline ProgramsFinding a Good MatchCampus Schools by StateDoctorate/PhD ProgramsNo-GRE ProgramsUndergraduate AdviceAccreditationTransitioningPh.D. ProgramsBest Paying CareersExplore Careers. Search and compare 200+ Psychology Career choices along with detailed salary reports from Indeed.com, CareerBuilder, and SimplyHired Read MoreAbout This Site. We are an open forum for articles, manuscripts, unpublished thesis, and letters as well as a guide for job, career and program advice from like-minded Graduates. We are seeking submissions that will be of interest to the community.
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TitleHow to Get into Psychology Grad School | All Psychology Schools
Urlhttps://www.allpsychologyschools.com/psychology-grad-school-admissions/
DescriptionGetting into psychology grad school can be tough, but it doesn't have to be impossible. These 6 steps can help your chance of getting in
Date
Organic Position3
H16 Steps for Getting Into Psychology Graduate School
H2Start here
Pick a Career Path or Specialty
Choose a Degree
Find the Right Grad School Program
Meet or Exceed the Admission Requirements
Make Your Application Stand Out
Plan to Pay for School
H3In This Article
Student loan forgiveness
H2WithAnchorsStart here
Pick a Career Path or Specialty
Choose a Degree
Find the Right Grad School Program
Meet or Exceed the Admission Requirements
Make Your Application Stand Out
Plan to Pay for School
Body6 Steps for Getting Into Psychology Graduate School Home » Getting Into Grad School If you want to work in the field of psychology, you’ll need to earn at least an undergraduate college-level education. While there are some jobs available to those with bachelor’s degrees, most careers in the field require a master’s degree or higher. There are many options when it comes to graduate school and a lot of things for you to consider. You’ll need to figure out the path you want your career to take, determine what you want in a program, and meet the admissions requirements of your top-choice schools. The exact steps you’ll take will depend on your goals, but in general, there are six main points to hit as you work to earn your grad school acceptance. In This Article. Pick a Career Path or Specialty Choose A Psychology Degree Find the Program That’s Right for You Meet the Admission Requirements Make Your Application Stand Out Plan to Pay for School Start here. Step 1 Pick a Career Path or Specialty . You’ll need to make some decisions about what you want the focus of your career to be before you apply to school. There are many specialties within psychology but not every school will offer all of them. Some paths you could take with an advanced degree include: Clinical psychologyCounseling psychologyEducational psychologyForensic psychologyGeriatric psychologyIndustrial-organizational psychologySchool psychologySports psychology It can help to volunteer in a few different settings to get a feel for the specialty you’d like to pursue. You might even be able to find full-time employment if you have a bachelor’s degree in psychology, working under the supervision of a licensed practitioner. Either way, gaining more experience can help you narrow down your options and plan ahead for your career. Step 2 Choose a Degree. Your second step should be choosing the exact level of degree you need. There are three primary paths you can take in psychology grad school—pursuing a master’s, a specialist, or a doctoral degree. The degree you ultimately earn will depend on your goals, but keep in mind that if you plan to become a legally licensed psychologist, a doctoral degree is almost always needed. Master’s degrees. You can choose to pursue either a Master of Science (MS) or a Master of Arts (MA) in Psychology. One might focus more on conducting research and the other working with patients, but both options will prepare you to take the first steps in your career. Those with a master’s can work as psychological assistants or associates, or in related fields like substance abuse counseling or social services. Unlike other licensed psychologists who need a doctoral degree, school psychologists may only need a master’s. Specialist degrees. Specialist degrees sit between the master’s and doctoral degrees and are typically designed for school psychology. The most common option is the Education Specialist (EdS) degree, which often takes at least three years compared to the two years it usually takes for a master’s. Doctoral degrees. Psychology students who wish to get licensed and practice independently will want to work toward earning their doctoral degree. While there are a few different options, in most cases you’ll choose between a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) or a Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) degree. PhDs focus more heavily on research and methodology, while PsyD degrees emphasize the practical application of psychological knowledge. You might also have the option to pursue a dual degree, which lets you simultaneously earn your master’s and doctorate at an accelerated rate. This can be an especially good option for those who wish to work in a more highly specialized area. For example, if you want to work specifically with issues affecting females, you might get a master’s in women’s studies before earning a PhD in clinical psychology. Step 3 Find the Right Grad School Program. Once you know what specialty and type of degree you want, it’s time to start looking into programs. With over 1,500 available across the United States, this process can seem overwhelming. Of course, the program you choose should fit your individual needs and goals, but you can use the following list of things to consider to help guide you along the way. Look for Accreditation. It’s important to make sure that the program you’re considering is accredited. Accreditation verifies that the education you’ll receive meets the quality standards set forth in the field. Attending a non-accredited school could mean you won’t qualify for federal financial aid and often that you won’t be allowed to earn your licensure. So, how do you know if a program is accredited? In the United States, the easiest way is to check with the American Psychological Association (APA). The APA keeps an up-to-date database of accreditation status for psychology programs, as well as for residencies and internships. Online vs. in-classroom programs. Deciding whether to attend school online or in the classroom is another important step. There’s no difference in the education you’ll receive, so the choice depends on your lifestyle and learning needs. Students who have commitments such as a full-time job or young children at home might find that an online program is the perfect fit. Conversely, some students learn better in a more structured and traditional classroom environment, with daily interactions with their professors and peers. Keep in mind that even if you do choose an online option, you won’t be entirely behind a computer. While your classroom courses can be taken online, any lab work, clinical internships, or other hands-on experience will need to happen in person. Ask questions about the program. There are many important things to consider as you research and compare programs. Before making your final choice, make sure you know (and like) the answers to the following questions: Is this program accredited?Does the program offer the specialty and type of degree I want?What are the credentials of the faculty?Does this program have a fieldwork requirement?How large are the class sizes?How much interaction will I get with faculty and other students?Does this program offer career placement or assistance?What kind of jobs do graduates find?What percentage of graduates pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology?Is the tuition affordable for me?Are there any financial aid options associated with this program? Step 4 Meet or Exceed the Admission Requirements. Once you’ve narrowed down your top-choice schools, you’ll need to make sure you meet their admission requirements. Different programs require different things, but there are generally some standard benchmarks to meet: A solid GPA: GPA requirements vary, but most programs look for at least a 3.0, if not closer to a 3.5.Good scores on the GRE: Some programs don’t ask you to submit scores on the GRE, but many of them do. According to the Educational Testing Service, those in the social and behavioral sciences earn average scores of around 153 on Verbal Reasoning, 151 on Quantitative Reasoning, and a 3.9 on Analytical Writing. Aspiring grad students might also need to take the GRE Subject Test specifically for psychology. As of 2018, the average total score was 618.An essay: Most schools will ask you to submit an essay along with your application. This will likely be about your professional aspirations or past experiences in the field. For competitive schools, you’ll want to aim to be within the 75th percentile on your score.An in-person interview: You’ll meet with an admissions representative to answer questions about your life, educational, and professional experiences. This is also a time when you can ask questions to see if the program meets your needs.Letters of recommendation: Your school will likely ask for at least two letters of recommendation. These will need to be from people who can speak to your ability to succeed in the program such as your undergraduate professors or work supervisors. Other requirements will vary depending on the program, as well as your educational background. For example, if your bachelor’s degree wasn’t in psychology, you might need to take a semester or two of undergrad prerequisites such as statistics, biology, and social sciences. Step 5 Make Your Application Stand Out . Along with meeting or exceeding the standard requirements, there are other things you can do to make your application stand out. Volunteering in the mental health field will not only give you valuable experience that can help you determine the specialty you want to pursue, but it will also look good on your application. What’s more, volunteer positions are an ideal place to network with other professionals in the field and make connections that can earn you strong letters of recommendation. You’ll stand out especially, experts say, if you get some research experience and write a compelling statement of purpose. Work in a lab setting to prove that you understand research methodology and documentation will show commitment and give you a deeper academic experience. But because this is ultimately a field in which you’ll be working with and helping people, it will also help to draft an engaging story detailing your passion for psychology. Describing what drew you to this area of study in a college essay-style statement of purpose—which can be a stand-alone document or part of your essay—will demonstrate next-level dedication to the field. As simple as it sounds, cover the basics. Get started on your applications early so you’ll have plenty of time to get your application materials together and have advance notice of any supplemental materials a school may require. Step 6 Plan to Pay for School. Of course, getting into the program of your choice is just a part of the process. You also need to figure out how to pay for it. Thankfully, there are plenty of options to help you fund your education, including loans, grants, scholarships, fellowships, and work-study programs. The first step is to fill out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), which will determine any need-based assistance you qualify for. Once you know what you’ll receive from the government, you can supplement that aid in other ways. There are countless scholarships, grants, and fellowships available through psychology associations and private organizations. Those who are pursuing their doctoral degrees might also receive full or part tuition remission for assisting with research or teaching. If you’re working while going to school, your employer might offer contributions to your education. If you’ve exhausted your options for free financial aid, loans can fill in the gaps. If you do end up needing loans, keep in mind that federal assistance often has advantages to loans from private banks, including potentially lower and fixed interest rates and the possibility for loan forgiveness.   Student loan forgiveness. You may qualify for student loan forgiveness through the government if you meet certain criteria. Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF): Through the Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program, psychologists could have some of all of their remaining loans erased if work full-time in a government or nonprofit agency and have made at least 120 qualifying repayments.National Health Service Corps (NHSC) Loan Repayment Program: Psychologists and counselors are eligible to receive up to $50,000 for two years of service in a location considered a shortage area. There’s also the change to amend the two-year contract to receive up to $100,000 for 5 years of service.
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TitleGraduate Application Guide for Psychology Students | Psychology.org
Urlhttps://www.psychology.org/resources/graduate-application-guide/
DescriptionA guide to applying to graduate programs in psychology. Learn about entrance testing, application packet development, and other steps involved with applying
DateDec 10, 2021
Organic Position4
H1Graduate Application Guide for Psychology Students
H2Are you ready to discover your college program?
Psychology Graduate Program Prerequisites
Featured Online Programs
Do I Have to Take the GRE to Apply to a Graduate Psychology Program?
Psychology Graduate School Application Requirements
How Do You Apply to Graduate School?
Waiting for Acceptance Letters
Latest Posts
H3Do I Need a Bachelor's Degree in Psychology to Earn a Psychology Graduate Degree?
Is Work Experience a Prerequisite to a Psychology Graduate Program?
GRE Waiver
Breakdown of GRE Scores
Transcripts
Test Scores
Resume
Essays and Personal Statements
Case Study Analysis
Letters of Recommendation
English Proficiency Tests
Background Check
Rolling Admissions
Rounds Admissions
H2WithAnchorsAre you ready to discover your college program?
Psychology Graduate Program Prerequisites
Featured Online Programs
Do I Have to Take the GRE to Apply to a Graduate Psychology Program?
Psychology Graduate School Application Requirements
How Do You Apply to Graduate School?
Waiting for Acceptance Letters
Latest Posts
BodyGraduate Application Guide for Psychology Students December 10, 2021 | Psychology.org Staff Are you ready to discover your college program? Getting into graduate school can seem like a daunting process that never ends. With undergraduate studies complete, students now need to navigate a minefield of paperwork, tests, and graduate-school applications. Unlike some other fields, psychology harbors a variety of concentrations, and prospective students need to select one. Concentrations include clinical, cognitive, industrial/organizational, and forensic psychology. A competitive candidate must do their research, a skill all individuals seeking to enter graduate schools for psychology must master. Get acquainted with the schools and professors specializing in the area of psychology you wish to pursue. Make a list of 10 or 12 schools to which you will apply based on their program offerings, location, and tuition rate. Once you know the targets, focus on the application process itself. This resource demystifies the process of getting into graduate schools for psychology. Prospective students learn about entrance testing, application packet development, and other steps involved with applying. Psychology Graduate Program Prerequisites. Do I Need a Bachelor's Degree in Psychology to Earn a Psychology Graduate Degree? Holding a bachelor's degree in psychology makes it easier to transition to a graduate program in psychology. Graduate schools give preference to students with a bachelor's degree in psychology. However, some schools allow non-psychology students to take prerequisite psychology courses that give them exposure to foundational theories, statistics, and research methods in psychology. Some undergraduate degrees facilitate an easier transition to a graduate program in psychology than others; a student with a bachelor's degree in sociology will fare better than someone with a degree in mathematics. Applicants should identify what requirements each psychology department expects. Research graduate schools that enroll students with a non-psychology degree to find out which supplemental, upper-level psychology classes they require before applying. Most graduate schools in psychology function as part of a university with an undergraduate program that will allow you to complete the required courses. Should your preferred school not offer prerequisite options, other accredited colleges offer the prerequisite courses needed for application to your graduate psychology program. The graduate school may, however, apply a limited number of those credits to your master's degree. Make sure the program at which you take your prerequisite classes holds accreditation from one of six regional accrediting agencies in the nation. Without that designation, graduate programs will not accept your transfer credits. Is Work Experience a Prerequisite to a Psychology Graduate Program? Many students enter master's programs in psychology with at least a year of work experience in psychology. The level of required experience depends entirely on the department and professors. Some graduate students will have the opportunity to become research assistants, but professors will want them to hold at least some experience. Others will not require work experience because of the nature of the program. Contact the psychology department and, in particular, the professors who focus on your specialization to determine if they accept new students, or if they need students with experience. Faculty members generally list their requirements on their profiles. If the professor you wish to work with requires some level of work experience, but you have none, other skills may compensate for the deficit. For instance, if you worked in a corporate environment for some time, you may bring skills of interest to a psychology professor specializing in industrial/organizational psychology. A prospective forensic psychology student with work experience in the justice system holds firsthand knowledge that may interest a professor specializing in forensic psychology. Featured Online Programs. Figuring out where to apply? These top, accredited schools offer a variety of online degrees. Consider one of these accredited programs, and discover their value today. Do I Have to Take the GRE to Apply to a Graduate Psychology Program? The GRE serves as the standardised test that graduate schools in psychology require for admission. The GRE general test covers verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and analytical writing. These sections measure students' aptitude to succeed in today's graduate schools. The GRE subject tests also test knowledge and skills in six subjects, including psychology. The specialized GRE psychology test requires the test taker hold prior knowledge of the subject through undergraduate studies or other experience. Students take the GRE, administered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS), in paper- or computer-delivered format. While some graduate schools no longer require the GRE or substitute other skills and qualifications for the test, most master's programs in psychology require it. Test takers pay $205 for the GRE general test and $150 for the GRE subject tests. ETS delivers the paper version GRE three times a year and the computer test year round at established locations. GRE Waiver. In some instances, students receive a test waiver from the graduate program to which they apply. Consider finding schools that offer a waiver to reduce the stress involved with applying for graduate programs in psychology. A waiver may also help those applying late in the application season. ETS reports the scores back to students in two weeks, but it takes weeks and probably months to adequately prepare for the GRE. In general, schools that require the GRE only offer waivers to students with high GPAs, those with extensive work experience, or applicants with advanced degrees. Students with lower GPAs than required for entry into a graduate school in psychology can use a strong GRE score to bolster their application. Contact each school to find out the waiver process involved. Breakdown of GRE Scores. After you complete the GRE, expect to get the results in 10-15 days. Your score report outlines your personal details, including your name, address, date of birth, major, and test dates. The test report outlines your GRE test score and an associated percentile rank. The GRE breaks down into a verbal reasoning section scored on a 130–170 scale; a quantitative reasoning section scored on a 130–170 scale; and an analytical writing section scored on a zero to six scale. ETS scores the verbal reasoning and quantitative reasoning sections based on how many questions the test taker correctly answers. A trained ETS reader scores the essay for the analytical writing section. According to the ETS, between July 2013 and June 2016, the mean GRE scores for test takers in the social and behavioral sciences for verbal reasoning reached 153; for Quantitative Reasoning, 151; and for analytical writing, 3.9. A 25th percentile score puts you at about 144 on verbal reasoning and a 146 on quantitative reasoning. Shoot for a score in at least the 50th percentile, or 75th percentile, which is approximately 157 on verbal reasoning and a 160 on quantitative reasoning. A score in the 75th percentile means you score higher than most test takers. The psychology subject test consists of 205 questions drawn from coursework students take in undergraduate psychology programs in areas such as cognitive, developmental, and clinical psychology. The ETS provides interpretative information for the subjects tests, which differs from the general test. Each school collects its own average GRE scores by program. Go to each school's official web site and research how you compare to other applicants. The admission requirement and FAQ pages serve as good places to begin your inquiry. If you do not hit the target, it does not mean you do not qualify for graduate school. Your performance at the undergraduate level, work experience, and other information in the admissions packet may earn you admission Scaled ScoreVerbal Reasoning %Quantitative Reasoning %170999716085761504739140118 Source: ETS Psychology Graduate School Application Requirements. Transcripts. As you begin to apply to graduate school, know that schools look at the whole person in the decision-making process. This begins with an assessment of an applicant's academic performance using school transcripts. Schools will review your college transcripts to identify coursework you took, grades you received, and your overall pattern of performance. They pay particular interest to the last 60 credits of your undergraduate degree. This comprises your junior and senior years when you take upper-level courses in psychology or another major. Generally, graduate schools in psychology want to see an average 3.0 cumulative GPA. While many graduate schools in psychology will not consider a student with less than a 3.0 GPA, competitive GRE scores override a lower GPA. Find out the expectations of each school and try to exceed them or provide supplemental evidence of your readiness for graduate school. If you attended more than one college, present all of your transcripts to each graduate school unless they say otherwise. You can order transcripts in person, online, or in writing. Graduate schools generally want official transcripts. Some schools provide them for free. Start the ordering process early to avoid any delays that could hamper your progression through the application process. Test Scores. ETS allows test takers to designate up to four recipients of your GRE general test and/or subject test scores. The organization provides this service as part of your test fee. You submit the request at the center when taking the computer version or at the time of registration for the paper version. You pay $27 for each additional recipient. Resume. The selection committee for graduate students at each institution appraises all aspects of their educational and professional life. They review your resume to measure your accomplishments since you left college, and they look for any experience in psychology that might bolster your chance of admittance. A strong resume makes up for lackluster academic performance or poor GRE test scores. Some programs require specific experience, depending on the needs of the professors and department. Emphasize the most relevant and recent work experience applicable to psychology. If you do not boast experience or you have an employment gap, remember that skills from other professions can transfer over. Your research and data analytics skills as a marketing associate matter to a professor seeking a research assistant. Those with no experience should find volunteer work, community service, or internships applicable to responsibilities in their area of psychology. High-impact volunteerism over the summer could likewise make the difference to a selection committee. Psychology majors need a desire to help others and an ability to juggle work, family, and community. Essays and Personal Statements. Admissions committees review information from piles of applicants before they make a decision. Your job remains to stand out in the crowded field, a task facilitated by a personal statement or essay. Some people get confused about the difference between a statement of purpose and an essay or personal statement. A statement of purpose answers specific questions about why you chose psychology, your interest in the particular program, your proposed plan of study, and your short-term and long-term career goals. An essay outlines your experience and qualifications in the field, as well as how you fit in the program. Always submit an essay even if it's optional; essays allow you to personalize your application in a way that other materials in the package cannot. Think about the essay as a marketing tool. Before you start writing, think about the main takeaways. Why should they choose me? Why do I fit into this department? What will I accomplish with this degree from this department? In your preliminary notes, structure the essay with a dynamic and coherent theme or narrative, and begin the essay with a hook that grabs the attention of the reader. Highlight your strengths, give specific examples of coursework or research, and succinctly discuss your relationships with faculty mentors. Keep the essay to the established length. Use as many credible resources as you can find to complete a winning essay. Case Study Analysis. As you study how to apply for graduate school, consider that schools may require you to craft a case-study analysis as part of their application. First, follow their guidelines. The case study may focus on a real or imagined individual, group, or event. Alternately, they may focus on a particular research area or topic. The graduate school may require that you provide a background history and present a diagnosis using the relevant Diagnostic and Statistical Manual code. In the second part of the analysis, you will outline the needed intervention. This case study provides the admissions officer with some insight into you and your expertise. It highlights what you know, your analytical skills, and where you fit within the particular program. Letters of Recommendation. Schools request two to four letters of recommendation from former advisers, professors, research mentors, or employers. Begin this process as soon as possible to give the people you asked for a recommendation ample time to write a letter on your behalf. Schools want to hear from those with experience working directly with you, so make sure to ask someone who can speak accurately on your behalf. Once they agree, provide them with a packet of your application materials, which may include a personal statement and points that deserve inclusion, for their reference. Schools want to hear about your research experience, presentations, scholarship, and your overall performance as a student. You may certainly ask those giving you references to speak to certain aspects of your work. Check in with those recommending you a few weeks before the application deadline to ensure that they complete and send their letter. English Proficiency Tests. English proficiency tests, such as the test of English as a foreign language (TOEFL), measure a test taker's language skills. TOEFL remains the most widely used academic English-proficiency test. Schools generally request that students complete the test if English is not their first language. Two lesser known tests, the international English language testing system and the test of English for international communication, also test students' and workers' English language proficiency. The TOEFL, which is delivered online, tests reading and listening skills when test takers answer questions after they read sample passages. The TOEFL also tests speaking and writing skills when test takers vocally respond or express an opinion about a particular topic. Background Check. Schools may require you to submit to a background check for participation in internships, practicums, and other fieldwork, especially when working with minors; forensics; or in governmental positions at the local, state, and federal level. Schools may review driving records, criminal or court records, sex-offenders lists, and state licensure records. Some states may require fingerprinting. Make sure to mention any anomalies in your application. How Do You Apply to Graduate School? Begin the application as early as possible. Start researching schools in May and take the free GRE practice test. The results show you where you stand and whether a GRE prep course might prove necessary. Sign up for the GRE in June so that you leave enough time to study before taking the test in August or early September. Contact and request information from the schools and programs that interest you in July. In August, begin your essay or personal statement. In September, familiarize yourself with the professors with whom you wish to work with. Also, request official transcripts by October. In late November or December, submit all of your application materials. This should cost between $50 and $100 on average. Research whether your school's admissions office offers waivers for applications. Given that application guidelines vary by school, carefully review each school's requirements. After sending your materials, you should receive some kind of confirmation from the school that your application is now under review. Some applicants choose a college admissions service company to send their materials. While CommonApp serves undergraduates, Liaison International' s GradCAS stands as the leader in graduate admissions services. Through GradCAS, students use a single application to apply to multiple graduate schools for psychology. Rolling Admissions. Schools with rolling admissions give you a large window of opportunity to submit your materials. This window ranges from a few months to all year. During rolling admissions, schools and departments review applications as they receive them. The advantages for the applicant include stress reduction, since you decide your own readiness level and timeline. The earlier you apply, the greater your chances for acceptance. The fewer applicants competing for the same spot increases your odds. Expect to receive a response in four to eight weeks. Schools with rolling admissions provide you with an opportunity to secure a spot when all other deadlines and options have proved unsuccessful. Make a note of which schools have rolling admissions deadlines and which ones keep admission open year round. Rounds Admissions. Remember that every school establishes its own admission timeline, deadlines, and number of rounds. Three rounds tends to be the norm, and schools tend to take the largest fraction of students during the first round. The first round also tends to include the smallest share of applications, increasing your odds if you choose to apply early. The second round holds the largest share of applicants and gives you more time to prepare. Avoid round three unless you possess a nontraditional background that stands out among the stragglers. Unless you possess stellar GRE scores and your application looks flawless, this round spells trouble because the committee now ranks you against everyone else, including students in the first two rounds. Additionally, fewer openings remain for the year. Fortunately, psychology graduate schools generally use the rolling admissions process. Waiting for Acceptance Letters. With your applications making their way through the admissions process, your anticipation might go into overdrive. Many graduate applicants sit in this application purgatory waiting for results that seem to take forever. There's little to do now but adopt a positive attitude and stay busy. In the meantime, the letter confirming receipt of your application materials should include information on how to check your application status online. The time it takes for you to receive the acceptance or rejection letter depends on when you apply and the school. Typically, if you apply in the fall, you receive an answer by April. Upon receiving your acceptance letter, your school will then send you a financial aid package. If you receive multiple acceptance letters, make campus visits to help you determine where you want to go. Meet with professors, talk to students in the program, and look at your surroundings. You will live here for the next two years; make sure you feel comfortable. Write a letter to the second-choice schools requesting a decision-deadline extension should you need to wait for your first choice's acceptance or rejection letter. If you receive rejection letters, then figure out how to learn from your mistakes. There's nothing wrong with a polite phone call or email to each department to find out how you can make a stronger application. Take the GRE again. Get feedback about your application materials from knowledgeable and impartial people. Use all of the feedback you receive to make yourself a stronger applicant. Latest Posts.
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TitleGuide to Applying to Graduate School in Psychology
Urlhttps://psych.csuci.edu/students/graduateschoolguide/gradschoolguide.pdf
DescriptionThis guide is my attempt to answer many of the questions that are often asked about getting into graduate school. If you are reading this it is likely you ...
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TitleMitch's Uncensored Advice for Applying to Graduate School
Urlhttps://mitch.web.unc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/4922/2017/02/MitchGradSchoolAdvice.pdf
DescriptionApplying to Doctoral Ph.D. Programs in Clinical Psychology. Obtaining Research Experience. Obtaining Clinical Experience. How the Admissions Process Works.
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TitleAn Overview of Earning Master's Degree in Psychology
Urlhttps://www.verywellmind.com/masters-degree-in-psychology-2795672
DescriptionAre you thinking about earning a master's in psychology? Learn about how long it will take, career options, and alternative degrees to consider
DateApr 1, 2020
Organic Position7
H1What You Should Know About Earning a Master's Degree in Psychology
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BodyWhat You Should Know About Earning a Master's Degree in Psychology How Long It Takes, Career Options, and Alternatives. By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial process Updated on April 01, 2020 Fact checked Verywell Mind content is rigorously reviewed by a team of qualified and experienced fact checkers. Fact checkers review articles for factual accuracy, relevance, and timeliness. We rely on the most current and reputable sources, which are cited in the text and listed at the bottom of each article. Content is fact checked after it has been edited and before publication. Learn more. by Emily Swaim Fact checked by Emily Swaim Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell. Learn about our editorial process Caiaimage / Tom Merton / Getty Images Table of Contents View All Table of Contents Master's Program Types Master's Degree Before a Doctorate Job Opportunities Preparing for a Master's Program Alternatives Are you thinking about earning a master's degree in psychology? A master's degree can open up a whole new world of career opportunities. Start by exploring what's involved in order to determine if it's the right educational choice for you: how long it will take, your career options after graduation, and alternative degrees that you might want to consider. A master's degree in psychology is a graduate-level degree that generally involves two to three years of study after you complete your undergraduate (bachelor's) degree. The two most common types of psychology master's degrees are the Master of Arts (M.A.) and the Master of Science (M.S.). An M.A. degree may indicate a stronger liberal arts focus, while an M.S. usually means there's a stronger concentration on research and the sciences. The type of degree offered depends on the school and program, however, since the academic requirements are often very similar. Some master's programs in psychology offer what is known as a terminal degree. This type of degree is designed to prepare graduates for professional practice in their specialty area. In other cases, a master's degree may serve as preparation for further study at the doctoral level. Specific requirements can vary considerably, so take a careful look at the course outline of any program you are considering. You may also choose between a thesis and non-thesis option. Completing a thesis is a good choice if you're interested in further graduate study, while the non-thesis alternative might be ideal if you are more interested in entering the workforce immediately after graduation. Master's Program Types . While there are generalist programs available, many students elect to focus on a particular specialty area. Some of the different types of master's programs available include: M.A. or M.S. in experimental psychologyM.A. or M.S. in industrial-organizational psychologyM.A. or M.S. in forensic psychologyM.A. or M.S. in clinical psychologyM.A. or M.S. in social psychologyM.A. or M.S. in child development In addition to traditional master's programs, there are a variety of online master's degrees in psychology available. Master's Degree Before a Doctorate . One of the biggest questions facing students interested in earning a graduate degree in psychology is whether or not they should earn a master's degree before applying to a doctoral program. Many Ph.D. and Psy.D. programs do not require a master's degree, and students are able to begin these doctoral programs immediately after completing their bachelor's degrees. If you're unsure if doctoral study is right for you, a master's degree can be a good option. Spend some time talking to your college advisor and faculty members to determine which option is the best choice based on your educational interests and career goals. Job Opportunities . While having a master's degree means you'll find more job opportunities than you will at the bachelor's level, job options are still limited if you're interested in entering the field of professional psychology. A terminal master's program, however, does open the door to entry-level jobs in fields such as mental health, industrial-organizational psychology, and forensic psychology. Other potential sectors of employment include colleges, universities, private businesses, and government. Preparing for a Master's Program . If you're interested in pursuing a master's degree in psychology, it pays to start planning early. Check the requirements of a few programs you're considering, and then be sure to schedule all of the prerequisite courses during your years of undergraduate study. Statistics, experimental methods, and developmental psychology are just a few of the common courses required by psychology graduate programs. Before you apply to a master's program, you may also be required to take the Graduate Record Examination or GRE. In addition to taking the main test, you might also need to take the GRE psychology subject test. Once you've been admitted to a master's program, take note of the required courses, and check out your school's class offering schedule. Some classes are only offered every other semester or every other year, so plan carefully to ensure that you are able to take all the classes you need during your two- to three-year program. Alternatives . If you determine that a master's degree in psychology is not the best choice to help you fulfill your academic and career goals, there are a number of related alternative programs to choose from. If you know that you want to work in the field of mental health, counseling, social work, school psychology, education, and health sciences are other academic options that might also appeal to you. Possible alternative degrees include: Ph.D. in psychology Doctor of psychology (Psy.D.) Master's in social work Master's in counseling Master's in sociology Master's in student affairs Master's in education Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What are your concerns? Other Inaccurate Hard to Understand 1 Source Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Michalski DS. Master's careers in psychology. Psychology Student Network. Related Articles The Training You Need to Become a Psychologist 5 Psychology Degrees and What You Should Know About Them 11 Things You Can Do With a Bachelor's Degree in Psychology Careers for Psychology Students Who Have a Master's in Counseling Common Master's in Psychology Job Options and Outlook Educational Requirement Varies by Field of Practice in Psychology What Does MS After Your Name Mean? Is a Ph.D. in Psychology the Right Choice for You? Career Options for People With a Graduate Degree in Psychology Are You Looking for a Top-Ranked Psychology Program? Psychology Career Specialty Areas and Education Which Psychology Bachelor's Degree Option Is Right for You? 5 Signs That Majoring in Psychology Isn't Right for You An Overview of Psychology Careers Different Timelines for Doctorate-Degree Options in Psychology Is an Online Psychology Degree for You?
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TitleThe 30 Best Psychology Master's Programs and How to Pick
Urlhttps://blog.prepscholar.com/psychology-masters-programs
DescriptionConsidering an MA in Psychology? Learn what kinds of programs will help you reach your goals and check out our list of the best psychology master's programs
DateOct 8, 2021
Organic Position8
H1SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips
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The 30 Best Psychology Master's Programs and How to Pick
What's the Point of a Master's in Psychology?
Can You Become a Psychologist With Just a Master's Degree?
Best Psychology Master's Programs: Notes on Rankings
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Recap: The Best Psychology Master's Programs
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What's the Point of a Master's in Psychology?
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BodySAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The 30 Best Psychology Master's Programs and How to Pick . Posted by Hannah Muniz | Oct 8, 2021 3:00:00 PM General Education   Regardless of whether you majored in psychology as an undergrad or are just now realizing you have an invested interest in the field, a psychology master's program could be a great fit for you, especially if you're not sure about pursuing a doctorate. In this guide, we look at what kinds of psychology master's programs are out there and what the point of these programs is in terms of how they help you build a career. Moreover, we'll present you with a list of the best psychology master's programs for various kinds of psychology.   What's the Point of a Master's in Psychology? What is the overall purpose of entering a psychology master's program and earning an advanced degree in psychology? For one, many people choose to get a master's degree in psychology to learn more about a specific subfield or type of psychology. Whereas a bachelor's degree program in psych mostly provides you with a broad overview of the field, a master's degree program lets you concentrate on the particular area of psychology that interests you most. The area you're interested in will likely vary depending on what kind of job you're hoping to get after you earn your degree (and also whether you want to continue on to get a doctorate). Here are some examples of the types of psychology you could study in a graduate program: Clinical psychology Industrial-organizational psychology Child and adolescent development Counseling psychology Educational psychology Experimental psychology Developmental psychology Cognitive psychology Social psychology Health psychology Behavioral psychology General psychology Secondly, a master's degree in psychology can be useful because many jobs in the field require or strongly prefer people with a master's degree. In short, a master's degree has the potential to advance your career. Most counseling and therapy jobs, for example, require a master's degree in psychology, therapy, counseling, social work, or a related field. Therefore, by getting a master's degree, you're not only deepening your knowledge of a particular area of psych but also expanding your job prospects. The chart below shows a variety of psychology-related jobs for master's degree holders and what kinds of salaries and job growth rates you can expect for them. All jobs listed require at least a bachelor's degree (typically in psychology), with some requiring a master's degree in psychology or a related field. For each job, we give you its 2020 median annual salary and employment growth rate for 2020-2030. Jobs are listed in order of highest salary to lowest. All data is from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). According to the BLS, the current average employment growth rate is 7%, so any job with a percentage higher than this means that it's growing faster than average. Job Title Minimum Degree Required Median Salary (2020) Job Outlook (2020-2030) Social and Community Service Managers Bachelor's or master's degree $69,600 15% Market Research Analysts Bachelor's or master's degree $65,810 22% Human Resources Specialists Bachelor's degree $63,490 10% Training and Development Specialists Bachelor's degree $62,700 11% School and Career Counselors Master's degree $58,120 11% Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists Bachelor's degree $55,690 4% Marriage and Family Therapists Master's degree $51,760 12% Social Workers Master's degree (for clinical social work) $51,340 16% Substance Abuse, Behavioral Disorder, and Mental Health Counselors Varies, but usually a master's degree $47,660 23% Rehabilitation Counselors Master's degree $37,530 10% In general, an advanced degree will increase your earning potential. Even for jobs that only require a bachelor's degree, a master's degree could help you stand apart from other applicants and give you a better chance of nabbing a higher salary for that position. But what if you want to become an actual psychologist?     Can You Become a Psychologist With Just a Master's Degree? You might have noticed that the chart above doesn't include the job "psychologist" in it. This isn't a mistake—the reality is that in order to become a practicing psychologist, you will need to earn either a PhD in Psychology or a Doctor of Psychology (PsyD). In other words, a master's degree, though impressive, simply won't cut it if your dream is to work full-time as a licensed psychologist. I should clarify here that a psychologist differs from a therapist. Psychologists hold a doctorate and often work with psychiatrists to diagnose and treat disorders; they can also conduct research or offer therapy. By contrast, therapists can hold either a master's degree or doctorate and solely offer therapy services to support and guide patients. The word "therapist" is a broader term that encompasses not only psychologists who offer therapy services, but also counselors, life coaches, and social workers. According to the BLS, the majority of research, clinical, and counseling psychologists are required to have a doctoral degree. That said, a master's degree could be sufficient for jobs as a school psychologist or an industrial-organizational psychologist. In addition to a PhD or PsyD, you'll usually need to have a psychologist license. This applies to most jobs that include the title "psychologist." (Note that although therapists must be licensed as well, their license requirements differ from those required to become a psychologist.) To get licensed as a psychologist, you'll typically need to have done the following: Earned a PhD in Psychology or a PsyD Passed the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology Completed an internship Accumulated one to two years of supervised professional experience Exact licensure requirements vary by state, so be sure to check with your own state's policies and procedures to see what you must do to become a licensed psychologist. Though not typically required by states, certain jobs might require psychologists to obtain board certification in a particular area of psychology, too. Here are some examples of jobs you could get with a doctorate in psychology (ordered from highest median salary to lowest): Job Title Median Salary (2020) Job Outlook (2020-2030) Psychologists, All Other $105,780 8% (all psychologists)   Industrial-Organizational Psychologists $96,270 Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists $79,820 Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary $78,180 12% (all postsecondary teachers) Best Psychology Master's Programs: Notes on Rankings. Before we take a look at our list of the best psychology master's programs, it's important that we are aware of the current state of these types of programs. Because a doctorate is required to become a psychologist—the overarching goal of many people studying psychology—there aren't many terminal psychology master's programs in the US. Indeed, most psychologists earn a master's in psychology on the way to their doctorate (students normally get an MA/MS in Psychology along the way to the PhD or PsyD after a couple of years of study). This means that it can be somewhat difficult to find psychology master's degree programs that are not part of doctoral programs. Therefore, we've looked mostly at master's degree programs in fields related to psychology, such as social work, counseling, and therapy. These degrees range from a Master of Social Work (MSW), to an MA, to other specialized types of professional master's degrees. For each category of master's degree, we'll be introducing to you our top four to five choices (unranked), which we have determined based primarily on the following criteria: Prestige of both the program and overall school Ranking of the program by online lists and websites, such as US News Array of concentrations, classes, and online options offered Whether the program has an internship and/or practicum component Quality and reputation of faculty Now then, it's time to look at our picks for the best psychology master's programs!   The Best Psychology Master's Programs, by Category. Since there aren't that many terminal psychology master's programs (programs that don't require or expect you to continue on to get a doctoral degree), this list will mostly consist of programs that offer master's degrees in fields strongly tied to psychology. Here are the seven categories we'll be looking at (feel free to click the link to jump straight to that category): Social Work Marriage and Family Therapy Mental Health Counseling School Counseling/Educational Psychology Rehabilitation Counseling Clinical Psychology Industrial-Organizational Psychology     Social Work. The field of social work is largely connected to psychology, especially counseling and therapy, in that it's all about improving the lives of people and people within certain communities. Typically, social work master's degree programs lead to a Master of Social Work (MSW).   University of Michigan—Ann Arbor, MI. Ranked #1 by US News and many other top social work programs lists, U-M's MSW program offers many areas of specialization, including aging in families and society, children and youth in families, and community and social systems. Many students attend U-M's MSW program to jump-start their careers as school social workers, juvenile justice workers, case managers, community organizers, or geriatric specialists. The school offers 550 fieldwork locations so students can gain real-life experience and training. U-M also has made available several scholarships, such as the Geriatric Scholarship Program and the Child Welfare Scholarship.   Washington University in St. Louis—St. Louis, MO. Another top-ranked social work program based at the Brown School, WUSTL's MSW offers the opportunity to perform groundbreaking research with renowned faculty to create sustainable impact. Ten concentrations are available, including mental health; American Indian and Alaska Native; children, youth, and families; health; and violence and injury prevention. WUSTL has connections with more than 500 organizations around the world for students to complete their practicum.   University of Chicago—Chicago, IL. If you'd prefer a more flexible approach to social work, UChicago's social work master's degree program might be a good fit for you. Equivalent to an MSW, the MA in Social Service Administration provides students with a broader foundation that combines research, theory, practical experience, and policy development. Two concentrations are available: Clinical and Social Administration. In addition, students can take advantage of a handful of study abroad opportunities in India, China, and Hong Kong.   Columbia University—New York, NY. Home to the first social work school in the US, Columbia has a highly ranked MSW program. This rigorous program combines theory and practice to help students become leading professionals in the field of social work. Four method concentrations are available across seven fields of practice, which are as follows: Aging/Gerontology Contemporary Social Issues Family, Youth, and Children's Services Health, Mental Health, and Disabilities International Social Welfare and Services to Immigrants and Refugees School-Based and School-Linked Services World of Work Columbia's MSW is also available entirely online (for specific fields of practice)—perfect for those who aren't based in New York or who'd prefer the flexibility of an online program.   University of California, Berkeley—Berkeley, CA. Established in 1944, UC Berkeley's Master of Social Welfare (MSW) program is known for producing top-quality social work professionals who are able to work in multiple practice areas and assume a variety of leadership roles. There are three specializations students can choose from: Strengthening Children, Youth, and Families Strengthening Organizations and Communities Advancing Health and Well-being across the Adult Lifespan Although UC Berkeley doesn't offer an online version of its MSW program, students have the option of earning their MSW degree concurrently with either a Master of Public Health or a Master of Public Policy.   Marriage and Family Therapy. These next master's programs specialize in marriage and family therapy, and offer degrees and practical experiences so you can become a licensed marriage and family therapist (LMFT) in the state where you earn your degree. Note that although many of these programs are accredited by the Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE), MFT programs are not required to have this accreditation.   Northwestern University—Evanston, IL. The MS in Marriage and Family Therapy program at Northwestern is a joint initiative between The Graduate School and the Family Institute at Northwestern—which boasts an impressive 40-year history of researching and teaching marriage and family therapy. This COAMFTE-accredited program uses a 21st-century approach called Integrative Systemic Therapy. Students study topics such as intimate relations, treatment models, and methods of systems therapy; do an intensive clinical internship; and conduct at least 500 hours of therapy.   Brigham Young University—Provo, UT. Students can earn an MS in Marriage and Family Therapy in BYU's COAMFTE-accredited program, which aims to prepare students to pass the Association of Marital and Family Therapy Regulatory Boards. The aim of the program is to help students develop theoretical, research, and clinical competence, as well as the ability to understand cultural diversity. Students have the option to pursue either a research track (mainly for those intending to go on to doctoral study) or a clinical track. The program is quite competitive, with a mere 20% acceptance rate.   University of San Diego—San Diego, CA. USD offers a highly regarded MA in Marital and Family Therapy program that is accredited by both COAMFTE and the Board of Behavioral Sciences in California. This two-year program has a unique "biopsychosocial, systems approach" that focuses on how relationships influence our day-to-day lives. Class topics include human diversity, couples and sex therapy, ethical and legal issues in family therapy, and family violence. Students enroll in a practicum for three semesters wherein they accumulate 500 hours of direct supervised contact with clients by working for a community agency.   Pepperdine University—Malibu, CA. At Pepperdine, a top-50 research university, students can get an MA in Clinical Psychology with an emphasis in marriage and family therapy. This program, which offers more than 130 clinical practicum sites, prepares students to become a licensed marriage and family therapist or a licensed professional clinical counselor in the state of California. Classes teach students about human sexuality and intimacy, mental health systems, multicultural counseling, and preparing for the practicum.     Mental Health Counseling. The following master's programs in psychology focus on providing counseling services to people with psychiatric disabilities and/or problems with substance abuse and addiction (as opposed to rehabilitation counseling or career counseling, for example). Many mental health counseling master's programs are accredited by the Masters in Psychology and Counseling Accreditation Council (MPCAC) and/or the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP).   New York University—New York, NY. NYU, a consistently top-ranked private university, offers an MPCAC-accredited MA in Counseling for Mental Health and Wellness program. In this program, students must complete a 600-hour internship and a 100-hour practicum over a 12-week period. This program is available both on-campus and online, the latter of which lets you choose from among three start dates (January, June, or September). The online version also gives students the chance to visit NYU for three to four days of networking and hands-on training.   University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill—Chapel Hill, NC. UNC's Clinical Rehabilitation and Mental Health Counseling master's program is a unique, highly regarded program that combines two types of counseling and is also accredited by CACREP. This program specifically aims to prepare students to become Certified Rehabilitation Counselors (CRCs) and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) in North Carolina. In 2019, 100% of students completed the program, and 100% passed the CRC exam on their first attempt. Students can choose to concentrate on developmental disabilities, psychiatric disabilities, or both.   Columbia University—New York, NY. At the famed Columbia Teachers College, students can earn an MEd in Mental Health Counseling. Strengths of the program include its focus on cultural diversity and social justice, its commitment to experiential training, and its emphasis on providing students with adequate opportunities to conduct research. Many graduates of the program go on to work in educational and health settings such as schools, colleges, hospitals, and clinics.   University of Wisconsin–Madison—Madison, WI. UW Madison's highly ranked MS in Counseling program is available through the Department of Counseling Psychology. Mandatory core courses include Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology, Social and Cultural Foundations, Counseling Theories, and Crisis and Trauma Counseling. Students must complete a year-long practicum and also have the option to do a master's thesis.     School Counseling/Educational Psychology. These next counseling psychology master's programs are all about helping students in school settings. School counselors assist students with personal, social, and career development; they also offer guidance to students with academic problems. Most school counselors work in schools (primary and secondary), though some instead work at community centers or youth centers. Like the mental health counseling programs above, many school counseling programs have been accredited by CACREP.   Vanderbilt University—Nashville, TN. Ranked #4 by US News in educational psychology programs, Vanderbilt offers a fantastic school counseling master's program: the MEd in Human Development Counseling with an emphasis in School Counseling (the other emphasis available is Clinical Mental Health Counseling). Some of the program's biggest benefits are its small classes and the option to complete the school counseling track entirely online. Both tracks are accredited by CACREP. What's more, 100% of school counseling students secured employment within six months of graduation in 2017.   University of Texas at Austin—Austin, TX. One of the nation's most renowned public universities, UT offers top-ranked MEd in Counselor Education and MA in School Psychology programs (the latter of which is geared toward those who ultimately plan to get a doctorate). Two tracks are available for the MEd program: School Counseling (counseling students in K-12), and Higher Education Counseling & Student Affairs (which focuses on roles within colleges and universities). This program option emphasizes the importance of diversity training and lets students supplement their studies so they can eventually become an LPC. Meanwhile, the highly competitive MA program prepares you to become a Licensed Specialist in School Psychology in Texas.   University of Maryland—College Park, MD. UMD's MEd in School Counseling is a high-quality psychology master's program that is currently ranked #6by US News on its list of the best educational psychology schools. Here, students learn how to work with diverse student populations, with special emphasis on the importance of social justice and inclusivity. Students must also complete a 100-hour practicum in addition to two 300-hour internships in urban public school systems. Courses cover research methods, school counseling, and special education, among other topics.   Ohio State University—Columbus, OH. Ranked #5 for school counseling programs and #12 for educational psych programs, OSU offers two reputable psychology master's programs: an MA in Educational Psychology and an MA in Counselor Education. In the former, students can study alongside doctoral students and take advantage of the program's partnership with the Learning Technologies program to learn more about the intersection between psychology and technology. The latter, which is CACREP-accredited, trains students to become professional counselors and to work at places such as public schools, community agencies, and health-care facilities.     Rehabilitation Counseling. Rehabilitation counseling is a type of counseling in which you work with people who have physical, emotional, mental, and/or developmental disabilities to help them achieve and maintain a self-sufficient lifestyle and career. Many of the following master's programs in rehabilitation counseling are accredited by CACREP.   Michigan State University—East Lansing, MI. MSU's MA in Rehabilitation Counseling program is currently ranked #1 by US News. In this CACREP-accredited program, students study disability management, ethical practices, and the social and psychological side of disabilities. Additionally, students must complete a practicum and internship. Evening classes are available to accommodate a range of schedules. Upon completion of this program, graduates may sit for the national CRC exam.   University of Wisconsin–Madison—Madison, WI. Tied for the #1 spot with MSU for best rehabilitation counseling graduate programs, UW Madison offers a top-ranked MS in Rehabilitation Counseling program through the school's Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Special Education. In this program, which has been accredited by CACREP, students learn how to improve the quality of life for people with psychiatric and physical disabilities, alcohol/substance abuse problems, and learning disabilities. Notably, UW Stout (another branch of the University of Wisconsin system) offers an online MS in Rehabilitation Counseling program that was ranked #4 in the country by US News. This part-time online master's program lasts three years and is geared toward those with at least two years of related work experience.   George Washington University—Washington, DC. GW's MA in Rehabilitation Counseling program is available both on-campus and online and is currently ranked #3 by US News on its list of best rehabilitation counseling programs. This CACREP-accredited program consists of intensive coursework as well as an internship and practicum. One of the program's unique traits is the breadth of counseling theories and practices it covers, from multicultural counseling to the medical aspects of disabilities. Furthermore, GW has a special mentorship program wherein current master's students are paired with graduates.   University of Alabama—Tuscaloosa, AL. UA offers a renowned, CACREP-accredited MA in Rehabilitation Counseling. In this wholly online program, students get to watch live class lectures and take classes in career development, ethics, research methods, life-span development, and psychopathology. Additionally, both an internship and practicum are required. Several scholarships are available through UA's College of Continuing Studies.   University of Massachusetts Boston—Boston, MA. Through UMassOnline, the renowned distance-learning platform created by the UMass schools, including UMass Boston, students can earn an MS in Rehabilitation Counseling, which is ranked #15 by US News. This CACREP-accredited, 60-credit program begins in the summertime and uses the cohort model wherein all students take the same program of study. Although all the classes are delivered online, students are required to be on-campus for two weeks in July to complete two mandatory clinical courses during their first summer of study.   Clinical Psychology. Clinical psychology focuses on the science behind mental illness and disability. Although clinical psychology master's programs are usually far harder to find than doctoral programs, there are some terminal ones available. Be aware that these master's programs do not lead to licensure as a psychologist (though they could prepare you for licensure as a therapist or counselor), as you'll generally need a doctorate to become a practicing clinical psychologist. Note: For a list of the best clinical psychology doctoral programs, check out this one by US News.   Northwestern University—Evanston, IL. Northwestern is known for its doctoral clinical psychology program, for which it's currently ranked #27 by US News, but it also offers a famed terminal master's program in clinical psychology. This program is designed mainly for those who aren't decided about getting a doctorate in clinical psychology and who want to learn more about clinical psychology through an academic lens. As such, the program does not lead to licensure for clinical practice as a psychologist. Classwork is mostly the same as that completed by the PhD students. Master's students must also participate in a Research Lab Experience for at least 10 hours a week and finish a capstone project under the guidance of a research mentor.   Columbia University—New York, NY. Ivy League member Columbia offers an esteemed MA in Psychology in Education program, which is geared mostly toward students interested in clinical psychology and mental health occupations. Although the program doesn't prepare students to become a professionally licensed psychologist, it does serve those who wish to work in the field of mental health and psychology more broadly. Students in the program are mentored by clinical psychology PhD students and can choose from among eleven concentrations: Child & Family Clinical Psychology & Technology Community Psychology & Integrated Health Services Forensic Psychology Global Mental Health & Trauma Neuropsychology Psychotherapy  Research Methods Sexuality, Women & Gender Spirituality & Mind/Body Practices   University of Maryland—College Park, MD. Ranked #33 by US News for its doctoral clinical psychology program, UMD also offers a Master of Professional Studies (MPS) in Clinical Psychological Science. This program primarily targets those who are interested in clinical psychology but aren't sure where to begin or don't know whether a doctorate is the right path. The MPS emphasizes the study of empirical scientific research in clinical psychology. Classes, which can be taken in the evenings, include Basic Foundations of Clinical Interventions, Research Methods in Clinical Psychology, and Child Psychopathology.   Boston University—Boston, MA. Tied for the #27 spot on US News with UMD for its doctoral program in clinical psychology, BU has an MA in Psychology program wherein you can specialize in clinical psychology specifically. This master's program is rigorous, lasting only one year, and offers courses on a multitude of topics, such as behavioral medicine, social oppression, child therapy, and social anxiety. Students have the opportunity to work directly with a faculty member on a Directed Study project as well.     Industrial-Organizational Psychology. Industrial-organizational psychology—also known as I/O psychology—is an applied discipline in the field of psychology that involves using psychological principles to improve workplace settings, encourage efficiency, and foster teamwork. While most I/O programs are doctoral ones, there's still a number of master's programs available around the country, mostly at state and tech schools. Note: For a list of the best I/O psychology doctoral programs, check out the rankings by US News.   New York University—New York, NY. At NYU, students can enroll in the terminal MA in Industrial/Organizational Psychology program to learn about critical topics, such as work motivation, personnel selection, training in organizations, etc. Based in NYU's eminent Department of Psychology, the I/O psych master's program offers small class sizes and provides students with a foundation in research, practice, and theory so they can pursue jobs in client interaction and solution development for corporate environments. Students can choose from among six specializations: Management consulting Leading and managing change Executive coaching Conflict and negotiation Quality of work life Diversity and culture   Middle Tennessee State University—Murfreesboro, TN. Although MTSU isn't as well known as some of the other colleges on this list, it's home to the #4 I/O psych master's program, as ranked in 2018 by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). This makes MTSU an excellent choice for I/O psychology students. This program emphasizes the real-world application of skills and knowledge through a required internship. Students must also complete several applied projects with local businesses. Many graduates have gone on to work for large companies and corporations, including Walmart, Microsoft, Coca-Cola, and Target.   Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis—Indianapolis, IN. IUPUI's MS in Industrial/Organizational Psychology program is well liked among students and a solid choice for I/O studies, especially if you're more interested in the organizational aspect. Cohorts are small—around three students each year—ensuring that all master's students get tons of individualized attention and guidance. Students learn about the core content areas of I/O psychology and are required to write a thesis and conduct research with the assistance of faculty members. The program also offers the option to take part in a summer internship. Several scholarships are available to MS students at IUPUI.   Florida Institute of Technology—Melbourne, FL. The MS in Industrial Organizational Psychology at Florida Tech is ranked #10 by SIOP and is famed for the strength of its faculty and mentoring. The program utilizes a team-based research approach in small-sized classes, allowing students to conduct critical research with faculty members and their peers. MS students also have the option to participate in a 300-hour practicum in order to gain real-world experience. Moreover, the program offers a concentration in international I/O psychology for students who hope to work in international business settings.   Recap: The Best Psychology Master's Programs. When it comes to psychology master's programs, at a first glance, it might not seem that there are that many programs available to those not seeking a doctorate. But the truth is that there are a ton of quality, prestigious psychology master's programs out there—you just have to know what type of psychology you want to study and what kind of career you're hoping to get out of your degree. Although you can't become a licensed, practicing psychologist with just a master's degree, you can enter related fields and work as a licensed counselor, therapist, or social worker. To recap, here are the best psychology master's programs for each category above: Social Work University of Michigan WUSTL UChicago Columbia UC Berkeley Marriage and Family Therapy Northwestern BYU University of San Diego Pepperdine Mental Health Counseling NYU UNC Chapel Hill Columbia UW Madison School Counseling/Educational Psychology Vanderbilt UT Austin UMD Ohio State Rehabilitation Counseling MSU UW Madison GWU University of Alabama UMass Boston Clinical Psychology Northwestern Columbia UMD Boston U Industrial-Organizational Psychology NYU Middle Tennessee State IUPUI Florida Tech We hope this list will be useful as you search for the best psychology master's program for you!     What's Next? Are you planning to take the AP Psych exam? Get tips and review what you need to know with our ultimate AP Psych study guide. For study materials, check out our picks for the best AP Psych prep books and get access to free official and unofficial practice tests. Not sure if a master's degree is the right move for you? Then take a look at our in-depth guide on what grad school is and how to determine whether you should go.   Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Hannah Muniz About the Author Hannah received her MA in Japanese Studies from the University of Michigan and holds a bachelor's degree from the University of Southern California. From 2013 to 2015, she taught English in Japan via the JET Program. She is passionate about education, writing, and travel. Get Free Guides to Boost Your SAT/ACT Student and Parent Forum Our new student and parent forum, at ExpertHub.PrepScholar.com, allow you to interact with your peers and the PrepScholar staff. See how other students and parents are navigating high school, college, and the college admissions process. Ask questions; get answers. Ask a Question Below. Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Get Free Guides to Boost Your SAT/ACT Score Improve With Our Famous Guides. SATPrep ACTPrep For All Students The 5 Strategies You Must Be Using to Improve 160+ SAT Points How to Get a Perfect 1600, by a Perfect Scorer Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:. Score 800 on SAT Math Score 800 on SAT Reading Score 800 on SAT Writing Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section:. Score 600 on SAT Math Score 600 on SAT Reading Score 600 on SAT Writing Free Complete Official SAT Practice Tests What SAT Target Score Should You Be Aiming For? 15 Strategies to Improve Your SAT Essay The 5 Strategies You Must Be Using to Improve 4+ ACT Points How to Get a Perfect 36 ACT, by a Perfect Scorer Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:. 36 on ACT English 36 on ACT Math 36 on ACT Reading 36 on ACT Science Series: How to Get to 24 on Each ACT Section:. 24 on ACT English 24 on ACT Math 24 on ACT Reading 24 on ACT Science What ACT target score should you be aiming for? ACT Vocabulary You Must Know ACT Writing: 15 Tips to Raise Your Essay Score How to Get Into Harvard and the Ivy League How to Get a Perfect 4.0 GPA How to Write an Amazing College Essay What Exactly Are Colleges Looking For? Is the ACT easier than the SAT? A Comprehensive Guide Should you retake your SAT or ACT? When should you take the SAT or ACT? Michael improved by 370 POINTS! Find Out How Stay Informed. Get the latest articles and test prep tips! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: GRE Online Prep Blog GMAT Online Prep Blog TOEFL Online Prep Blog   FreeSAT/ACT Tips to Boost Your Score Holly R. "I am absolutely overjoyed and cannot thank you enough for helping me!”
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TitleMaster of Psychology (M.Psych.) Degree Guide | BestColleges
Urlhttps://www.bestcolleges.com/features/masters-psychology-programs/
Description
DateAug 19, 2021
Organic Position9
H1Master’s in Psychology Program Guide
H2Ready to start your journey?
Related Programs That Might Interest You
What Is Psychology?
What Can I Do With a Master's in Psychology?
Related Programs That Might Interest You
Expert Interview
What Can I Expect in a Master's in Psychology Program?
How to Choose a Master's in Psychology Program
Master's in Psychology Admission Requirements
Programmatic Accreditation for Master's in Psychology Programs
Compare your school options
H3Concentrations Offered for a Master's Degree in Psychology
Curriculum for a Master's Degree in Social Work
Prerequisites
Admission Materials
H2WithAnchorsReady to start your journey?
Related Programs That Might Interest You
What Is Psychology?
What Can I Do With a Master's in Psychology?
Related Programs That Might Interest You
Expert Interview
What Can I Expect in a Master's in Psychology Program?
How to Choose a Master's in Psychology Program
Master's in Psychology Admission Requirements
Programmatic Accreditation for Master's in Psychology Programs
Compare your school options
BodyMaster’s in Psychology Program Guide by Staff Writers Published on August 19, 2021 Share this Article BestColleges.com is an advertising-supported site. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. This compensation does not influence our school rankings, resource guides, or other editorially-independent information published on this site. Ready to start your journey? While you may qualify for some entry-level roles with a bachelor's degree, you must hold a master's degree to become a school or industrial-organizational psychologist or to work in a variety of related counseling fields. Practitioners with a graduate degree in psychology earn roughly $16,000 more per year on average than those with just a bachelor's. In addition, you typically need to hold a master's credential before earning a doctorate, the standard requirement for clinical and research roles in psychology. Most full-time students earn their master's in psychology in just two years. Most full-time students earn their master's in psychology in just two years. These graduate programs feature coursework in areas like social psychology, cognitive processes, and theories of personality. You may also be required to complete a period of supervised clinical experience, commonly known as a practicum, or write a research-based thesis. This page offers an overview of psychology master's programs, including information on admission requirements, coursework and concentrations, scholarships for psychology students, and the career paths you can pursue after graduation. Related Programs That Might Interest You. Learn about start dates, transferring credits, availability of financial aid, and more by contacting the universities below. What Is Psychology? Psychology is the study of human behavior and mental processes, such as cognition, emotion, intelligence, and personality. Psychology professionals may lead research studies on brain functions, diagnose and treat mental health issues, support students dealing with learning disorders, or use psychological principles to improve workplace efficiency. Individuals with a background in psychology may also work in education, business, healthcare, or law. With information on admission requirements, curricula, and financial aid opportunities, our ranking of the best master's programs in psychology will help you determine where to earn your degree. Should I Get a Master's in Psychology? What Can I Do With a Master's in Psychology? Certain careers, such as industrial-organizational psychologist or psychology instructor at a high school or a community college, are available to professionals with a master's degree. However, a master's often does not qualify as a terminal degree, with most states requiring a doctorate in psychology before you can apply for licensure. Common occupations for master's in psychology graduates include: Psychologist In general, psychologists study people by observing and analyzing their behaviors and cognitive processes. Clinical psychologists assess their clients' emotional or behavioral challenges and work with them to improve these conditions through cognitive therapy. They may set up an independent practice or work in hospitals or clinics. Graduate students in psychology can also specialize in areas like developmental psychology or forensic psychology. However, similar to the prerequisites for clinical psychologists, many states require you to earn a doctorate and gain licensure before working in these fields. Median Annual Salary: $79,010* Professor Professors teach courses at colleges and universities, prepare lesson plans, hold office hours, and grade student work. They also frequently conduct research and publish findings in scholarly publications. Earning a master's in psychology can qualify you to become a professor at a community college. Median Annual Salary: $78,470* Marriage and Family Therapist Marriage and family therapists evaluate familial relationships and meet with family members and partners over several sessions. Unlike licensed psychologists, marriage and family therapists typically do not need a doctoral degree to find employment. Median Annual Salary: $50,090* Substance Abuse, Behavioral Disorder, or Mental Health Counselor These practitioners provide guidance and recovery assistance to people suffering from behavioral disorders, mental health problems, or addictions. Mental health counselors often need a master's degree and internship experience. Median Annual Salary: $44,630* School or Career Counselor School and career counselors help students confront educational challenges, find career paths, and apply to colleges. They may help identify social and behavioral problems that hinder students' abilities in the classroom. These counselors can work in elementary, middle, or high school settings. Median Annual Salary: $56,310* Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Related Programs That Might Interest You. Learn about start dates, transferring credits, availability of financial aid, and more by contacting the universities below. Expert Interview. Troy Dvorak holds a master's in psychology and has been an instructor at Minneapolis Community & Technical College since 2005. Prior to that, he worked as a psychometrist, providing psychological assessment and counseling services to kids, teens, and families for seven years. Why did you initially decide to pursue psychology? I was always curious about mental health, or lack thereof, with people around me. In my first year at Lakehead University, I really enjoyed my general psych class and knew that was the direction for me. Once I was a psych major, I knew I made a good decision: Helping others seemed a great way to spend a career. It was not until I was in grad school, however, that I began to really know who I wanted to work with. From undergraduate volunteer experience, I knew I did not want to work in a psychiatric facility (because work with inpatients felt like it was just medical maintenance as opposed to insight and progress). Over time, I chose to work with children, teens, and families. Children and teens are capable of remarkable insight, especially when supported by a loving family that is also willing to make change. What led you to switch from psychometrics to teaching? I was born in Minneapolis but moved to Canada when I was six. At the age of 32 -- and because I had family in the Twin Cities -- I decided to leave my job as a psychometrist and return to the Minneapolis area. Becoming a licensed clinician would have taken me about a year and I needed work right away. I was able to get some classes at community colleges and slowly started to build a reputation as a good teacher. Over the years, my adjunct role offered the equivalent of full-time employment so I simply never pursed licensure as a clinician. As of 2017, I became tenured at Minneapolis Community & Technical College. Having assumed roles in both clinical and academic settings, what do you find most fulfilling about each? Most challenging? As cliche as it is, a day spent helping others is a day well-spent. Whether as a clinician or teacher, assisting others is very fulfilling. As a clinician, helping people overcome psychological and social difficulties was always gratifying. As a teacher, the thing I enjoy most is the diverse student population I have the privilege to serve. The class discussions and myriad viewpoints make teaching psychology a ton of fun. The most difficult thing about both clinical work and teaching is seeing someone with amazing potential get sidelined by things beyond their control. A prime example of that is the caustic influence of poverty. However, where there are significant barriers, there is the concomitant potential for exceptional transformation. What advice would you give to undergrad students who are considering a graduate degree in psychology? Is a master's worth it? Without question, if you are going into psychology, know you are in it for the long haul. Get a Ph.D. Do not stop at a master's. Even though my degree has served me well, the profession is set up for Ph.D.'s. The other thing I would tell students is that psychology is a fantastic career because there are so many things you can do with your doctorate in psych. There is no shortage of work in our field. What additional advice would you give to prospective students considering a career in psychology? Every class matters. All your grades matter. Taking things seriously and devoting time to reading and studying is essential, not optional. Go to office hours and really get to know your professors. Ask questions in class. Engage with others. Keep an open mind -- remember that your perspective is only one of billions. You do not have to know exactly what field of psychology you're going to pursue when you start college. You will have a couple years to sort that out. I would encourage all students in psychology to know two things: 1. How to establish and maintain appropriate personal boundaries. If you don't have them, you will burn out. 2. You must engage in self-care. Deal with the thing staring back at you in the mirror before you try to help others. After earning a master's degree in psychology, you can work in a wide variety of industries. Our career guide will help you better understand the full scope of your professional opportunities. Psychology Career Guide What Can I Expect in a Master's in Psychology Program? Master's in psychology programs vary greatly due to numerous specializations within the field. The following list describes a few of the concentrations found in different master's programs. Concentrations Offered for a Master's Degree in Psychology. Educational Psychology An educational psychology concentration prepares students to work in school settings with children and adolescents. Coursework focuses on human development throughout early stages of life, as well as the forces that motivate or hinder learning. Research Students who select a research concentration take classes and labs on different statistical skills, methodologies, and experimental designs. This concentration is geared to those who wish to earn their Ph.D. and stay in academia, or who want to conduct independent research for companies or governmental agencies. Clinical Psychology Clinical psychology students learn how to test, diagnose, and treat patients struggling with psychological conditions. Coursework in this concentration covers areas such as ethical principles, intervention strategies, and social drivers of behavior. Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience Here, students learn about the underlying biological processes that affect decision-making, memory, perception, and cognition. The curriculum focuses on brain structure, its neural mechanisms, and the effects of aging. Industrial-Organizational Psychology Companies and organizations may hire psychologists to help them understand the motivations, actions, and behaviors that fuel employee conflicts. An industrial and organizational psychology concentration prepares students to apply their knowledge in the workplace to examine elements like leadership and personnel selection. Curriculum for a Master's Degree in Social Work. Master's programs in psychology comprise a wide array of courses, depending on the concentrations offered and professors' areas of expertise. Some schools design their programs with a research-based, clinical focus, while others deliver a curriculum grounded in psychological theory. Five commonly offered courses are described below. Social Psychology Learners in a social psychology course discover how societal factors affect human thought processes and behaviors. This course covers concepts like interpersonal attraction, altruism, antisocial behavior, social norms, and conformity. Students also learn how social conditions create, reinforce, or challenge stereotyping and prejudice. Developmental Psychology In this course, students learn how the human brain, cognitive processes, and behaviors develop throughout childhood and adolescence into late adulthood. Learners may also delve into physical, social, and emotional factors that affect development. Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary psychology examines the processes that have shaped the way humans think and interact with one another. This course reviews how ancestral behaviors have led to practices such as parental nurturance or neglect, sexual jealousy, aggression, and courting and mating strategies. Research Methods As with any science, psychology involves experimentation, and most schools require at least one research methods course. Students train in using the scientific method for clinical or market research, exploring experimental and correlational designs and concepts like reliability and validity. Theories of Personality This course covers current research and theories concerning personality development. Learners study topic areas such as self-esteem, biological determinants, abnormal development, and anxiety. Students examine these constructs through cognitive, psychoanalytic, and humanistic perspectives. How to Choose a Master's in Psychology Program. In choosing a master's in psychology program, you should examine multiple factors, including program costs, opportunities to learn and network with other professionals in the field, and accreditation. The price tag for any psychology master's program includes not only tuition expenses but also textbooks, technology fees, laboratory fees, matriculation fees, and even parking fees if you live off campus. The total can add up to an amount larger than you might expect. Some schools offer scholarships, grants, assistantships, and other financial awards that may help offset the bill. Other factors that may affect your decision include how quickly you wish to earn your degree, the cost of living in a certain area, and whether a program offers concentrations. Psychology master's degree programs often require students to conduct original research or offer opportunities to work on faculty projects. Research experience is usually an admission requirement for doctoral programs in psychology. You should also check each master's in psychology program for accreditation. Since many students who earn master's degrees go on to pursue doctoral degrees, graduating from an accredited program ensures that your degree will be accepted at other schools. Other factors that may affect your decision include how quickly you wish to earn your degree, the cost of living in a certain area, and whether a program offers concentrations. Master's in Psychology Admission Requirements. In general, you should apply to schools that offer coursework or a specialization that matches your career goals. Choosing and applying to only one college can be risky -- if you are denied admission, you must start the process over again. At the same time, applying to multiple schools decreases the amount of time you invest in each school's process, and the quality of your applications may suffer. In general, apply to at least two or three schools but no more than seven. Prerequisites. Bachelor's Degree: Schools that offer master's programs in psychology expect you to have a bachelor's degree, with most requiring a bachelor's in psychology. Professional Experience: Master's in psychology programs typically do not require you to have professional experience before you apply; however, spending some time working in the field strengthens your application and resume. Minimum GPA: Most schools require you to have at least a cumulative undergraduate GPA of 3.0. Some schools may provide exceptions for students with strong GRE scores, a compelling personal statement, or professional experience. Admission Materials. Application Schools usually ask you to fill out an online application that includes biographical information, educational history, and work experience. Transcripts Graduate schools request transcripts for any prior undergraduate coursework. You can obtain these transcripts from the registrar's office of your undergraduate college for a small fee. Letters of Recommendation Master's programs often require two or three letters of recommendation. These letters should come from people of authority who can positively describe your work ethic and suitability for graduate work. Test Scores Some master's programs require you to submit GRE scores with your application. If your undergraduate grades are not quite up to par, you may want to submit your GRE scores even if they are not mandatory. Application Fee Most schools have an application fee, typically around $50. Sometimes schools waive this requirement if you demonstrate financial need. Call the admissions departments at your potential schools to see if you can bypass the application fee. Programmatic Accreditation for Master's in Psychology Programs. Since many people who earn master's degrees go on to pursue doctoral degrees, graduating from an accredited program ensures that your degree will help qualify you for admission to other schools. Accreditation agencies visit schools and evaluate coursework and professors to ensure they meet set standards of quality. If you wish to pursue a Ph.D. and become a clinical psychologist, be aware that many doctoral programs do not recognize degrees from unaccredited schools. The U.S. Department of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation provide fully online lists of regionally and nationally accredited colleges. Programmatic accreditation refers to an accrediting body that focuses on one particular area of study and accredits programs only in that academic area. Students should look for psychology programs accredited by the American Psychological Association Commission on Accreditation or the Masters in Psychology and Counseling Accreditation Council. The class action lawsuit alleges that some of these schools did not admit students on a fully need-blind basis, which was required by law. Online certificate in sonography programs can offer a pathway to a lucrative career. Learn more about the best certificate programs in sonography. Kinesiology studies the mechanics of human movement and how exercise, stress reduction, and mobility can impact overall health and well-being. A bachelor's degree in kinesiology prepares students to work as exercise physiologists, athletic trainers, and recreational therapists. A bachelor's in kinesiology (sometimes called an exercise science program) typically takes 3-4 years to complete. Degree programs […] BestColleges.com is an advertising-supported site. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. This compensation does not influence our school rankings, resource guides, or other editorially-independent information published on this site. Compare your school options. View the most relevant school for your interests and compare them by tuition, programs, acceptance rate, and other factors important to find your college home.
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Result 13
TitleApplying to Graduate School | Department of Psychology
Urlhttps://psychology.unt.edu/undergraduate/applying-graduate-school
Description
Date
Organic Position10
H1Department of Psychology
H2
H3Thinking of applying to grad school?
How to decide on a program to apply for
Considerations for applying to a program
Frequently asked questions
H2WithAnchors
BodyDepartment of Psychology Home Undergraduate Applying to Graduate School Applying to Graduate School Thinking of applying to grad school? Graduate education can lead to stimulating opportunities to expand one's knowledge and skills, and ultimately to a higher-paying job.The US News and World Report reported that employment opportunities for Ph.D. psychologists are growing. Unemployment among individuals with a new Ph.D. in psychology has been reported by APA as being about 3%, with overall unemployment for all individuals with a Ph.D. in psychology being 1%. However, graduate education is usually far more demanding than undergraduate education, and it may be frustrating to continue to be a student for several years after other people your age have already started their careers. Ultimately, the decision about going to graduate school depends on your own assessment of your resources, both personal and financial, and on your career goals. The best starting place is the APA publication entitled Applying to Graduate School. You can also write for more information to those programs that sound interesting or visit the programs' websites (e.g., https://psychology.unt.edu/graduate-programs). How to decide on a program to apply for. Master's degree in psychology: a graduate-level degree generally involving 2 to 3 years of study after you complete your undergraduate (bachelor's) degree. The two most common types of psychology master's degrees are the Master of Arts (M.A.) and the Master of Science (M.S.). Many individuals with master's degrees have good jobs and satisfying careers. In psychology, the job prospects and salaries are not as good overall for individuals with master's degrees as they are for individuals with a Ph.D. There are two reasons to attend a master's degree program in psychology To earn a degree leading to a job Enhance one's prospects of being admitted to a Ph.D. program. Three cautions about programs that award master's degrees There is a wide variety in the quality of master's degree programs in psychology, Having a master's degree may not be an advantage in applying to Ph.D. programs If you earn a master's degree from one university, you may not be able to transfer much academic credit to a Ph.D. program at another university. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in psychology: the highest level of graduate degree in the field, usually taking up to 5 to 7 years. PhD psychology programs are plentiful, but also fairly competitive, with more rigorous admission criteria. Because of the strong focus on research, they're ideal for students not only interested in clinical practice but also in academia and research. PhD psychology programs also provide valuable training for those who want to practice psychology in clinical settings. Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) degree in psychology: degree was introduced in the 1970s as an alternative for students who were less interested in conducting ongoing psychological research and more interested in providing psychological services to patients and the public. The focus of this program is to train students to engage in careers that apply scientific knowledge of psychology and deliver empirically based service to individuals, groups, and organizations. It usually takes 4 to 6 years to complete. If you are wanting to seek an academic or research career, it would be best to apply for a PhD. One disadvantage, compared to PhD, is that the ratio of students to faculty is much higher than it is in graduate programs at universities. Considerations for applying to a program. Read pages 33-35 in the Undergraduate Manual for information on the components needed for applying to a graduate program. Timetable for Applying after Undergraduate Studies If you intend to go to graduate school right after you finish your undergraduate, here's a rough timetable for preparing your applications Spring semester of sophomore year or fall semester of junior year: Talk to the Career Center or the psychology advisor about what graduate program you are interested in and get help on getting an internship. Apply to be an undergraduate research assistant Speak with your faculty advisor about preparing your resume/CV for your application Begin studying for the GRE Summer before senior year: Make a list of the schools and programs you would like to apply to Start writing your personal statement It is highly suggested that students visit the Career Center or Writing Center for assistance Studying for the GRE (costs $205 to take) Click here to view options and costs of study material https://www.bestcolleges.com/blog/best-gre-prep-books/ Email schools you are interested in for information about their program Ask your professors for a letter of recommendation It is important for students to begin developing and fostering a good relationship with a professor that includes interactions in and outside of the classroom, such as office hour visits, etc. Teachers often have trouble writing good letters because of a lack of rapport with students. It would also be helpful for students to take 2 or more classes with potential letter writers. Additionally, employers and volunteer supervisors make wonderful letter writers since graduate programs want to know about the student's work ethic. Fall semester of senior year: Take the GRE around September so that if you need to take it again you will have time by the typical Dec.1 deadline Complete your applications and send them off (for Ph.D. programs they are typically due at the beginning of December, and master's programs vary). Keep in mind that graduate programs all require application fees that can range from $50 - $75 Click on this link (https://www.gradschools.com/get-informed/application-fee-waivers-graduate-students) to learn more about how you can possibly waive some application fees (this may not always be guaranteed) Here are some helpful links about applying to graduate school How to Get Into a PhD Program in Clinical or Counseling Psychology So You're Interested in Grad School? Graduate School For Psychology Majors Frequently asked questions . What undergraduate classes should be taken to prepare for graduate school? Most psychology departments have requirements that guarantee that their undergraduate majors are prepared for graduate school. Whether you major in psychology or not, courses in statistics and research methods are essential (i.e., PSYC 2317, PSYC 3650). It is also wise to select undergraduate courses so that you are knowledgeable about several of the fundamental areas of psychology (cognitive, developmental, personality, physiological, and social) and about the specific area in which you want to do graduate work. For example, if you want to attend a graduate program in clinical psychology, you should take an undergraduate course in abnormal psychology and you might also want to take an additional undergraduate course in some area such as interviewing, counseling, or tests and measures. Should I obtain research experience? If so, when should I start? Research experience is an important key to getting in to a graduate program. This will impress many graduate programs. Graduate programs that emphasize experimental research will favor an applicant who has been involved in research. For admission to Ph.D. programs, students should plan to become involved in research as undergraduates, ideally by the start of their junior year. Working on a research project with a faculty member while you are an undergraduate student has several advantages. You gain a much better idea of what psychological research is all about, while also demonstrating your interest and motivation in doing research. If this work goes well, you have a faculty member who can advise you about applying to graduate school and can write a strong letter of recommendation for you. Students who wait to begin their involvement in research until their senior year will have begun that work only a few months before they are applying for graduate programs and asking for letters of recommendation. I'm already a senior and have no research experience, is graduate school even an option anymore?Though it is ideal to have a bunch of research experience, it is not impossible to be accepted without as much. Do your best to start working in a lab and get to know faculty to write you letters. You might also consider taking a year after you graduate to gain more experience. Is it a good idea to take time off before graduate school? Taking time off can give you the opportunity to better define your career goals or to acquire experiences, either in research or in community service, that will enhance your chances of being admitted to a graduate program. However, in making a choice about this issue, consider what is best for you, not what someone else thinks you should do. How many schools should you apply to? There is no simple, easy answer to this question. For many students, the correct answer is probably some number between 5 and 15. For example, the average applicant in PhD clinical psychology applies to around 13 programs. Instead of being concerned about the exact number of programs to apply to, consider carefully how competitive the programs are that you are applying to, how strong or weak your credentials are, and how much time, money, and effort you realistically can put into the application process. There may be circumstances that dictate a special answer to this question. If you are wanting to stay around family or close others you may want to only apply to programs near the area where you live. The exact number of schools that you apply to is far less important than selecting appropriate schools to apply to. Follow these rules Only apply to graduate programs that you know offer the type of training you want and that you are seriously interested in attending. For example, if you would despise living in a big city on the East Coast, do not apply to graduate programs there. Apply to graduate programs where the students have about the same level of grades and GRE scores that you do. Be cautious about applying to programs that are a "long shot" for you. In other words, if your Verbal GRE score is 450, avoid applying to programs where the average Verbal GRE score is 650 (2 standard deviations higher). If you are applying to graduate programs that receive a large number of well-qualified applicants, you should probably apply to at least 10 programs. I fear my grades/test scores/research experience may not be adequate. What should I do?While graduate school is competitive, you do not need to be perfect in every area; use your personal statement to explain weaknesses and emphasize strength, and look into schools with faculty who share your interests. You can also consider applying to a masters program rather than, or in addition to, doctoral programs as they are often less competitive. Thinking about UNT? It's easy to apply online. Join us and discover why we're the choice of over 42,000 students. Apply now
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Result 14
TitleTexas Psychology Licensure Requirements
Urlhttps://www.psychologydegree411.com/licensure/texas/
DescriptionLearn about the requirements for becoming a psychologist in Texas including testing, education, and experience requirements
Date
Organic Position11
H1Texas Psychology Licensure Requirements
H2Three Steps to Becoming a Psychologist in Texas
Texas Psychologist Licensing Process
Texas Licensure by Endorsement
Licensed Psychological Associate
Licensing Renewal and Continuing Professional Education Information
Texas Psychology Jobs and Salary Information
Frequently Asked Questions
Additional Resources
H31. Earn a bachelor’s degree and a master’s degree in psychology
2. Earn a PsyD or PhD in Psychology
3. Get licensed to practice psychology in Texas
1. Pass the Texas psychology licensing exams
2. Apply to become a provisionally licensed psychologist
3. Gain two years of supervised professional experience (SPE) in your area of training
4. Submit your licensed psychologist application to the Board
H2WithAnchorsThree Steps to Becoming a Psychologist in Texas
Texas Psychologist Licensing Process
Texas Licensure by Endorsement
Licensed Psychological Associate
Licensing Renewal and Continuing Professional Education Information
Texas Psychology Jobs and Salary Information
Frequently Asked Questions
Additional Resources
BodyTexas Psychology Licensure RequirementsTexas Psychology SchoolsAs you consider a career in psychology, the most important place for you to begin is with the Texas State Board of Examiners of Psychologists. Their site provides an explanation of the process to obtain your license–including information on required education, experience, examination, and application for licensure. In Texas, there are four different license options, each with its own path and requirements. Deciding which option is right for you, and how to navigate the path to licensure, can be tricky. This guide will help clarify that process, and answer the following questions:» How do I become a psychologist in Texas? » I have earned a PhD or PsyD and I am ready to learn how to get a psychologist license in Texas. » What are Texas’s supervised professional experience rules and regulations? » What psychology exams are required in Texas? » I am already a licensed psychologist in another state; how do I become licensed in Texas by endorsement? » Can I become licensed in Texas with only a master’s degree? » How do I renew my psychology license in Texas? » How much do psychologists in Texas make?Three Steps to Becoming a Psychologist in Texas. The path to licensure in the state of Texas can be challenging, but you do not have to face it alone. The process can be broken into three major steps: earning a bachelor’s and optional master’s in psychology, earning a doctorate in psychology, and meeting education and testing requirements. There are many psychology schools in Texas that offer programs to prepare you for this process. In the following section, we’ll describe the three major steps to becoming a psychologist in the state.1. Earn a bachelor’s degree and a master’s degree in psychology.The first step on the road to becoming a licensed psychologist in the state of Texas is to complete your education. This will begin with a bachelor’s degree, usually followed by a master’s degree. Typically, the process to obtain a bachelor’s degree takes about four years and consists of around 120 credit hours. Obtaining a master’s in psychology is significantly shorter–only about 60-70 hours, depending on the university and specialization.Choosing your major in your bachelor’s program is important. While not all master’s programs require you to have majored in psychology, earning your bachelor’s in psychology from an accredited university is the best way to set yourself up for success in a master’s program if you already know that you want to be a psychologist. This may be a BS (Bachelor of Science) or BA (Bachelor of Arts) in psychology, depending on the university you attend; either will be acceptable when applying for your master’s program.If you did major in something other than psychology for your bachelor’s, you may need to fulfill some prerequisite courses before applying to a master’s program. For example, some may require that you complete one or two statistics courses before admission.For licensure purposes, the state of Texas requires that your graduate program consist of at least 60 credit hours, no more than 12 of which can be internship or practicum-related; so, it’s important to review program details carefully as you apply for your master’s. If you attend your graduate program full-time, you may finish in as little as two years.It’s worth noting that some universities offer not only stand-alone master’s programs, but also programs in which you can complete both a master’s and doctoral degree (PhD or PsyD) in the same program, rather than completing them individually; this option is described more in the next step.2. Earn a PsyD or PhD in Psychology.Next, you will need to obtain a doctorate degree, which may be a PsyD (Doctor of Psychology) or PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) in Psychology. For information on the differences between the two doctoral degree types, see the American Psychological Association’s explanation. The time it takes to earn a doctorate is a highly variable process, depending on other life commitments as well as specialization options and pre-doctoral experience, but most can be completed in four to six years. Note aspiring school psychologists in Texas must complete a school psychology program approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) or the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP).Again, review program details carefully when applying for a doctoral program. For licensure, the state of Texas requires that you not only earn a doctorate consisting of at least 60 credit hours, but that you complete at least 1,750 hours of work in a supervised internship before earning your degree.As discussed, some universities offer the option to obtain your master’s and doctoral degrees as part of the same program. This option has many advantages; among them, most useful may be cutting out the application process between degrees. If master’s programs are competitive, doctoral programs can be doubly so. In fact, the application process, itself, may take a year or more, as often schools have interviewing processes similar to workplaces on top of the actual application itself. In short, finding a single program where you can complete both degrees is an option worth considerable thought.For more information on pursuing a doctoral degree in psychology, see our Psychology Schools in Texas page.3. Get licensed to practice psychology in Texas.Earning that final degree may feel like a mountain of work; enrolling in school full-time for what could be a decade or more is certainly a weighty decision. However, once complete, the licensure process can finally begin, and, soon, the rewarding career you’ve worked toward.Texas Psychologist Licensing Process. 1. Pass the Texas psychology licensing exams.There are two mandatory exams to pass in order to obtain licensure in psychology: the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP) and the Jurisprudence Examination. The Jurisprudence Exam costs $243, while the EPPP costs $600. You must pass both exams in order to be considered for licensure in Texas. Note school psychologists must pass the National School Psychology Examination rather than the EPPP.2. Apply to become a provisionally licensed psychologist.In Texas, before you can be a licensed psychologist, you must apply to be a provisionally licensed psychologist. Provisionally licensed psychologists must practice under the supervision of a psychologist, so during this time, you can complete the supervised professional experience required by the Board to become a full psychologist. The application is $340, plus a one-time fee of $75 to use PLUS, and you will need to submit two passport photos, official transcripts, and a criminal history record check along with your application.3. Gain two years of supervised professional experience (SPE) in your area of training.To obtain licensure in Texas, you must first complete at least 3,500 work hours in a supervised internship setting. Half of these hours (1,750) can be completed as part of a formal internship while earning your doctorate, while at least the other half must be completed after you’ve obtained your doctoral degree. This training is called Supervised Professional Experience (SPE). It usually takes two years to complete this experience if you work full-time. Note school psychologists in Texas must complete a formal internship of 1,200 hours or more, and 600 of those must be in a public school.4. Submit your licensed psychologist application to the Board.Once you’ve completed the above steps, you’re ready to apply to become a full licensed psychologist. In Texas, you apply for licensure online using a program called PLUS: Psychology Licensure Universal System. First, you’ll complete the application. Once you’ve completed the application, you will register on the PSYPRO website and submit your application, along with required fees. The application fee is $180. It takes about six weeks to process applications, but you can check on progress at any time through the PLUS system.Texas Licensure by Endorsement. If you’ve already obtained your licensure in another state, don’t worry–there’s no need to start over. There is a shorter path to obtaining licensure in Texas for those who have it in another state. However, there are a few rules. To obtain licensure in Texas through reciprocity, you must have proof that you’re “actively licensed and in good standing” in another state. On a related note, you’ll need proof that you have no past or pending disciplinary action against you in any other state. Finally, the licensure you obtained in another state has to have included 3,000 hours of SPE. Half of this experience should have been earned before graduation, and the other half can be completed after graduating with your doctoral degree. You still must become a provisionally licensed psychologist first and follow the same steps above, aside from the different requirement of SPE hours.FIND SCHOOLSLicensed Psychological Associate. If you are not ready to become a fully-licensed psychologist in Texas, another option is to become a licensed psychological associate ($190 application fee). Only a master’s degree in psychology is required to become an associate, but you must still pass the EPPP and the Jurisprudence Exam. In addition, you must have at least six semester credit hours of supervised practicum experience or an internship. As a licensed psychological associate, you can also apply for independent practice once you have obtained 3,000 hours of post-graduate supervised experience (within a 24-48-month period). There is no fee to apply for independent practice.Licensing Renewal and Continuing Professional Education Information. Once you’ve obtained your license, retaining it requires some maintenance. Each year, you will need to complete a minimum of 20 hours of professional development or CPE that are directly related to psychology practice. In addition, three out of the 20 required hours must be in ethics, Board Rules of Conduct, or professional responsibility and three hours must be in cultural diversity. At least 10 of the 20 hours must be obtained from or endorsed by a Board-approved provider. Hours over 20 cannot be rolled over to the next year. To renew, you can either register an account with the online renewal system or by mailing the paper Renewal Form before the expiration date of your license.Texas Psychology Jobs and Salary Information. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), excluding educators, psychologists in Texas (clinical, counseling, and school psychologists and “all other” psychologists) earn an average of $80,705 per year, while postsecondary psychology teachers earn an average of $74,700 per year.1 In terms of the number of psychologists in the state, there are 6,250 clinical, counseling, and school psychologists, 3,190 postsecondary psychology teachers, and 670 in the “all other” psychologist category.1 No employment projections are available for the state of Texas, but nationwide, positive growth is expected in all psychology jobs, with the fastest growth over the 10-year period between 2016 and 2026 being for postsecondary psychology teachers (15.1% growth) with clinical, counseling, and school psychologists following closely behind at 14.2% growth over the same period.2 The average growth expected for all psychologists in the United States (including the “all other” category and industrial-organizational psychologists) is 11.4% through 2026.OccupationNumber EmployedAverage Annual SalaryClinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists6,250$70,060Industrial-Organizational PsychologistsN/AN/APsychologists, All Other670$91,350Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary3,190$74,700Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics as of May 2017.1 Statistics for your locale may vary within this state.Frequently Asked Questions. How long does it take to become a psychologist in Texas?Becoming a psychologist in Texas can take a long time, but with high salaries and fast growth expected for the field, devoting the time to pursue your psychology license in Texas can pay off. If you are interested in being a psychologist, expect to go to school for a total of six to eight years until you obtain your doctoral degree, if you go full-time without taking much time off between degree programs. Then, once you’ve completed your schooling, you will begin the actual licensing process, which includes gaining experience, taking tests, and waiting for your application to go through. All in all, you should expect it to take a total of eight to 10 years to become a psychologist in Texas.What degree do I need to be a licensed psychologist in Texas?For Texas licensure as a psychologist, you will need a doctoral degree. If you want to become a licensed psychological associate, you can get licensed with a master’s degree.How much do psychologists in Texas make?Psychologists in Texas earn a good average salary. According to the BLS, the highest paid psychologists in the state are in the “all other” category, and they earn $91,350 per year.1 The second-highest paid psychologists work as postsecondary psychology teachers earning $74,700.1 Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists follow close behind, earning an average of $70,060 per year.1FIND SCHOOLSAdditional Resources. Texas Psychological Association (TPA) – With a membership of over 1,500 psychologists and grad students, the TPA fights for people in the field to be able to practice effectively.Texas Association of School Psychologists (TASP) – Members receive discounted rates to the annual convention, access to a newsletter, and networking opportunities.Texas State Board of Examiners of Psychologists – Regulates the licensing of psychologists in the state of Texas.American Psychological Association (APA) – The national organization for prospective and current psychologists in the United States.References: 1. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics, May 2017 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates, Texas: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_tx.htm 2. Projections Central, Long Term Occupational Projections (2016-2026): https://www.projectionscentral.org/Projections/LongTerm
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Result 15
TitleHow to Become a Psychologist: Step-by-Step Walkthrough
Urlhttps://www.publicservicedegrees.org/how-to-become/psychologist/
DescriptionLearn step-by-step what it takes to become a licensed psychologist, from degree requirements for each specialization to state licensing and certification info
DateStep 5: Pick Your Specialization and Pursue Graduate-Level Studies
Organic Position12
H1Step-by-Step Guide to Becoming a Psychologist
H2FAQs About Becoming a Psychologist
Make Sure Becoming a Psychologist Is Really for You
Explore Psychology Specializations and Map Out Your Degree Path
Apply for Scholarships and Other Financial Aid
Earn Your Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology or a Related Field
Pick Your Specialization and Pursue Graduate-Level Studies
Get Licensed in Your State
Consider Becoming Professionally Certified
Find Standout Job Opportunities and Apply
Maintain License & Certification Through Continuing Education
H3Research State Licensing Regulations
Complete Post-Doctoral Supervised Fieldwork
Pass National Exams
Meet Other Requirements
H2WithAnchorsFAQs About Becoming a Psychologist
Make Sure Becoming a Psychologist Is Really for You
Explore Psychology Specializations and Map Out Your Degree Path
Apply for Scholarships and Other Financial Aid
Earn Your Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology or a Related Field
Pick Your Specialization and Pursue Graduate-Level Studies
Get Licensed in Your State
Consider Becoming Professionally Certified
Find Standout Job Opportunities and Apply
Maintain License & Certification Through Continuing Education
BodyStep-by-Step Guide to Becoming a Psychologist Search Degrees Sponsoredpublicservicedegrees.org is supported in part by advertisements. Featured programs and school matching are for institutions that compensate us. This compensation will never influence our school rankings, in-depth guidebooks, or any other information or resources published on this site. From college education requirements to choosing a specialization and getting your license, follow these key steps to become a professional psychologist. Last Updated: 08/14/2020 Related Pages Online Psychology DegreesOnline PhD Programs in PsychologyOnline PsyD Programs More than 181,000 psychologists practiced in the U.S. as of 2018, with numbers projected to rise by 14% over the coming decade. Becoming a psychologist takes years of education, focus and determination, but earning your license and getting to help others every day often makes the process more than worth it. If you’ve thought about becoming a psychologist but don’t know where to begin – or exactly what the journey entails – you’re in the right place. Here you can learn step-by-step what it takes, from starting your undergraduate degree and choosing a psychology specialization to earning your state license. Programs that might interest you: Southern New Hampshire UniversityPROGRAM: BA – Psychology Visit Site Earn your online bachelor’s degree in psychology in one of six career-ready specializations. Transfer up to 90 credits toward your degree and enjoy 24/7 access to the online classroom. No SAT or ACT scores required for admission. Get started now. Sponsoredpublicservicedegrees.org is supported in part by advertisements. Featured programs and school matching are for institutions that compensate us. This compensation will never influence our school rankings, in-depth guidebooks, or any other information or resources published on this site. FAQs About Becoming a Psychologist. How long does it take to become a psychologist? Figuring out how long it takes to become a psychologist depends heavily on the type of psychologist you want to become. Many psychologist positions require a PhD or PsyD degree along with a post-doctoral fellowship. Others require only a master’s degree. The following table gives you an idea of how long some popular psychology pathways take but remember that these are general guidelines. Actual timelines depend on you, the degree program you choose, and individual state licensing requirements. College EducationPost-Degree Supervised Work ExperienceETA to Career StartClinical Psychologist8-12 years1-2 years9-14 yearsCounseling Psychologist8-12 years1-2 years9-14 yearsForensic Psychologist8-12 years1 year9-13 yearsIndustrial-Organizational Psychologist6 years0-1 years6-7 yearsSchool Psychologist5-6 years1 year6-7 years What qualifications do you need to become a psychologist? Required qualifications vary based on individual fields of psychology and state-specific licensing requirements. All major psychologist careers require a master’s or Education Specialist degree at minimum, but the majority also require a doctoral-level degree and a significant amount of supervised work experience. Keep this in mind when deciding which path works with your personal, professional, and academic goals. Some positions also mandate professional certification, while in others it’s highly recommended. States typically require students to pass an examination before receiving their license, the most common being the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP). How much money does a psychologist make? . Psychologist salaries depend on several factors, including degree level, psychology specialization, amount of experience, location, and employer. The chart below provides a general sense of what to expect. 10th PercentileMedian National Annual Salary90th PercentileClinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists1$45,240$78,200$132,670Forensic Psychologists2$39,000$69,596$101,000Industrial-Organizational Psychologist1$51,080$92,880$197,700 Sources: 1. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 20192. PayScale, April 2020 Step 1 Make Sure Becoming a Psychologist Is Really for You. Becoming a psychologist takes a great amount of dedication and a willingness to sacrifice free time for years as you pursue the required degrees. It also requires a substantial financial commitment. Before moving any further, consider whether the work of a psychologist aligns with your interests and skills. We’ve provided a few questions to help you figure out if this is the best path for you. Do you enjoy school and learning enough to complete all of the degrees required to work as a psychologist?Do you enjoy conducting research and learning about new studies and data findings that can inform your work?Does the thought of maintaining an active client roster and working with many different types of people appeal to you?Can you see yourself in this position for a long time?Does the average salary meet your requirements for a profession? If you answered “yes” to most of the questions above, a career as a psychologist is likely a good choice for you. Step 2 Explore Psychology Specializations and Map Out Your Degree Path. Before starting college, taking time to research the available specializations within the psychology profession can help you determine the type of degree you’ll need and how long it will take to meet all requirements. The American Psychological Association officially recognizes 17 psychology specializations and three proficiencies. Here’s a closer look at some of the most popular specializations: Clinical Psychologist. Clinical psychologists treat people with moderate to serious psychological disorders, but their role in helping these individuals can range from direct psychotherapy to scientific research and consulting. Clinical psychologists can also choose to further specialize by treating specific populations like children or veterans. Clinical psychologists often work in research labs, universities, hospitals, mental health clinics, or in private practice. Clinical psychologists require a PhD or PsyD degree to become licensed. Best for… Individuals who want a broad range of professional pathways to help people with more serious mental health problems using a diagnostic approach. Example Degree Path Bachelor’s in Psychology Master’s in Clinical Psychology PsyD in Clinical Psychology Counseling Psychologist. Counseling psychologists focus on using their training and skills to help individuals cope with everyday issues as they arise, whether they stem from work, family life, or another source. For example, they may focus on helping clients build techniques around stress management or how to adjust to a big move to a new city where they don’t know anyone. Like clinical psychologists, you’ll need to earn a PsyD or PhD doctoral degree to legally practice. Best for… Professionals who like working with others in one-to-one and group settings. Example Degree Path Bachelor’s in Psychology Master’s in Counseling Psychology PsyD Counseling Psychology Forensic Psychologist. Forensic psychologists sit at the intersection of psychology and law. They use their skills within the court system to help jurors and judges make informed decisions. Common responsibilities include providing psychological assessments and explaining psychological concepts. To become a forensic psychologist, a doctoral degree is typically required. Best for… People who like solving problems and finding answers to complex questions. Example Degree Path Bachelor’s in Criminal Justice Master’s in Forensic Psychology PhD in Forensic Psychology School Psychologist. School psychologists often work in K-12 settings to help students address issues around behaviors, emotions, family situations, learning, and mental health. They help students learn how to handle difficult situations and build coping skills that can help them succeed in their personal and academic lives. They also work with teachers to build inclusive and safe learning spaces. An Education Specialist (EdS) degree is the minimum education required to become a school psychologist. Best for… Professionals who enjoy helping students navigate issues and reach their potential. Example Degree Path Bachelor’s in Educational Studies EdS in School Psychology Industrial-Organizational Psychologist. Industrial-organizational psychologists help companies of all types and sizes find ways of improving efficiency through the study of human behavior. By helping executives understand the motivations, expectations, and needs of their staff, they can work to improve professional environments. This, in turn, creates a more fulfilling work setting and can improve outcomes. Industrial-organizational psychologists typically need at least a master’s degree. Best for… People who want to help companies maximize efficiency and effectiveness. Example Degree Path Bachelor’s in Human Resources Management Master’s in Industrial-Organizational Psychology PhD in Organizational Psychology Step 3 Apply for Scholarships and Other Financial Aid. With the cost of college rising each year, and psychology education taking so long to complete, finding ways to cover tuition and fees is more important than ever. Take time to learn about various types of financial aid – including scholarships and student loan forgiveness programs By doing the research now, you may be able to avoid substantial student loan debt. Step 4 Earn Your Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology or a Related Field. Bachelor’s degrees in psychology and related studies serve as the foundation for your future career as a psychologist. While many students who know they want to work in this field begin their academic journey with an undergraduate psychology degree, it’s not required at this stage. If you want to work as a forensic psychologist, for instance, a criminal justice bachelor’s degree may best suit your needs. Alternatively, those who want to work as a school psychologist may consider an undergraduate degree related to education or teaching. Many bachelor’s degrees in psychology and related fields exist online, making them a great fit if you prioritize flexibility and accessibility. Aside from educational considerations, your undergraduate years also offer a great opportunity to job shadow practicing psychologists to figure out which psychology specialization appeals most. Learn about earning your bachelor’s degree in psychology online and find accredited programs Step 5 Pick Your Specialization and Pursue Graduate-Level Studies. After earning a bachelor’s degree, it’s time to pick your specialization and make important decisions about which graduate degree(s) will help you reach your goals. A few options exist, some of which we highlight in the following section. Master’s in Psychology. Master’s in psychology programs serve as a stepping stone on the path to becoming a psychologist, with many PhD and PsyD programs requiring learners to complete this level of training as a prerequisite. This is especially true if you want to work in clinical or counseling psychology roles. Master’s in psychology programs are offered both on-campus and online, typically require two years of full-time study, and begin introducing learners to some of the topics they will encounter at the doctoral level. Learn about online master’s degrees in psychology and explore top schools Education Specialist (EdS) in Psychology. If you want to work as a school psychologist, the educational specialist program is the most popular degree pathway. Some EdS programs require applicants to hold a master’s degree while others accept those with a bachelor’s degree. The amount of time taken to graduate depends on previous education, but you can usually finish requirements in one or two years of full-time study. Doctor of Psychology (PsyD). If you plan to work in a clinical setting providing direct treatment, the Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) path is the best doctoral degree option for you. This degree emphasizes studies in practical skills required in counseling and clinical roles as opposed to the PhD, which focuses more on research. Plan to spend between four and six years working towards degree requirements, including at least one year of an internship. Find out what it’s like to earn a PsyD online and see top-ranked programs PhD in Psychology. The PhD in psychology uses the scientist-practitioner model which focuses heavily on building research and data skills. If you want to work as a professor or advance the field of psychology through research findings, this program will likely best serve your needs. Most PhD programs take between five and seven years to complete. Because these programs tend to be more competitive and selective, you may find it easier to get funding than if working towards a PsyD qualification. Find the best online PhD programs of 2020 and see what you’ll study Graduate Internships & Practica. Both internships and practica provide you with the opportunity to build practical, hands-on skills that serve you well once in practice. Nearly all clinical-focused doctoral psychology programs include these (as they’re common prerequisites for state licensure) and some master’s programs offer them as electives. Requirements for internship tasks and hours vary based on the area of psychology and level of study but often require the intern or fellow to work under the eye of a licensed psychologist to complete assigned projects. According to the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internships Center, doctoral interns must complete a minimum of 1,500 hours. Accreditation. Finding a school that maintains institutional accreditation and a program that holds programmatic accreditation is an important part of the decision-making process, as failing to do so can impact your ability to transfer credits, qualify for licensure, and find work. The American Psychological Association only accredits doctorate and post-doc programs, but several specialization-specific accreditors exist, such as the National Association of School Psychologists. Step 6 Get Licensed in Your State. Any person who wants to legally call themselves a psychologist must first receive and maintain licensure, but rules and requirements around getting a license vary across states and specializations. Research State Licensing Regulations. Every state has different requirements, so it’s important to do your homework. For general information about psychologist licensure requirements in each state, the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards is a great resource. It’s also a good idea to confirm licensure requirements by contacting your state’s board of psychology. School psychologists and industrial-organizational psychologists should check with the National Association of School Psychologists and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, respectively. Complete Post-Doctoral Supervised Fieldwork. When looking for a post-doctoral supervised fieldwork position, it’s important to find one that meets all requirements. These should be accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) or Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) and require at least one year of full-time experience. These experiences vary from grad school internships in that you get to provide actual psychological services to real patients under the supervision of a licensed psychologist. Pass National Exams. As part of steps to licensure, the majority of states require you to pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP) examination. This exam covers the core tenets of psychology and determines your preparedness to practice independently. If you plan to become a school psychologist, you’ll instead likely need to take the Praxis School Psychologist Test to demonstrate your ability to work in this role. Meet Other Requirements. Outside of the exams listed above, some states may also require licensure candidates to take a jurisprudence examination or oral examination. These exams test graduates on their understanding of the laws and rules around psychology specific to their states. Step 7 Consider Becoming Professionally Certified. The American Board of Professional Psychology currently offers 15 different psychology specializations. Other organizations, such as the National Association of School Psychologists, offer additional credentialing pathways. Becoming certified helps psychologists stand out from their competition while also demonstrating advanced knowledge and competencies. Many employers prefer job seekers with board certification as well. While you don’t necessarily need to seek board certification directly after receiving licensure, it’s something to put on your to-do list. Step 8 Find Standout Job Opportunities and Apply. Now that you hold licensure, it’s time to find a meaningful job. Before launching yourself into the endless sea of job postings and applications, take time to fully consider your path. A few questions to ask yourself include: What does my ideal working day look like? What does work-life balance mean to me?If I could design the perfect job, what would that look like? Should I consider working for an organization or going into private practice?Have I spoken with my networking contacts from previous internships and field experiences to get their advice?What types of positions are currently open in my area? Do I want to stay where I currently live or would I consider moving? After identifying the type of job you want and finding suitable openings, it’s important to adequately prepare for the interview process. Tips for achieving success include: Reach out to your network and let them know if you used them as a reference so they can provide thoughtful answers.Tailor your resume to the needs of the employer and use buzzwords you find on their website.Learn as much as possible about the company before your interview.Answer interview questions in a way that speaks to both your experience and the ethos of the organization. Step 9 Maintain License & Certification Through Continuing Education. Requirements vary by state, but most mandate that psychologists renew their licenses every 2-5 years. To meet renewal requirements, psychologists must complete a certain number of continuing education credits. Contact your state board of psychology to learn about specifics in your area and review the American Psychological Association’s guidance on the topic.
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Result 16
TitlePathways to the Helping Professions: A Guide to Graduate Study | intranet.bloomu.edu
Urlhttps://intranet.bloomu.edu/psychology-pathways
Description
Date
Organic Position13
H1Pathways to the Helping Professions: A Guide to Graduate Study
H2Pathways to the Helping Professions: A Guide to Graduate Study
H3
H2WithAnchorsPathways to the Helping Professions: A Guide to Graduate Study
BodyPathways to the Helping Professions: A Guide to Graduate Study Pathways to the Helping Professions: A Guide to Graduate Study . Graduate Study, Careers in Clinical and Counseling Fields. Self-Examination: Finding My Pathway Where Do I Get the Money? Master’s or Doctorate? Licensure, Professions and Your Future Master’s-Level Mental Health Professions: Overview Master’s Programs and Careers in Clinical Social Work Master’s Programs and Careers in Professional Counseling Master’s Programs and Careers in Specialized Helping Fields Master’s Programs and Careers in School Counseling Programs and Careers in School Psychology Doctoral Programs and Careers in Clinical and Counseling Psychology What Courses Do I Take Now? Applying to Graduate Schools Timeline for Graduate School Planning and Applications Further Reading In this document, we provide information designed to help psychology majors at Bloomsburg University learn more about graduate training and careers in fields often termed helping professions (many of these are also termed mental health professions). These professions require a master’s or doctoral degree. After you have read this document and know about pathways to the helping professions in general, work with a Psychology Department faculty member for customized advice to fit your specific interests, strengths, limitations, and questions. Among the helping professions, clinical psychology and counseling psychology are dictirak-level professions that began as separate specialties but have almost merged in their career pathways (see more on this below). School psychology is mainly concerns testing and identifying limitations and strengths among students in K-12 education. Clinical social work, school counseling, mental health counseling, marital and family therapy), art therapy, and addictions counseling are examples of related fields outside psychology that offer training for helping professions. Many people who major in psychology as undergraduates go on to master’s degrees and then enter helping careers in these fields. The field of psychiatry requires a medical (M.D.) degree and further training, principally in the biomedical aspects of psychological disorders and medical treatments. Psychiatric nursing requires a degree in nursing, usually at the bachelor’s or master’s level, and may be focused on clinical mental health care. Occupational therapists and physician’s assistants also hold some positions in mental health settings, especially inpatient treatment units in hospitals. Few psychology majors pursue these fields, and they are not our focus here, but if you are interested in them, we encourage you to seek advice from Psychology Department faculty and from faculty in the Nursing or Biology departments. The field of psychoanalysis (practitioners of this field are termed psychoanalysts) requires a degree in one of the mental health professions, usually psychiatry, clinical psychology or clinical social work, plus advanced training in psychoanalytic treatment. Forensic psychology is a developing field within the wider field of forensic science, but the true nature of this work is almost never the criminal profiling portrayed on TV. Most psychologists doing forensics work are trained in clinical or counseling psychology, and work in criminal justice (chiefly correctional) settings. Most of the work involves pre-trial or post-trial psychological testing and assessment, followed by testimony in court or consultation with staff in correctional settings. Correctional settings also hire clinical, counseling and school psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and addictions counselors, for treatment of incarcerated persons. There are very few graduate programs in forensic psychology, but you can be trained in forensic applications in some clinical or counseling psychology, and obtain internship or other training in criminal justice settings. Career-Related Misconceptions Among Psychology Students. Many BU Psychology majors and minors have career plans that are clouded by one or more of misconceptions below. Read this section to avoid these, and talk with a Psychology Department faculty member if you have questions about these. Misconception: “Psychology and counseling are the same thing.” Actually, “psychology” and “counseling” are not the same thing. To be licensed in psychology, you must hold a doctoral degree in psychology, usually in clinical psychology, counseling psychology, or school psychology. In most states, you can also become a Licensed Professional Counselor (L.P.C.) with a master’s degree in mental health counseling or a related counseling field (not necessarily from a psychology program). This is not the same as a psychology license, and has more limited job prospects. (Note that some master’s programs in clinical or counseling psychology prepare their graduates for the master’s-level L.P.C. license, not for the doctoral-level psychology license.) Misconception: “Only psychologists provide psychotherapy to their clients.” In fact, clinical social workers, mental health counselors, marriage and family therapists, and psychiatrists, as well as clinical and counseling psychologists, perform psychotherapy with clients. “Psychotherapist” and “psychotherapy” refer to what a mental health professional often does, not to how that professional was trained, and not to what degree or license that professional holds. Misconception: “Psychology majors don’t go into social work, and social workers don’t do psychotherapy.” Actually, a master’s in social work (M.S.W.) degree can lead to the Licensed Clinical Social Worker (L.C.S.W.) license and to a career as a psychotherapist. Many graduates of M.S.W. programs perform psychotherapy as their principal professional role. This is an option that many psychology majors don’t know about. In fact, the profession of social work, with the L.C.S.W. license, has the best job prospects of any master’s-level helping profession, especially in mental health settings. Misconception: “Clinical Psychology deals mainly with persons with diagnosed mental disorders or illnesses, while Counseling Psychology deals mainly with ‘normal’ persons who need help.” This statement was once largely true, but is outdated in today’s helping professions job market. At both the doctoral and master’s levels of training and licensure, “clinical” and “counseling” have almost become synonyms (except in school counseling). Both clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists hold positions in hospitals, outpatient clinics, criminal justice settings, private practice, and college counseling centers. At the master’s level, mental health counselors (now often termed clinical mental health counselors) are trained in master’s programs in counseling, but most hold jobs in some part of the mental health system, where they provide “counseling” or “psychotherapy” to clients who have been diagnosed with some form of a mental or psychological disorder. Their work is very similar to that of clinical social workers. Misconception: “I want to be a counselor, and work with “normal” people, not persons with mental disorders.” Almost anyone who works as a counselor or psychotherapist in any part of the mental health or criminal justice systems, including in a private practice as a therapist, will be working primarily with persons who have a diagnosable mental or psychological disorder. Most clients will pay for psychotherapy through their private or government health insurance, and those insurers will insist that a client have a diagnosed mental disorder before they will pay for treatment. In part, this misconception is based on a misunderstanding of what a mental or psychological disorder involves. Many people, even some psychology majors, think of “mental disorders” as involving only the most serious mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and clinical depression. In fact, “mental disorders” also involve anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, personality disorders, eating disorders, and other forms of distress and dysfunction. It is also true that the “normal-abnormal” distinction is often false: a substantial proportion of the population has shown multiple symptoms of a mental disorder at some point in life, and persons with diagnosed mental disorders have many positive qualities and strengths. It is true that school counselors and counselors in college counseling centers do much of their work with persons who don’t have a diagnosed mental or psychological disorder. However, even these professionals must work often with children or adults who do have a diagnosed disorder, and counselors in college counseling centers need extensive training in diagnosing and treating mental disorders among students. Self-Examination: Finding My Pathway. Have you ever wondered if you are really a good match for graduate school and a career in a helping profession? If you haven’t, better do it now. Any helping profession requires a deep commitment to graduate study, and a continuing interest in other people’s problems. Most of these professions involve everyday frustrations with clients who fail (indeed, sometimes refuse) to change. They are not for those who like to see frequent, tangible results of their work. They require constantly being alert to emotions -- your own and those of others. However, the helping professions also offer rewards. For those who enjoy working with others while exploring feelings and working on problems, every workday offers intense involvement and rewards. Clients who really turn their lives around, and those who honestly confront real problems, offer a sense of accomplishment to the therapist. For holders of graduate degrees, working conditions are generally good, and a middle-class income is likely (although high pay is unusual). The following are some questions to ask yourself, and to reflect on throughout your education. Discuss them with friends and with at least one faculty member who knows you well. How clear are my concepts of the various helping professions -- clinical and counseling psychology, clinical social work, school psychology, and the various forms of counseling? Are my ideas accurate? Have I read about or talked with professionals in the professions I am considering? What images come to mind when I think about psychotherapy? Counseling? Psychological testing? Clinical social work? Are my images accurate? What is really involved? How can I find out about that? What are my dreams about my future professional accomplishments and activities? What values are most reflected in my dreams? Are these aspirations really mine? Are my dreams limited or directed by the opinions of my peers, family or professors? Are my dreams based on my fears about the job market? Do I prefer to work in a school? Community agency or clinic? Hospital? College/university? Private practice? Some other type of setting? Why? How much do I really know about these settings? How flexible am I about this? To what extent do I want to work directly with people as a counselor/helper, and to what extent do I want to work with schools, workplaces, community agencies, the criminal justice system, or other settings to improve the lives of individuals? Do I prefer to work with children? Adolescents? Adults? Older adults? A specific population, e.g., women, persons of a specific culture, victims of trauma, or some other population? Why? How much do I really know about this population? How flexible am I about this? If I want to work with persons experiencing the same problems that I have faced in the past, or face now, what can I offer those persons? How might this work be more emotionally draining for me than I imagine? How well do I understand my own emotions? The emotions of others? How much do I like to hear and think about the emotions of others? How much do I like to discuss emotions (my own and those of others)? How assertive am I in groups? With strangers? When I am expected to lead others? How much do I enjoy working with others? By myself? What might my answers to these questions tell me about a rewarding career for me? Do I function best in a structured situation, where my role and expectations for my performance are clear? Or do I prefer structuring my work with my own creativity and ideas? How much tolerance do I have for dealing with ambiguity in what the problem really involves? With difficulties in finding suitable ways to deal with a problem? At the end of a day, how much do I like to be able to point to tangible things I have accomplished that day? (A strong preference for structure, strong discomfort with ambiguities in personal problems, or a strong preference for tangible daily accomplishments, often suggest that a career in teaching or research will be more satisfying for you than a career in psychotherapy or counseling.) What courses have I enjoyed most in psychology? Outside psychology? What does that tell me about myself and my interests? Do I enjoy art, music, theatre, or a skill or hobby that might somehow be incorporated into my psychological helping work? What community service or volunteer experiences, jobs, or practicum placements have I enjoyed? What did I enjoy about them? What does that tell me about myself and my interests? In any helping profession, I can expect to work with clients who are members of populations that have been (and often still are) mistreated in U.S. society. These include women, persons of color, immigrants, lesbians and gay men, bisexual persons, people living on low incomes, people with little education, persons with physical and mental disabilities, and other groups. What are my experiences with these populations? How much do I know about their unique needs and strengths? How committed am I to learning how to work with persons in these populations in way that are truly helpful? What are my strengths for graduate study? For a career in a helping profession? 14. What are my limitations for graduate study? For a career in a helping profession? How well do I write? How much do I enjoy reading and analyzing research articles? Conducting research? Do I like to solve the puzzles that research seeks to solve? (The puzzle-solving that occurs in research also is a key element of clinical work. Even in a master’s or Psy.D. program in clinical or counseling psychology, you will be taking research courses, expected to evaluate research articles, and completing a scholarly thesis project. In many master’s programs, in all Ph.D. programs, and sometimes in Psy.D. programs, you will be conducting research.) In what kind of setting do I want to pursue a graduate degree? Large or small university? In a setting more culturally diverse than Bloomsburg? Geographic area? If I am in a serious personal relationship, is my significant other willing to relocate? (In general, your education for professional psychology and as a person will be richer in an environment that is different from your experiences up to now, including your years at Bloomsburg University.) How many years am I willing to spend in graduate school? Keep these thoughts in mind as you read the rest of this document. Discuss any of these issues, and any related questions that you have, with your advisor or other Psychology Department faculty member! Where Do I Get The Money? Many times we hear students say, “I can’t afford to go to graduate school, at least not now.” That assumption may be incorrect! Depending on the graduate degree and profession that you choose, financial aid may be available to you. The financial aid environment for graduate students is completely different than for undergraduates. Assignment of financial aid to most graduate students is largely controlled by the department or program, and less by the university office of financial aid. There is much less concern with documentation of personal or family income, and much more concern with academic performance and potential, and with potential for assisting with research or teaching. Most M.A. and Ph.D. psychology programs offer full or partial financial aid. This is usually an assistantship (part-time positions assisting a faculty member with research or teaching). It may be a scholarship, sometimes called a fellowship. Either an assistantship or fellowship may come with full or partial waiver of tuition; this means that all or part of your tuition cost is waived by the university. If you are accepted by one of these programs, the chances of financial aid (at least partial aid) are good. Almost all the B.U. students who have gone on to Ph.D. psychology programs, and most of those in master’s-level psychology programs, have been given financial aid. Unfortunately, this is usually not true of Psy.D. programs in psychology, or of master’s programs in clinical social work or in counseling. These programs usually admit larger numbers of students in an entering class, but are less likely to offer financial aid, other than loans. If you hope to obtain a doctorate in psychology, this is one of the important differences between Ph.D. and Psy.D. programs in clinical psychology (more on that topic later in this document). A recent American Psychological Association study of graduates from graduate psychology programs (master’s and doctoral level) showed that graduates of Psy.D. clinical programs had much greater debt levels than in other programs. Over 50% of Psy.D. graduates had debt levels over $100,000. Average debt levels were much lower among graduates of Ph.D. clinical and counseling programs, Ph.D. programs in other areas of psychology, and master’s level programs. A related study of financial aid in graduate programs in these psychology programs found that 43% of students in master’s psychology programs, 80-100% of students in Ph.D. psychology programs, but only 14-40% of students in Psy.D. programs, received assistantships or scholarships. Most students in Ph.D. programs received full support (including full tuition waiver), while less than 10% of students in Psy.D. programs received full support. Read a summary of this study at: http://www.apa.org/gradpsych/2010/01/funding-stats.aspx These findings apply only to psychology programs, but support what we say in general about size of entering student classes and likelihood of funding for students. We also often hear students say, “I hope to find a job with my B.A. degree, with a company that will pay for my graduate study.” Only some employers do this, and then only in specific circumstances that may not fit well with your plans. Employers who do this usually only pay for a master’s degree, not a doctorate. They usually reimburse tuition only for part-time graduate study, usually night classes after work. Thus finishing your degree takes extra years, and may interfere with family commitments if you have any. The employer reimbursement for graduate tuition may be only partial, not covering all your expenses. It may require that you stay with the company for a period of years after you finish the degree, thus making it difficult to leave a job you no longer like. And since the whole process can take years, the economic situation may worsen at any time, and the employer may stop offering the reimbursement, leaving you partly finished. However, we have known students who pursued this plan with employers who provided satisfying employment, and partial or full reimbursement for a master’s degree. We recommend that you decide on your career interests and aspirations first, then worry about the money. Learn about the different helping professions, the length of time needed to earn the academic degree for that field, and the jobs and activities that each profession offers. Learn about the specific graduate programs that you are interested in, and what financial aid they usually offer. Apply for financial aid when you apply for admission to a specific program, assertively mention your need for aid if you get an interview, and follow up all possibilities. Then wait to see if you are admitted, and what financial aid you are offered. However, if you think you may be interested in a Psy.D. program in clinical psychology, please understand this: you are likely to graduate with a very high level of student debt. Read about all the helping professions in this document. Consider alternatives to the Psy.D. that usually offer more financial aid or fewer years in graduate school: Ph.D. programs in clinical or counseling psychology, Ph.D. programs in other areas of psychology, or a master’s degree in clinical social work, which offers work similar to what Psy.D.’s do, and requires only two years of graduate school. Master's or Doctorate? For the helping professions, this choice is best made before finishing the bachelor’s degree. You can alter your career path later, but it may not be easy. See also our section in this document, “Where Do I Get the Money?”. In general, master’s-level study takes two years, sometimes three, and doctoral study (Ph.D. or Psy.D.) five years or more, including internships or other clinical training experiences. In the helping professions, doctoral programs require part-time practicum experiences leading up to a one-year internship. Master’s-level programs usually involve a one-semester internship or equivalent time in field placements. In school psychology programs (but not in other fields), there is a three-year option, the Educational Specialist (Ed.S.) degree, which involves a two-year master’s program plus an internship. The Ed.S. degree leads to a much stronger position in the school psychology job market than the master’s degree alone. You can apply to doctoral psychology programs directly, or get a master’s degree first and then apply to doctoral programs. If you obtain a master’s degree first, then go on to a separate doctoral program, count on a total of six years or more of graduate study. We will discuss specific pathways involving separate master’s and then doctoral degrees later in this document. Consider online programs only with extreme caution. Online doctoral programs in psychology are not accredited by the American Psychological Association, although programs that mix instruction and supervision on campus with some online components can be accredited. Other professional accrediting organizations may have similar requirements. Master’s-Level Training and Careers Don’t equate professional respect, self-respect, or job satisfaction with a doctorate in psychology. Many more B.U. Psychology graduates hold master’s degrees than doctorates. There are more positions open for persons with master’s degrees than for persons with doctorates. A master’s degree can be the educational ticket to a satisfying career providing psychotherapy, counseling, assessment, or other helping services, and making a positive impact on the lives of your clients. As a helping professional, you will have much more control over your own work, higher salary, more opportunities for advancement, and usually more job satisfaction, than in bachelor’s-level jobs in the human services. Most master’s-level programs in the helping professions require applicants to have an undergraduate GPA of 3.0, overall and also in required psychology courses. (See also our section in this document, “What Courses Do I Take Now?”.) Many master’s programs require or strongly recommend a Practicum or similar volunteer or job experience in a human service setting (not necessarily the same type of setting as where you would eventually like to work, but one involving working in a helping role). Master’s programs differ in whether they require applicants to report scores on the Graduate Record Exam (G.R.E.). Most psychology and counseling programs, even at the master’s level, require the G.R.E. Many social work programs, for instance, don’t require the G.R.E. Professions with master’s-level training include clinical social work, mental health counseling and related counseling fields, school counseling, and (usually with the additional Ed.S. degree) school psychology. You can become licensed as a clinical social worker or as a professional counselor, or certified as a school psychologist or school counselor. We give more details on duties and roles involved in each profession in later sections of this document. Doctoral-Level Training and Careers Salary, prestige, the range of employment options, opportunities for advancement, and the degree of control over your own work are greater with a doctorate. To be licensed as a psychologist, you must graduate from a doctoral program in psychology. However, admissions criteria and graduate study in doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology are much more rigorous than master’s programs. Some school psychology doctoral programs are not quite so competitive. In general, a student needs a GPA greater than 3.75, overall and in required psychology courses, a strong background in upper-level psychology courses, Independent Study research experience, letters of recommendation from Psychology Department faculty who know your academic performance well, and very high scores on the Graduate Record Exam (G.R.E.), to be considered (not necessarily admitted, just considered) for Ph.D or Psy.D programs in clinical or counseling psychology. Practicum or related job/volunteer experience is essential for Psy.D. programs, less important for Ph.D. programs. See also the section “What Courses Do I Take Now?” in this document. We have known a few exceptions to these generalizations, but we have known many more students who dreamed of a doctoral degree in clinical or counseling psychology, but whose grades and academic background simply wouldn’t gain admission to doctoral programs (in some cases, even after obtaining a master’s degree). Moreover, some Psy.D. programs with lower admissions standards don’t lead to satisfying clinical jobs. A doctoral degree is not the best pathway to a helping profession for everyone, and is not necessary for a satisfying career in the helping professions. When Can I Go to Graduate School? Many programs, especially master’s programs, will consider qualified students who are returning to school after having pursued work and/or family commitments, perhaps even for years, before applying to graduate programs. Some types of programs actually prefer applicants who have job experience after the B.A. degree, if it is related to a career plan that fits the program. In deciding whether to work for a period after your B.A. degree, usually the most important factors are yourself and your life commitments. Are you likely to benefit form working, then returning to school? Or would you be more likely to finish a graduate program by going ahead now? Do you have personal or family commitments to consider? Master’s programs are usually more willing than doctoral programs to consider part-time students. However, exceptions exist, and every program has its own policy on this issue. Making This Decision: Seek Advice In making this decision, consult with at least one Psychology Department faculty member, read up on program requirements, reflect on the Self-Examination questions that we posed above, and be realistic about your goals. See also our earlier section in this document, “Where Do I Get the Money?”, and the section below, “Licensure, Professions, and Your Future”. Licensure, Professions and Your Future. Licensure is related to the master’s – doctoral decision. A professional license in a helping profession greatly enhances employment options and salary. Most psychotherapy and counseling clients pay for treatment through their health insurance, and insurance companies will only reimburse professionals with a license. A license is required for a private practice in any of the helping professions. In any helping profession, a license requires an academic degree, additional supervised job experience, and passing a licensure test. Professional licenses are regulated by states, so requirements differ somewhat by state. In school psychology and school counseling, “certificate” and “certification” have much the same meaning and uses as “license” and “licensure”, but these certifications don’t allow you to open a private practice; that requires a license as a psychologist, clinical social worker, or professional counselor. Understand that the term “psychotherapist” refers to someone who conducts psychotherapy, whether that person is trained as a psychologist, psychiatrist, clinical social worker, or counselor. “Psychotherapist” thus describes a job, not the jobholder’s training or license. Licensure as a psychologist requires a doctoral degree in psychology. The person’s training may be in clinical psychology, counseling psychology, or school psychology. Professionals in all of these specialties are licensed simply as psychologists, not by specialty. School psychologists may also be certified by the National Association for School Psychology. This certification requires at least a master’s degree plus an Educational Specialist (Ed.S.) degree. It enhances employment prospects as a school psychologist, but does not substitute for licensure as a psychologist, and does not allow the school psychologist to open a private practice. State certification as a School Counselor requires a master’s degree in school counseling. Licensure as a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (L.C.S.W.) requires a master’s degree in social work (M.S.W.). This license allows a clinical social worker to conduct psychotherapy. The L.C.S.W is the most widely recognized master-level license in the master’s-level helping professions, and has the best prospects for employment and for being reimbursed by insurance companies. Licensure as Licensed Professional Counselor (L.P.C.) requires a master’s degree in counseling or in clinical or counseling psychology, if the graduate program meets L.P.C. standards. Job prospects, and recognition of the L.P.C. by insurance companies, are growing, but still are less than for the L.C.S.W. In Pennsylvania and some other states, you can obtain licensure as a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (L.M.F.T.). This license requires master’s-degree training. This is a different license than the L.P.C., and is solely for the practice of marital and family therapy. Job prospects, and recognition by insurance companies, are less than for the L.C.S.W. and L.P.C. licenses. With a master’s degree and supervised practice in art therapy, you are eligible for the national Art Therapist Registration (A.T.R.). This is not a state professional license, but it enhances your credibility as an art therapist. However, if you want to become an art therapist, the best pathway is to pursue training in both art therapy and another master’s-level helping profession such as social work or mental health counseling. Some states license or certify applied behavior analysts for work with a variety of populations. Those states often require the Board Certified Behavior Analyst (B.C.B.A.) national certificate. The most direct pathway to that certificate is a master’s or doctoral degree in applied behavior analysis or a closely related field. Pennsylvania does not license applied behavioral analysts, but does license Behavioral Specialists for work with individuals on the autism spectrum. This license requires a master’s degree that includes training in applied behavioral analysis and in autism spectrum disorders. In the field of treatment for addictions, many professionals hold a national Certificate in Addictions Counseling (C.A.C.). This is not in itself a state professional license, but it enhances your job prospects in this field. If you want to become a counselor or therapist for persons with addictions, the best pathway is to pursue training in a master’s-level helping profession such as social work or mental health counseling, and take specialized courses and field experiences in addictions treatment settings. Later sections in this document cover each of these fields in more depth, including more information on licensure as well as links to websites for each field. Cautionary Words About Private Practice Some students come to us very sure that they want someday to run their own private practice of psychotherapy or counseling. Some of our graduates have indeed finished a master’s or doctorate, become licensed as psychologists, clinical social workers, or professional counselors, and now have their own practices. However, private practice is not the only way to be a successful, happy psychotherapist. In the right circumstances, it has advantages: in one sense, you are your own boss, and have freedom to determine which and how many clients you will see. But there also disadvantages. You often are not your own boss. Most private practitioners today, and for the foreseeable future, basically work for the insurance companies that pay for their clients’ treatment. Those companies dictate the terms, length, and often even the methods of treatment, greatly limiting the freedom of the psychotherapist. Moreover, private practice does not necessarily offer a secure income, and it can be lonely work. We know clinical psychologists and other helping professionals in full-time private practice, and we know others who work in clinics, hospitals, university counseling centers, and other settings. Some of the latter have a small private practice as a sideline. Any of these settings can offer well-paid, satisfying work. Private practice is only one of the options, and not necessarily the best one for you. Master's-Level Mental Health Professions: An Overview. In this and the following three sections, we discuss master’s-level training and careers in a number of helping professions, for working in a variety of mental health and human service settings (other than schools). Clients there may include adults, children, adolescents, and families, and will include persons with diagnosed mental disorders and persons experiencing stressful personal difficulties. Professionals in this work are trained in one of several different fields. All of these master’s-level professionals conduct psychotherapy, family therapy, or counseling in some way, although their approaches differ due to their training and skills. Professionals in these careers can be licensed, obtaining a different license depending on their training. Your options in these areas are complicated and confusing to the beginner. Carefully read all three of the three following sections, on the professions of Clinical Social Work, Professional Counseling, and Specialized Counseling Fields. The table below summarizes our recommended career paths for these professions. Recommended Master’s-Level Pathways to Careers in Mental Health and Counseling Professions Note: All these pathways begin with a bachelor’s degree in psychology. Master’s in Social Work (M.S.W.) License in Clinical Social Work (L.C.S.W.) The best job prospects among the master’s-level fields, especially for working with children and families, in hospital departments of psychiatry or mental health, and in other mental health settings. Master’s (M.A.) in Clinical or Counseling Psychology License in Professional Counseling (L.P.C.) Usually in a Psychology Department. The program must have a 60-credit program or track that leads to eligibility for the L.P.C. Employment prospects adequate, but not as strong as for an L.C.S.W. Master’s (M.A. or M.Ed.) in Counseling License in Professional Counseling (L.P.C.) Usually in a school or department of education. The program must have a 60-credit program or track that leads to eligibility for the L.P.C., and should be accredited by C.A.C.R.E.P. (see details below). Employment prospects adequate, but not as strong as for an L.C.S.W. Master’s (M.Ed., M.A.) in Applied Behavior Analysis License as Behavior Specialist (Pennsylvania) or Certification as Behavior Analyst (some other states) In Pennsylvania, the best master’s-level option for working with persons with autism. In some other states, can lead to providing behavioral treatments for other populations. Master’s degree in Marital and Family Therapy, Art Therapy, or Addictions Counseling The best path to careers in these areas is to obtain a degree and license in one of the fields above (e.g., L.C.S.W. or L.P.C.) as well as taking courses and obtaining field experiences in the specialized area of your interest. Sometimes obtaining two related master’s degrees (e.g., in clinical social work and art therapy) is the best path. Note: Don’t rely on this summary alone for making your decision. Read the sections below to understand all the details. Master's Programs and Careers in Clinical Social Work Many Psychology majors don’t consider a master’s-level career in social work as an option. Psychology majors tend to think of social work in terms of the low pay and challenges of bachelor’s-level social casework. However, master’s (M.S.W.) programs in social work offer training in clinical social work, leading to what many psychology majors are looking for: a career as a psychotherapist with adults or children and families. Moreover, employment prospects for persons with the M.S.W. degree and L.C.S.W. (Licensed Clinical Social Worker) license are better than for the other master’s-level mental health professions. Every year, several B.U. Psychology graduates go on to master’s programs in social work, and then to jobs doing psychotherapy and/or family treatment. Other psychology majors work for a year or two, then find that a master’s in social work is the best professional pathway for them. Social workers with an M.S.W. degree and L.C.S.W. license work in many of the same settings as clinical psychologists - mental health clinics, child/family service clinics, hospitals and private practice. The L.C.S.W. license has greater acceptance than the L.P.C. license for counselors, especially in health care settings and hospital departments of psychiatry. In health care and hospital settings, licensed clinical social workers are often as competitive for hiring as Psy.D. clinical psychologists. Training for therapy with children and families is offered in virtually every M.S.W. program, and is usually more extensive than in master’s-level counseling and clinical psychology programs. Also, M.S.W. training often involves more field experiences than in master’s programs in counseling or clinical psychology. An M.S.W. program usually involves two years of classes on campus and extensive time in field settings. Part-time study, for a longer period is an option. There often is less emphasis on statistics and research methods (although there are required courses in these areas). A disadvantage of social work is that compared to many Ph.D. and some master’s psychology programs, M.S.W. programs usually have fewer assistantships or scholarships available per student. (However, most Psy.D. programs also have this limitation. Also, when comparing the M.S.W. vs. the Psy.D., note that the job prospects for the two are often similar, but the Psy.D. is usually much more expensive and takes longer.) M.S.W. programs prefer candidates with a GPA of about 3.0 overall and in the major. They also prefer candidates with extensive experience (internship or otherwise) in community service settings. Experience in culturally diverse communities and a genuine concern for disadvantaged populations are also preferred. GRE scores are often not required, and less importance is placed on specific courses in psychology. Some course work in social work or social welfare and a broad background in the social sciences are very helpful. A broad range of life experiences is helpful. Clinical social workers usually go on to obtain the L.C.S.W. license. An advantage of clinical social work over the professional counseling careers covered in our next section is that the L.C.S.W. is widely recognized, and requirements are similar across different states. We have known persons who obtained an M.S.W., practiced as a clinical social worker, then entered Psy.D. programs in clinical psychology. However, a master’s degree in psychology is the more common stepping stone to doctoral psychology programs. There is also a doctorate in social (D.S.W.), but this is usually a degree for university teaching of social work. Practitioners in clinical social work have the M.S.W degree. For more information on clinical social work, including a listing of all M.S.W. programs, see the website for the Council on Social Work Education at http://www.cswe.org Master's Programs and Careers in Professional Counseling. In this section, we discuss the diversity of master’s programs and careers involving counseling in a variety of mental health and human service settings other than schools. Clients are usually adults, sometime persons with diagnosed mental disorders and sometimes persons experiencing stressful personal difficulties. Graduate study in these areas usually leads to the Licensed Professional Counselor (L.P.C.) license. An additional certification that may be helpful for your career goals is the National Certified Counselor (N.C.C.) certification; this makes it easier to obtain the L.P.C license and enhances your career prospects. This section is not about a single field, but a collection of related fields. Graduate programs that lead to the L.P.C. include programs in clinical mental health counseling, mental health counseling, community counseling, college student affairs, college counseling, career counseling, rehabilitation counseling, addictions counseling, marriage and family counseling (but see also our section later on marriage and family therapy as a separate field), counseling psychology (master’s level), and clinical psychology (master’s level). Job titles vary, but often include mental health counselor and psychotherapist. As you can tell, the names of graduate school programs and job titles in these areas are evolving over time, and can be confusing. Note that some programs in this area train students for what they call community counseling, but community psychology is an entirely separate field. Community psychologists work with communities, especially in changing settings such as schools, nonprofit organizations, and agencies in the mental health or other systems, in order to promote individual and community well-being, and to prevent psychological problems. Thus their work does not involve individual or group psychotherapy or counseling, but does work for the well-being of community settings and their ability to serve or support individuals and families. Community psychologists work to increase respect for human diversity, promote social justice, strengthen sense of community, and implement community programs as well as evaluate their effectiveness. Community psychologists are trained at the master’s or doctoral levels. In a later section of this document, we will discuss a set of careers and master’s-level programs in counseling fields that are more specialized: e.g., marriage and family therapy, art therapy, applied behavior analysis, addictions counseling. Some professionals in these areas hold the L.P.C. license or were trained in one of the master’s programs discussed here, so if you are interested in one of those areas, you should also read this section carefully. We focus here on master’s-level counseling training leading to licensure in Pennsylvania; there are more differences among states in counseling fields than in psychology or social work. Many professional counselors perform counseling in mental health and related settings: outpatient community mental health clinics, partial hospitalization programs, counseling services for families, women, or other populations, addictions treatment centers and outpatient services, university counseling centers, private counseling practices, and related settings. In those settings, they may be supervised by other professional counselors, clinical social workers, doctoral-level psychologists, psychiatrists, or other mental health professionals. Many of these master’s-level positions are also filled by clinical social workers, and both professions provide psychotherapy or counseling. If you are interested in clinical work with children and families, consider your choices carefully. Re-read our earlier sections on “Licensure, Professions, and Your Future” and “Master’s Programs and Careers in Clinical Social Work.” One advantage of clinical social work training is that an accredited master’s program in social work (M.S.W.) always offers many opportunities for learning to work with children and families. In contrast, some graduate programs in professional counseling offer in-depth training for work with these groups, but others don’t, or they have a track for school counseling, but not other treatments for children and families. Similarly, a master’s program in marriage and family therapy always offers training in that form of therapy, leading to a specialized Marriage and Family Therapist license (we cover this in a later section). If you are interested in this working with these populations, and in applying to a master’s program in counseling, study the program carefully to see if it offers the training you want, in depth. A second advantage of clinical social work in that in hospital and related health care settings, the M.S.W. degree and L.C.S.W. license are more recognized and more likely to lead to hiring than a master’s in counseling and an L.P.C. However, that leaves many community clinics and agencies, as well as college counseling centers and student life positions, that hire professional counselors. An advantage of counseling training at the master’s level, compared to the M.S.W., is that counseling programs often offer more training in counseling theory and processes. Graduate programs in professional counseling, like most master’s-level programs in the helping professions, require applicants to have an undergraduate GPA of about 3.0, overall and also in required psychology courses. A Practicum or similar volunteer or job experience is strongly recommended. GRE scores are required, but scores do not need to be as high as for doctoral programs. If the program is in a psychology department, a strong background in statistics and research methods, and a broad background in psychology courses are needed. Courses in Psychological Disorders or Developmental Psychopathology are often strongly recommended. (See also our section in this document, “What Courses Do I Take Now?”). If the graduate counseling program is in a school or department of education, these factors are usually less important, but still are advantages for an applicant. Master’s-Level Counseling Programs in Schools or Departments of Education Some master’s programs in fields related to professional counseling are located in schools or departments of education, where they often are connected with programs in school counseling. Many of these programs are accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Education Programs (C.A.C.R.E.P.). This accreditation often strengthens the graduate’s position for obtaining jobs, and for eventual licensure as a Licensed Professional Counselor (L.P.C.). However, there are many pathways to the L.P.C. license; the key is graduating from a program that meets the L.P.C. requirements, whether C.A.C.R.E.P.-accredited or not. L.P.C. requirements include 60 credits of graduate coursework, including courses in specific areas relating to practice. (Note: C.A.C.R.E.P. only accredits programs in schools or departments of education, and doesn’t accredit programs in psychology.) For graduate programs in counseling that are located in schools or departments of education, key questions you to ask about are: Does the program closely follow the training requirements for the Licensed Professional Counselors in Pennsylvania? Is it accredited by C.A.C.R.E.P.? How many program graduates hold the L.P.C. license in Pennsylvania, or hold a similar license in another state? What is the extent of training in this program for working with persons or populations whom you plan to serve, e.g., adults, children and families, persons with addictions, marital counseling, in correctional or other criminal justice settings, or other populations. How many of the faculty have training, experience, and current involvement in these services? Do program graduates hold positions in mental health counseling or the mental health system? (Note: The “mental health system” includes community outpatient clinics, hospitals, residential treatment centers, partial hospitalization programs, counseling services for families or other populations, addictions treatment services, university counseling centers, helping professionals in private practice, and related settings.) (Note: Most counseling programs in schools or departments of education historically grew out of programs to train school counselors. The key issue is whether their faculty now includes enough professionals with extensive experience and continuing involvement in mental health or related settings, not just the schools. A related issue is how many of their graduates hold the L.P.C. license.) How many opportunities for practicum and internship experiences does the program have, in the mental health system or related settings, other than schools? What positions, in what sorts of settings, that graduates of the program hold. For financial aid, what assistantships or scholarships are available? Do most students receive these? Do they include tuition remission? For assistantships, what duties are involved, and will they also help me gain clinical-counseling experience? Answers to these questions are not always easy to find. Search program websites for faculty interests and training. Also examine the program’s required and elective courses, and the available practicum and internship experiences if these are listed. Find out what positions the program’s graduates hold, and in what settings. Also ask about these issues in interviews or other communication with program representatives, faculty or students. See members of the BU Psychology faculty for help. Some counseling programs housed in departments or schools of education have developed extensive training in these areas. Others rely on concepts, faculty, and experiences that are primarily oriented to training school counselors. While the two fields have some commonalities, you want extensive training to prepare you well for the sort of counseling that you seek to do. Be assertive in finding out about that. For information on accredited master’s level programs in counseling, usually in departments or schools of education, see the C.A.C.R.E.P. website: http://www.cacrep.org Master’s Programs in Clinical or Counseling Psychology Another pathway to the L.P.C. license and careers related to it involves graduating from a master’s-level program in clinical psychology or counseling psychology, usually in a psychology department. These master’s programs offer a “terminal” master’s degree, which means that they train students for master’s-level careers, and are entirely separate from doctoral-level psychology programs. They usually are in universities that don’t have doctoral programs in psychology. For its graduates to be eligible for the L.P.C., the program must require 60 credits of graduate coursework in specified topic areas related to professional counseling. Some of these programs have a shorter, 48-credit track, and a longer 60-credit track; only graduates of the 60-credit track will be eligible for the L.P.C. license. C.A.C.R.E.P. only accredits programs in schools or departments of education, and doesn’t accredit programs in psychology. But graduates of 60-credit psychology programs that meet L.P.C. standards are eligible for the L.P.C. license. Also, master’s-level programs are not accredited by the American Psychological Association (A.P.A.), which accredits only doctoral programs. Graduates of these programs cannot be licensed as psychologists, which requires a doctoral degree. The L.P.C. is the license for them. Psychology programs that meet L.P.C. requirements offer an excellent pathway to master’s-level careers in mental health and related areas. The curriculum in these programs will be familiar to Psychology majors, involving master’s-level courses in psychological theory and research, as well as coursework and practicum/internship training in clinical-counseling skills. In some of these programs, some graduates may go on to doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. Compared to most social work programs, and to some counseling programs in schools of education, an advantage of master’s clinical psychology programs is that they often offer assistantships for financial aid. Compared to social work, a disadvantage is that they often involve less extensive field experiences than required in M.S.W programs. Key questions to ask about master’s programs in clinical psychology or related fields, located in departments of psychology, are: Does the program closely follow the training requirements for the Licensed Professional Counselors in Pennsylvania? Do many program graduates hold the L.P.C. license in Pennsylvania, or hold a similar license in another state? What is the extent of training in this program for working with persons or populations whom you plan to serve, e.g., adults, children and families, persons with addictions, marital counseling, in correctional or other criminal justice settings, or other populations. How many of the faculty have training, experience, and current involvement in these services? Do program graduates hold positions in mental health counseling or the mental health system? (Note: “mental health services” include community outpatient clinics, hospitals, residential treatment centers, partial hospitalization programs, counseling services for families or other populations, addictions treatment services, university counseling centers, helping professionals in private practice, and related settings.) In addition, how many opportunities for practicum and internship experiences does the program have? Are there practicum experiences frequently available throughout the years of the program? Is there an internship, and is it required? If you are interested in going on to a doctoral program in clinical or counseling psychology, is there an option to do master’s thesis research? (A thesis will be essential for admission to Ph.D. programs.) How many program graduates go on to doctoral study in clinical or counseling psychology? More often in Ph.D. or Psy.D. programs? For financial aid, what assistantships or scholarships are available? Do most students receive these? Do they include tuition remission? For assistantships, what duties are involved, and will they also help me gain clinical-counseling experience? Answers to these questions are not always easy to find. Search program websites for faculty interests and training. Also examine the program’s required and elective courses, and the available practicum and internship experiences if these are listed. Find out what positions the program’s graduates hold, and in what settings. Also ask about these issues in interviews or other communication with program representatives, faculty or students. See members of the B.U. Psychology faculty for help. Some master’s-level programs in clinical or counseling psychology have developed their curriculum and training to lead to the L.P.C. license; others haven’t. Some will have training in a specialized area in which you may be interested, such as programs and treatments for children or applied behavior analysis; others won’t. Be assertive in finding out about these issues. For information on master’s level programs in clinical or counseling psychology, see the APA Graduate Study in Psychology book. A copy is available in the Psychology Department office. Master's Programs and Careers in Specialized Helping Fields. In this section, we discuss some specialized helping professions: marital and family therapy, art therapy, applied behavioral analysis, and treatment of addictions. Marriage and Family Therapy Practitioners in this field have a master’s degree in Marriage and Family Therapy, from a program accredited by the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (A.A.M.F.T.). In Pennsylvania, they can be licensed with the L.M.F. T. license, which is separate from the L.C.S.W. and L.P.C. licenses. Only a person with the L.M.F.T. can advertise as a Marriage and Family Therapist. Marriage and family therapists are trained in a family systems perspective, which considers individual problems within the context of the whole family, including extended family members if involved. This approach is especially useful for understanding children’s and adolescents’ issues in a family context, and for understanding marital problems and family dynamics. Marriage and family therapists also are trained in individual psychotherapy, and see individual clients. However, even with individuals, they look for ways that marital and family dynamics may be involved, often to a greater extent than other helping professionals. Many clinical social workers, some counselors who are trained in marriage and family counseling programs, and some clinical or counseling psychologists are also trained in a family systems perspective. Clinical social work programs are the most likely to provide this training, especially for treatment of problems experienced by children and adolescents. However, the depth of training in marriage and family dynamics is much greater in a marriage and family therapy program. Practitioners in marriage and family therapy have a distinctive expertise, but their degree and L.M.F.T. license are not as marketable or widely accepted as the licensure in psychology or the L.C.S.W. They are less likely to be hired in health care settings, hospitals, or school-related settings. A psychology major interested in this field should take the Marriage and Family course in the Sociology Department, and further courses related to family sociology and interpersonal communication are helpful. Graduate programs in marriage and family therapy are usually at the master’s level. There are not as many of these as M.S.W. programs. Listings and information on these programs is available at the A.A.M.F.T. website: http://www.aamft.org Art Therapy Art therapy uses artistic expression and the creative process to foster emotional expression and personal well-being. Used with other forms of psychotherapy or counseling, it can be an excellent means of understanding difficult emotional issues and of promoting self-expression and personal change. Art therapy uses a variety of artistic forms and media. It can be used with adults and children, and is especially useful when clients find it difficult to express themselves verbally. With a master’s degree and supervised practice in art therapy, you are eligible for the Art Therapist Registration (A.T.R.). However, the best professional pathway to becoming an art therapist is to obtain training in two areas: (a) a mainstream helping profession such as clinical social work or counseling, leading to a license in that field and (b) training in art therapy, leading to the A.T.R. registration. That is the approach taken by many helping professionals who use art therapy. Students interested in master’s-level training in art therapy should have an extensive background in both psychology and art studio courses. A psychology major with an art studio minor, or vice versa, is ideal. Nationwide, there are a small number of art therapy programs, at the master’s level, accredited by the American Art Therapy Association. Information on those programs is available at: http://www.americanarttherapyassociation.org Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Specialist Applied behavior analysis uses the concepts of behaviorism to analyze and modify behaviors that create problems for a variety of individuals. You have studied behavioral approaches in several psychology courses; they are also commonly used in the fields of exceptionalities and special education. Many helping professionals use some behavior modification skills in their work; applied behavior analysts specialize in the application of these techniques. Client populations for this work include persons with autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorders, cognitive disabilities, other mental disorders, educational challenges, and other behavioral problems. Applied behavior analysts analyze the behavioral aspects of a problem, write a behavioral intervention plan, and help implement that plan, working in the home and school environments. Some states license or certify applied behavior analysts for work with a variety of populations. Those states often require the Board Certified Behavior Analyst (B.C.B.A.) national certificate. The most direct pathway to that certificate is a master’s or doctoral degree in applied behavior analysis or a closely related field. Information on the field of applied behavioral analysis, the B.C.B.A. certification, and approved training programs in applied behavioral analysis is available at the Behavior Analyst Certification Board website: http://www.bacb.com Pennsylvania does not license applied behavioral analysts, but does license Behavioral Specialists for work with individuals on the autism spectrum. This license requires a master’s degree that includes training in applied behavioral analysis and in autism spectrum disorders. The master’s degree doesn’t have to be in applied behavioral analysis, but that is usually the most direct path to this license. Information on the Behavioral Specialist field and licensure in Pennsylvania is available at: http://www.dhs.state.pa.us/provider/paautisminsuranceact62/behaviorspeci... Addictions Counseling Treatment of persons with substance dependence requires specialized training experiences and supervision. Helping professionals working in addictions treatment work in hospitals, addictions treatment or rehabilitation centers, community clinics, and occasionally in private practice. In this field, the effectiveness of Twelve-Step programs means that professionals work alongside staff members who are experienced in their own recovery from an addiction. Most treatment facilities strive to have a mix of staff members who are well along in their own recovery from an addiction, and staff who have not personally experienced a substance addiction. There are a few master’s-level programs specifically in addictions counseling. However, for work in addictions treatment, the best option for psychology majors is to obtain a master’s degree in a mainstream helping profession such as clinical social work or professional counseling, leading to a license in that field. Along the way, engage in supervised field experiences in facilities that treat addictions. Depending on your specific goals, it may be desirable to obtain the national Certified Addictions Counselor (C.A.C.) certification, in addition to licensure in a mainstream helping profession. Information on addictions counseling and on the C.A.C. certification is available at: http://www.naadac.org Master's Programs and Careers in School Counseling. Many students think of school counseling in terms of high school guidance counselors. However, school counseling at the elementary and often middle school level is much more interesting to psychology majors, and for some that is very much what they want to do. In elementary and intermediate schools, counselors work with students, parents, teachers, administrators, school psychologists, and school social workers. They conduct some individual counseling and may hold group counseling sessions. They are often involved in preparing for and administering standardized tests given to all students in the school. Elementary school counselors may also teach social and emotional skills in the classroom. If a student shows signs of significant academic difficulties, the school counselor also administers some psycho-educational tests, and observes the student’s classroom behavior. These two assessments are the first steps for determining the exact nature of problems that a child may be experiencing, and special abilities that the child has. Further testing, if needed, is done by a school psychologist. Following that, a team of psychologist, counselor, and teachers will form an educational plan for the student, and meet with parents to discuss it. If the parents approve a plan, the guidance counselor is a key member of the team that implements that plan in school, following up regularly with teachers, student, parents, and others. In addition, the counselor is a key member of the school crisis intervention team, and of school efforts to address ongoing problems of school climate such as bullying. So the role of elementary school counselor involves several parts: personal counselor, liaison between school and parents, tester and behavioral observer, teacher, professional team member, crisis intervention, and perhaps other duties. In middle schools, counselors often have additional responsibilities for beginning education and guidance about careers. Middle school counseling also often involves urgent counseling and advice for students’ personal crises, and may include conducting groups for students who are going through stressful circumstances: bullying, family stress, or other issues. School counseling at the high school level mainly involves guidance for class scheduling, career and college planning, and standardized testing, crisis intervention, and sometimes involvement in discipline, with much less time for individual or group counseling. Like classroom teachers, school counselors are members of the faculty, and must qualify for state certification as a school counselor. This requires a master’s degree in school counseling from an accredited program, and (in Pennsylvania) passing praxis tests. Graduate programs in school counseling, like most master’s-level programs in the helping professions, require applicants to have an undergraduate GPA of about 3.0, overall and also in required psychology courses. (See also our section in this document, “What Courses Do I Take Now?”.) A Practicum or similar volunteer or job experience in schools is strongly recommended. Working with the school psychologist, school counselor, or a special education teacher are the best places for this, but tutoring and classroom aide duties are also helpful. GRE scores are required, but scores do not need to be as high as for doctoral programs. In the master’s program, you will need to choose whether you want to be trained and certified in Elementary or Secondary School Counseling. These two tracks overlap, but you will need to be certified in one or both of these. Middle school counselors usually can be certified n either, and some obtain certification in both. Graduating from a graduate program accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Education Programs (C.A.C.R.E.P.), in addition to other accreditations, may place the graduate in a stronger position for obtaining jobs, but there are exceptions to this. You can obtain a doctoral degree in counselor education, a field related to school counseling. However, almost all practicing school counselors are trained at the master’s level. Persons with doctorates in this area usually enter careers in administration or university teaching. Information on many programs in school counseling, usually in departments or schools of education, and sometimes in departments of counselor education, can be found at: http://www.cacrep.org However, the C.A.C.R.E.P. site does not include all programs in school counseling. Some programs offer school counseling training that is certified by their state, but not accredited by C.A.C.R.E.P. Information on whether a specific university has a school counseling program can be found at that university’s website. Programs and Careers in School Psychology. If you would like to work with children, are intrigued by psychological tests, and are interested in assessing, treating, and preventing psychological and educational problems in schools, school psychology is the pathway for you. Graduate training is available at the master’s level, and the level of Educational Specialist (three years of graduate study, including a master’s degree and an internship), and at the doctoral (Ph.D. or Psy.D.) level. We strongly recommend the Ed.S. over the master’s degree only; this is more widely recognized and expands your career options. School psychology is part of the wider field of educational psychology, which is the academic discipline concerned with psychological knowledge related to education, teaching and learning. School psychologists are chiefly practitioners, while educational psychologists are chiefly university teachers and researchers. For practitioners with a master’s or Ed.S. degree, school psychology work will chiefly involves testing and assessing students to diagnose psychological and educational problems, and consulting with teachers, school counselors, administrators, and parents to determine an educational plan for the child. They administer, score and interpret psychological tests, interview children, and assess the child’s classroom behavior. In addition, the school psychologist is often the school leader in response to traumatic school incidents, policies and programs to prevent bullying and related school problems, and choosing and implementing programs to promote student social and emotional coping skills that influence academic success. Doctoral level school psychologists do all these things, and also may provide psychotherapy to children and families. School psychologists also work in correctional settings that have school programs, in clinical settings for children, and other settings. Some school psychology programs are located in schools of education, others in departments of psychology, but many programs require coursework in both places. Entrance requirements for an Ed.S. school psychology program are similar to those for other types of master’s programs: an undergraduate GPA of 3.0, sometimes higher, overall and also in required psychology courses. A course in tests and measurements is strongly recommended. (See also our section in this document, “What Courses Do I Take Now?”). A Practicum or similar volunteer or job experience in schools is strongly recommended. Working with the school psychologist, school counselor, or a special education teacher are the best places for this, but even tutoring and classroom aide duties are very helpful. GRE scores are required, but scores do not need to be as high as for doctoral programs. For a doctoral program in school psychology, entrance requirements are similar to other doctoral programs, including G.R.E. scores, but not as competitive as for doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology. Again, a course in tests and measurements, and a Practicum or volunteer experience with a school psychologist, are highly recommended. With an Educational Specialist (Ed.S.) degree from a school psychology program approved by the National Association of School Psychologists, you are eligible for certification as a school psychologist. This requires three years of graduate study, including a 1200-hour internship (e.g., 30 weeks at 40 hours per week). With a doctorate in school psychology from a doctoral program approved by the American Psychological Association, you also qualify for licensure in psychology. Information on school psychology, and training for it at the Ed.S. and doctoral level, can be found at the National Association of School Psychologists (N.A.S.P.): http://www.nasponline.org Information on programs offering doctoral training in school psychology that is accredited by the American Psychological Association (A.P.A.) is available at: http://www.apa.org/ed/accreditation/programs At the A.P.A. site, be sure to look at programs accredited in school psychology and in “combined professional-scientific psychology” (the latter often offer training in school and clinical or counseling psychology). When applying to graduate schools in school psychology, consider only programs accredited by N.A.S.P. or A.P.A. Also, much of the information on the A.P.A. webpage “Applying to Graduate School” applies to programs in school psychology at either master’s or doctoral levels: http://www.apa.org/education/grad/applying.aspx Doctoral Programs in Clinical Psychology and Counseling Psychology. The American Psychological Association (A.P.A.) defines clinical and counseling psychology as professions at the doctoral level only. In this section, we will discuss doctoral-level programs and careers only. (However, there are master’s-level programs in clinical psychology and counseling psychology, whose graduates often practice with a master’s degree and an L.P.C. license. See our earlier sections on master’s-level training.) Doctoral-level clinical and counseling psychologists work in clinics, hospitals, community mental health settings, university counseling centers, private practices, correctional settings, consulting firms, government and private research settings, and academic teaching and research. Historically, clinical psychology and counseling psychology defined themselves as different specialties within psychology, and you may have learned about those differing definitions in your courses. Today, however, graduates of clinical and counseling psychology programs hold very similar positions and do very similar work, especially at the doctoral level. Also, among A.P.A-approved doctoral programs, there is more variation in graduate coursework and emphasis within each specialty than between them. So while a graduate program defines itself as either clinical psychology or counseling psychology, we will discuss the two specialties together here. Admission to A.P.A.-approved doctoral programs is about as difficult in one specialty as the other. Some Ph.D. programs in counseling psychology may be less competitive than most Ph.D. clinical psychology programs, but other variables (Ph.D. vs. Psy.D.; prestige of university; geographic locale; size of entering first-year class) make more of a difference in the admissions process than whether the program is in clinical or counseling psychology. If you seek a doctoral degree in clinical or counseling psychology, consider only A.P.A.-approved doctoral programs. In today’s highly competitive hiring environment, being from an A.P.A.-approved program is essential to obtaining satisfactory work as a clinical psychologist or counseling psychologist. Ph.D. and Psy.D. Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology Consider carefully the differences between Ph.D. and Psy.D. doctoral programs. A.P.A. reviews and accredits both Ph.D. and Psy.D. programs, but the training approaches are very different, and will affect your professional future. Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy) programs train students to become scientist-practitioners. Students are trained to become clinical practitioners and researchers, to advance both the practice and the science of clinical or counseling psychology. This does not mean that Ph.D. graduates work only in academic positions; many work in clinics, hospitals, counseling centers, and other clinical and counseling settings. Training in a Ph.D. program in clinical or counseling psychology involves learning to conduct psychotherapy, psychological assessment, and research. Training for psychotherapy and assessment occurs in courses, part-time practicum placements, and a one-year, full-time internship. Students also ordinarily complete their own research projects for the master’s thesis (unless they entered with a master’s degree) and a doctoral dissertation. This research is usually focused on clinical or counseling topics, and is expected to be publishable in some form. In clinical and counseling psychology, the Ph.D. is the more traditional degree. In general, the Ph.D. is more prestigious, and has broader employment prospects (although exceptions exist). With a very few exceptions, you must hold a Ph.D. if you want to do university teaching as your principal employment. The B.U. psychology faculty who are trained in clinical psychology all hold Ph.D. degrees. Psy.D. (Doctor of Psychology) programs emphasize the practitioner aspect of doctoral psychological training, learning to conduct psychotherapy and assessment. This training, like the Ph.D. programs, occurs in courses, part-time practicum placements, and a one-year, full-time internship. Psy.D. programs also train students to read, understand, critique, and apply psychological research, but not to produce it. They often re-allocate some of the time that goes into training for research in a Ph.D. program, to provide more training in psychotherapy and assessment. However, students in A.P.A.-approved Psy.D. programs must take graduate statistics and research methods courses. They also must complete a doctoral dissertation or thesis, which may be a research project as in a Ph.D. program, or may be a project in equal depth, for instance, a series of related client case studies, or a review of the research literature on the effectiveness of a treatment method. The Psy.D. degree doesn’t avoid research; it just emphasizes the application of psychological research. Ph.D. programs emphasize both the production and application of psychological research. Ph.D. programs are usually based in university psychology departments of psychology or in departments of school and counseling psychology, befitting their balance of scientist and practitioner training. A few Ph.D. programs are in medical schools. Psy.D. programs may be based in traditional universities (the Rutgers University Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology is an example), or in independent schools of psychology. Ph.D. or a Psy.D.? Which is Better for You? Admission to either type of program is difficult. Psy.D. programs often have somewhat less restrictive admissions standards. However, exceptions exist, and Psy.D. programs based at nationally-recognized universities are often are as difficult to enter as Ph.D. programs. In a Psy.D. program, you are much less likely to receive an assistantship, scholarship, or remission of tuition. You will need to rely more on loans, and graduate tuition is very expensive. Recent A.P.A. studies found that students in Psy.D. clinical programs graduated with much greater student debt levels than in Ph.D. programs. Over 50% of Psy.D. graduates had debt levels over $100,000. This was related to levels of financial aid: 80-100% of students in Ph.D. programs received financial aid (not counting student loans), but only 14-40% of students in Psy.D. programs received such aid. Most students in Ph.D. programs (60-80%) received full support (including full tuition waiver), while less than 10% of students in Psy.D. programs received full support. Psy.D programs tend to admit more students than Ph.D. programs. A large entering class often means more students per faculty member, and less contact time with faculty. Individual and small-group contact with faculty is a major part of graduate education. If you think you might want to become a college professor, full-time, apply to Ph.D. programs, or consider doing a master’s program while you figure out your later goals. Psy.D. programs train practitioners. Psy.D. programs, in general, have lower rates of placing their students in A.P.A. approved settings for the required one-year clinical internship. This is a major obstacle for a student seeking to work in clinical practice. Having completed an A.P.A.-approved internship is almost as important as being trained in an A.P.A. approved graduate program. Some Ph.D. programs also are seeing lowered placement rates. However, this is bigger problem for Psy.D. programs, especially those that admit large entering classes. Note: Some Psy.D. and Ph.D. programs have developed their own internship sites, which are affiliated with the graduate program and agree to reserve internship positions for its students. Students in that program then don’t need to apply for outside internship sites. A training program in an independent school of psychology, not affiliated with a university (a common situation for Psy.D. programs), may rely heavily on part-time faculty whose primary allegiance is to their own clinical work elsewhere. This is a serious disadvantage if students cannot easily contact and work with faculty. A program that relies on its own full-time faculty is much better for students. Salary and employment prospects are better with the Ph.D. than the Psy.D. This difference is decreasing to some extent. Graduates of a widely recognized and respected, A.P.A.-approved Psy.D. program, who have completed an A.P.A.-approved internship or a comparable internship affiliated with their graduate program, and who are seeking clinical positions for which they are qualified, have good job prospects. However, this does not apply to graduates of other Psy.D. programs. Overall, Ph.D. training is a better choice for some students, and Psy.D. training is a better choice for other students, especially if the Psy.D. program is in a university. However, as we discussed above, the risks of Psy.D. training are greater, and the financial cost is likely to be much higher. Also, read our section below on “Related Fields to Consider”, and the later sections on master’s-level careers. For many students, these offer as many satisfactions, with less heartache about admissions standards than Ph.D. programs, less expense than Psy.D. programs, and (if at the master’s level) fewer years in graduate school. Doctoral Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: Things to Consider Some key questions to investigate about any doctoral program in clinical or counseling psychology, especially related to the Ph.D. or Psy.D. choice, and to size of program, include: What is the extent of clinical or counseling training in this program, especially for treatments or populations in which you are interested? How many of the faculty have training, experience, and current involvement in these services? What are the requirements for research? How many faculty hold full-time teaching positions in this program? How any students are in the entering class each year? For financial aid, what assistantships or scholarships are available? Do most students receive these? Do they include tuition remission? For assistantships, what duties are involved? What proportion of students in the program are placed in A.P.A. approved internships? (This is often termed the “internship match rate”, and A.P.A. approved programs are required to provide this information in the A.P.A. book Graduate Study in Psychology.) A related question is: Are students in this program placed in internships affiliated with this program? Where? What sorts of positions do program graduates hold? Answers to these questions are not always easy to find. Search program websites for faculty interests and training. Also examine the program’s required and elective courses, and the available practicum and internship experiences if these are listed. Find out what positions the program’s graduates hold, and in what settings. Also ask about these issues in interviews or other communication with program representatives, faculty or students. Be assertive in finding out about these issues. See members of the B.U. Psychology faculty for help. An excellent resources for these and related questions are available at the A.P.A. website. Begin with the “Applying to Grad School” page, which many links to specific topics: http://www.apa.org/education/grad/applying.aspx Blending Doctoral Clinical Psychology Training With Other Specialties Doctoral clinical psychology programs may offer specialty tracks within their program. In these programs, students are trained as clinical psychologists, but specialize in a specific area and have opportunities for in-depth training there. Clinical neuropsychology involves clinical assessment of how a patient with brain illness or injury will be affected in terms of cognitive or behavioral functioning. This specialty involves study in both neuroscience and clinical psychology, and its practitioners must be skilled in all forms of psychological assessment, and in clinical psychological treatments, as well as in neuropsychological testing. Child-clinical psychology focuses on assessment of the problems and clinical disorders experienced by children (including adolescents), and treatment involving children and families. It offers enhanced opportunities for learning these skills, in clinics, hospitals, and schools. Its practitioners must be skilled in all forms of psychological assessment and treatment, but focus in depth on children and families. Clinical-community psychology involves working at the community level as well as with individuals and families. It also involves programs in schools, workplaces, or communities to prevent psychological problems, not just treating persons who already have problems. Community psychology also involves learning skills for working with community members to help them change their communities, schools, or other settings, to foster individual and community well-being. A clinical-community psychologist works with individuals, families, small groups, settings, and communities, either in clinical treatment or in community collaboration and empowerment. Information on programs offering doctoral training in clinical or counseling psychology that is accredited by the American Psychological Association is available at: http://www.apa.org/ed/accreditation/programs Be sure to look at programs accredited in clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and in “combined professional-scientific psychology." The latter usually offer training in clinical or counseling psychology and in school psychology, and are an excellent choice for students interested in working with children and families. For information on specific doctoral programs in psychology, see the APA Graduate Study in Psychology book. A copy is available in the Psychology Department office. We give the reference in our “Further Reading” section below. Related Fields To Consider Perhaps you are a highly successful psychology student, with excellent grades in demanding psychology courses, have or will soon gain research experience and Practicum or related clinical experience, and have at least three Psychology faculty members who know your academic abilities well. Yet doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology are very competitive, and you may still find it difficult to be accepted. Consider related options. School psychology, at the Ed.S. or Ph.D./Psy.D level, involves psychological and education assessment of problems and disorders among children, and consulting with other school professionals about treating and educating children with those problems. Some school psychology positions, especially at the doctoral level, also involve child and family treatment and planning and implementing prevention programs. For a student who is interested in children and families, and in schools, school psychology offers many of the satisfactions of clinical psychology. Admissions to doctoral programs is often less competitive, and training is also available at the three-year Ed.S. level. See our section “Programs and Careers in School Psychology” earlier in this document. Why not consider entering teaching or research in psychology? If you are the kind of student who finds many areas of psychology interesting, this can be an especially good choice. Teaching in any area of psychology offers many ways to work with people, not in a clinical-counseling role, but in ways that offer satisfying personal contacts and have positive impacts on students’ lives. Research in psychology also can have many positive impacts. Teaching and research often provide daily rewards of having finished or accomplished something tangible. Tangible signs of progress don’t happen as often in clinical-counseling work. As another alternative, community psychology and industrial-organizational psychology offer ways to work with settings and with persons, not in clinical or counseling roles, but in ways that have many positive impacts and personal satisfactions. Admission to doctoral programs in most areas of psychology, while competitive, is often not as competitive as clinical and counseling programs, especially regarding GRE scores. Community psychologists work with communities, especially in changing settings such as schools, nonprofit organizations, and agencies in the mental health or other systems, in order to promote individual and community well-being, and to prevent psychological problems. Thus their work does not involve individual or group psychotherapy or counseling, but does work for the well-being of community settings and their ability to serve or support individuals and families. Community psychologists work to increase respect for human diversity, promote social justice, strengthen sense of community, and implement community programs as well as evaluate their effectiveness. Community psychologists are trained at the master’s or doctoral levels. Training in clinical social work requires only a master’s degree (M.S.W.), and leads to the L.C.S.W. license. That professional pathway involves much less time and expense than the Psy.D. Yet a person with the L.C.S.W. is just as employable (sometimes more employable) as a person with the Psy.D. So if you don’t qualify for Ph.D. programs, and want to work in the psychological fields related to health care, carefully consider M.S.W. training in clinical social work. See our section “Master’s Programs and Careers in Clinical Social Work” later in this document. Finally, consider the various master’s-level training programs and careers we discussed earlier in this document. Master’s Degree as a Stepping Stone to Doctoral Programs For highly successful psychology students who find it difficult to be accepted in doctoral clinical or counseling psychology programs, a master’s degree in psychology may provide a stepping stone to doctoral programs. You have two options. Surprisingly to many students, a master’s degree in General or Experimental psychology is usually the best stepping stone to a Ph.D. clinical or counseling psychology program. Ph.D. programs consider it highly important to prove your ability to do rigorous graduate course work and a research project, and that is what master’s-level general-experimental programs do best. This degree can also help you gain admission to a suitable Psy.D. program. This is a pathway, however, only for the student seriously committed to obtaining a doctorate. You will finish the master’s program with skills in research but not in clinical work. The second option is to find a master’s program in clinical psychology that has a track record of sending a number of graduates on to doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. This information may be on the program website, or may be knowable only through an interview. Seek advisement from Psychology Department faculty on programs that have a track record in this area. By attending this type of program, you are hedging your bets: gaining master’s level training in clinical skills, but in a program that offers rigorous enough training in psychology to place at least some of its graduates in doctoral programs. These programs tend to hold the scientist-practitioner approach to clinical psychology that meshes with Ph.D. programs, but also provide useful stepping stones to Psy.D. programs. To strengthen your application for doctoral programs, take as many courses as you can in experimental, developmental and social psychology, and in statistics and research methods. In either of these two options, make sure that you complete a master thesis research project. This is optional in many master’s programs, but essential for going on to a doctorate in psychology. Either of these two options can lessen a problem that is common among even the most successful B.U. Psychology majors: excellent grades, research and practicum experience, excellent faculty contacts for recommendation letters, but GRE scores that are not high enough for doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. Graduate programs use GRE scores in part to predict how well students will succeed at the academic challenges of graduate coursework and research. Holding a master’s degree from a respected master’s program in psychology helps to establish your ability to meet those challenges, so when you are reviewed by doctoral programs, GRE scores, while still considered, will often be balanced by grades, research projects, and recommendation letters from faculty in the master’s program. If you obtain a master’s degree first, then go on to doctoral clinical or counseling psychology programs, count on a total of six years or more of graduate study, since master’s and doctoral program requirements will differ to some extent. (However, the people we have known who finished this pathway considered the extra year well worth it.) A note on terminology: master’s program that train graduates only for master’s-level careers, not as a stepping stone to doctoral programs, are often called “terminal master’s” programs. For information on master’s-level programs in psychology, see the APA Graduate Study in Psychology book. A copy is available in the Psychology Department office. We give the reference in our “Further Reading” section below. Also, much of the information on the A.P.A webpage “Applying to Graduate School” applies to master’s programs in psychology: http://www.apa.org/education/grad/applying.aspx What Courses Do I Take Now? Students are often surprised to learn that graduate schools prefer applicants with a broad, strong background in scientific psychology and in other disciplines, and take a less favorable view of applicants with a background too specialized in clinically-related courses. In a fast-changing world, a capable professional practitioner needs four qualities: a broad, diverse education; self-awareness of one’s own strengths and areas for improvement; the ability to evaluate and apply new information; and the ability to communicate effectively. These are the goals of a liberal arts education in psychology and other fields. These goals also drive the course requirements of the psychology major, at BU and elsewhere. Professional practice requires familiarity with biological, psychological, and social processes, and with the arts and humanities. If you desire admission to graduate study and to a helping profession, don’t settle for easy courses, challenge yourself in more difficult ones. Don’t specialize too narrowly, broaden your learning. Psychology Courses You may not be able to take courses in all of the areas we discuss below. However, the B.U. Psychology major requires many of the courses we mention below, and offers others as one choice in a required category of courses. By planning carefully and discussing your options with your advisor, you can take courses beyond the major requirements, and outside the major, that will help you toward your choice of graduate study and a helping profession. In making recommendations in this section, we have relied on our own experiences in advisement, and on empirical studies of graduate school admissions policies in psychology. A recent empirical study is: Lawson, T., Reisinger, L., & Jordan-Fleming, M. (2012). Undergraduate psychology courses preferred by graduate programs. Teaching of Psychology, 39, 181-184. In the Lawson et al. survey, almost all graduate programs in psychology required courses in general psychology, statistics, and research methods (at B.U., the courses in General, Statistics, Experimental Methods and Experimental Applications). In addition, 60% of programs required at least one other psychology course. Those additional requirements varied by program, but in general they were covered by courses in the B.U. psychology major. Master’s and doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology often require a course in an area of abnormal psychology (covered by the B.U. courses in Psychological Disorders or Developmental Psychopathology). This is especially true for Psy.D. programs. Some programs require a course in personality (covered by the B.U. course in Theories of Personality). A number of Psy.D. programs require courses in both of these areas. Clinical disorders have biological aspects, and the most serious disorders require drug treatment as well as psychotherapy. Even counseling with relatively healthy populations requires an understanding of neuroscience. Likewise, a helping professional needs an understanding of the psychological processes of learning and cognition. Many graduate programs in clinical and counseling psychology (including Psy.D. programs) require courses in these areas. Programs that do this are most likely to have a requirement covered by the B.U. course in Behavioral Neuroscience. However, the B.U. courses in Learning and Cognitive Psychology also have substantial neuroscience coverage; this can be mentioned in your application. The helping professional also needs an understanding of developmental and social processes (covered by the B.U. courses in Early Child Development, Adolescent Development, or Adulthood and Aging, and by our Social Psychology course). Many graduate programs in clinical and counseling psychology (including Psy.D. programs) require courses in these areas. A number of graduate programs in school psychology, and Psy.D. clinical psychology programs, require a course in testing (covered by the B.U. course in Tests and Measurements). In addition, the BU courses in Psychology of Gender, Introduction to Clinical Psychology, Community Psychology, Behavior Modification, and some Psychology Seminar topics are relevant to clinical/counseling concerns, and may bolster an application to a graduate program in a helping profession. Note that the undergraduate Clinical Psychology course can help you learn more abut that profession, but is not required by graduate programs in that field. Our course in History of Psychology offers an overview of psychology that strengthens an application. Our course in Advanced Experimental Design is helpful in performing a research project, and is helpful for a doctoral-program admission and for the first graduate statistics course. Our course in Theory and Practice of Academic Psychology (for teaching assistants in the General Psychology course) is an excellent overview of the entire discipline as well as helpful in obtaining a teaching assistantship in psychology graduate programs. Master’s programs in counseling and social work consider a broad background in psychology a strong preparation for those fields as well. They are much less likely to require specific psychology courses, but they do often require a statistics course, a broad educational background, and a Practicum or related, extensive volunteer or job experience. As you are choosing and taking psychology courses, think about a related issue: For graduate school, you usually will need three recommendation letters from Psychology Department faculty. Consider carefully whom you will eventually ask for these letters. A strong recommendation letter gives details based on personal knowledge of your academic skills, accomplishments and strengths, particularly in courses you had with this faculty member. The specialty area of the faculty member does not matter. Even in an application to a clinical psychology program, a strong, detailed letter from an experimental psychologist is better than a letter from a clinical psychologist who doesn’t know much about your academic performance or strengths. Practicum and Research Experiences In addition to the Psychology courses above, for graduate study in a helping profession you need to consider a Psychology Practicum and an Independent Study research project. Students seeking admission to doctoral clinical/counseling programs, Ph.D. or Psy.D, should do both. Those seeking a master’s degree for a helping profession should perform a Psychology Practicum or related clinical experience, and strongly consider an Independent Study. An Independent Study research project is done in one semester, for three credits, with advance preparation and supervision by a faculty member. (If you are in the honors program, you are required to complete a year-long six-credit project.) Early in the semester preceding the term in which you want to do a research project, meet with a few faculty to find out about their research interests and to discuss yours. Then choose one faculty member and work with him or her to plan your independent research. Working with that faculty supervisor, you must submit a proposal to the Dean of Liberal Arts during the semester preceding your research project. To test initially your interest in actual clinical/counseling work, and your actual tolerance for its challenges and difficulties, you should complete a Psychology Practicum for academic credit, or a non-credit clinical experience such as a summer job or volunteer commitment. The principal advantage of the Psychology Practicum is supervision: you have both a faculty supervisor and a supervisor in your Practicum setting to help you gain the best experience and to help you understand what you are learning. The length of this experience, and its depth in terms of responsibility undertaken and learning experienced, depends on your purposes and on constraints of time, other coursework, and related factors. However, we can make some generalizations. A Practicum occurs during a fall or spring semester (there is no summer Practicum), and is best done for at least two full days per week. (This involves taking at least six credits of Psychology Practicum.) This is because the student must be oriented and trained before she or he can be trusted to have actual client contact. In addition to time spent in the practicum setting, Psychology Practicum includes reading and writing assignments and time in weekly Practicum class meetings. You must balance the benefits of credits and time in Psychology Practicum with the benefits of other classes or experiences. We don’t advise more than nine credits in Psychology Practicum if you want to go to graduate school. There some good reasons to take a Practicum during the fall semester, if you can, but they don’t apply to everyone. If you seek to go directly on to graduate school in the fall following graduation in May from B.U., you will have completed your Practicum, and be able to give details about your Practicum experiences, as part of your applications. That is preferable to writing about your plans for a spring Practicum that you have not actually done yet. In addition, with a fall Practicum you could have your Practicum field supervisor and/or your Practicum faculty supervisor write a recommendation letter that can discuss your Practicum performance. Finally, there usually are fewer students seeking Practicum experiences in the fall than in the spring, and thus more variety of Practicum settings available. For more information on gaining a practicum, see the document “Securing Your Practicum” at: http://intranet.bloomu.edu/psychology-practicum Outside the Major Undergraduate study is your best chance to take a course just because it is interesting to you -- a course in Shakespeare, an art studio course, a musical instrument or voice, anatomy and physiology, cultural anthropology, or whatever interests you. The Psychology major is designed to allow that; indeed, we encourage it. Graduate programs are not interested in training psychological technicians who have finished a predetermined list of courses and who know and care little about disciplines outside psychology. Broad interests foster better-educated individuals, a more civilized society, and better professional psychologists. We have seen psychology majors shut out of their desired careers because of deficiencies in writing and quantitative skills. Seek out courses that emphasize and address these skills, and work hard on improving them. Take advantage of the services in the Writing Center. We strongly recommend a minor and/or career concentration in addition to the psychology major. A minor can be in any field that you are interested in. A minor in philosophy, biology, anthropology, sociology, criminal justice, or communication studies bears a clear relationship to a helping career. However, a minor in music, art (studio or history), theatre arts, creative writing, history, geography, or another field provides a useful background for future helping professions. An interdisciplinary minor, such as Gender and Women’s Studies, Ethnic Studies in the U.S., Latin American Studies, or Middle Eastern Studies equips you with a useful background for working with these populations. Many psychology majors also choose a career concentration to complement the Psychology major, in Families, Children and Youth, or Gerontology, or Exceptionalities. Many psychology courses count toward the Families, Children and Youth and Gerontology concentrations. However, understand that a minor is more widely recognized by graduate schools than a career concentration. Psychology majors who plan carefully can do both. A psychology major interested in pursuing a master’s degree in clinical social work should take the Introduction to Social Work course. Speak with the instructor or another social work faculty member about your interests and questions about a master’s degree in social work and your interest in clinical social work. Courses in sociology are also a good background for clinical social work. Remember that sociology and social work are two separate fields with different perspectives. Marriage and Family, for instance, is a sociology course, although it provides very helpful background for social work. There is a minor in sociology at B.U., but not in social work. Applying to Graduate School. Whatever your plans for applying to graduate school, work closely with at least one member of the Psychology Department faculty. All Psychology faculty members know a great deal about this process, and about graduate study. Some of us also know a great deal about careers in the helping professions – much more than we can summarize in this web document. After you have read this document and know about pathways to the helping professions in general, we can customize our advice to your specific interests, strengths, limitations, and questions. We have known a small number of students who tried to do this on their own, and almost all of them fell short of their potential. Be assertive about consulting us.   This is often one of the most rewarding parts of our work. Two faculty members may not always agree on what they believe is the best pathway for you. That’s good, actually; it can lead you to think in more depth about your hopes, strengths, and priorities. Applying to graduate school has moments of intense hope, intense work, long periods of waiting, moments of disappointment, and almost always a conclusion that can fill you with hope and anticipation, even joy – although you may not end up where you expected to be. Your faculty mentors have been through this, and we want to support and guide you in this process. In turn, we need for you to be honest with us, discussing your hopes, goals, strengths, limitations, disappointments, and uplifts. Only then can we provide you with the best help. Select psychology and other courses carefully, develop a plan to prepare for the Graduate Record Examinations (G.R.E.’s), and see psychology faculty early and often for advice. Consider carefully whom you will ask for recommendation letters. They should know your academic performance and strengths well, and preferably have had you as a student in more than one course. Resources to Use If you plan to apply to master’s or doctoral programs in psychology, consult the A.P.A Graduate Study in Psychology book for information on specific programs, including statistics on admissions criteria not available elsewhere. Also consult website links given in this document, and specific graduate program websites. For other fields, begin with weblinks in sections on those fields earlier in this document. If you are applying to doctoral programs, we strongly recommend that you buy or share a guidebook on gaining admission to doctoral programs (not the A.P.A. book above; see our later section, “Further Reading”). These guidebooks provide program comparisons, tips on writing applications and preparing for interviews, and other information not available elsewhere. Most graduate programs accept new students only in the fall semester. You should begin early as the application process is lengthy and often expensive. (See our table later in this document, “Time Line for Graduate School Planning and Applications”.) For psychology programs, master’s and doctoral levels, read the faculty interests on the program website. Consider writing to an individual professor who has clinical or research interests similar to yours. Remember there is no “best” school for training in a helping profession. You are searching for a set of programs that match your personal goals, interests, and strengths. Graduate Record Examination (GRE) GRE scores are an important and sometimes determining factor in graduate school admission. However, programs differ in whether they require the G.R.E. and how they use the scores. Check to see whether the schools in which you are interested require the G.R.E. General and/or Advanced Subject Test in Psychology. Master’s and doctoral programs in psychology usually require GRE scores for application. Master’s programs in counseling often do so, but not always. Master’s programs in social work seldom require G.R.E. scores (they look for Practicum and/or extensive volunteer or work experience). Take the G.R.E. Preparation course (non-credit) offered by the Psychology Department, preferably during your junior year. Take the G.R.E. itself soon after your junior year or early in your senior year. (See our table later in this document, “Time Line for Graduate School Planning and Applications”.) Understand that your G.R.E. scores may determine which programs that you can apply to, so do this early. Also understand that G.R.E. scores needed for doctoral programs are higher than for master’s programs, and are often higher for psychology programs than for programs in related areas. You will need to disclose your G.R.E. scores to the Psychology Department member(s) who are advising you about applying to graduate schools (unless you are applying only to programs that don’t require them). Only then can we give your our best advice. We don’t consider G.R.E. scores the true measure of your intelligence, or of how much you have learned in college. We don’t judge students’ worth by their G.R.E. scores. We do need to know your scores, for two reasons. First, we can help you decide which programs are worth the money and effort needed for an application, and which aren’t, depending on their required or recommended G.R.E. scores. Second, we may be willing to say in a recommendation letter, based on our experience with you as a student, that a specific G.R.E. scores underestimates your abilities in that area, and explain that judgment. A good resource to read about this is on the A.P.A. website. Although it is written with doctoral programs in mind, some of what it says also applies to other programs: http://www.apa.org/gradpsych/2009/03/score.aspx Narrowing Choices After you have reviewed information from your desired programs and received your GRE scores you should decide on a final list of graduate schools to which to apply. Discuss with at least one advisor how many programs to which to apply. If you apply to doctoral programs, make sure that you also apply to several master’s programs as back-up choices. Realistically assess your chances for getting into a program based on your academic qualifications and the school’s admission requirements (speak to at least one Psychology Department advisor about choosing these. Don’t waste your money and time on applying to programs at which you have now chance of admission. Be tough about assessing your qualifications such as grades (especially in upper-level psychology courses) and GRE scores. Apply to at least two levels of graduate programs. Discuss these with at least one Psychology Department faculty member. First, choose several programs that are competitive, but for which you have a realistic chance of admission. Second, apply to at least two programs that are less competitive, where you are very likely to be admitted, and that you would be willing to attend if necessary. Third, if you choose and can afford the time and money, consider applying to one or two programs that are highly desirable but where you have a small chance of being accepted. Rank the programs in order of preference, and keep that list. It may help you make choices later. You can revise the list at any time. Letters of Recommendation Carefully choose three individuals you wish to write your letters of recommendation, and ask if they will do this for you. Consider which faculty members know your academic performance best, preferably by teaching you in at least two classes or in a Practicum or Independent Study. One recommender may be a person outside the Psychology Department: a faculty member in another field, or a Practicum supervisor. Contact each recommender at least one month ahead of your first deadline. If you have questions about choices, consult a faculty member. When you ask a potential recommender to write letters for you, ask if they can write a strong recommendation letter for you. That’s what you want, and if a potential recommender has reservations about doing this, they will tell you that. Then consider asking someone else. When you have a final list of programs for which you will need letters from a recommender, give that recommender a sheet that summarizes the name and degree of each program (e.g., Ph.D. in school psychology) and the deadline for the letter. Most graduate programs will also require that the recommender complete a rating form about you. Depending on the graduate program, these forms, and recommendation letters, may be on paper or on a program’s secure website. The program will ask if you wish to waive your right to see the recommendation letter and ratings; we recommend that you waive this right. Most programs, especially competitive ones, believe that this makes the letter more honest. If this is on a paper rating form that you give recommenders, indicate your choice and sign the form. If your recommender is to mail the recommendation to the program, or in a sealed envelope to you, make sure to give the recommender the correct address. Always give each recommender your email address so that it is handy if they have questions. Writing the Personal Statement; Preparing for an Interview In your application, you likely will be asked to provide some sort of personal statement about your goals and reasons for choosing a particular program. Consult carefully with a faculty advisor about this, and ask that person to review a draft of one. If you are applying for doctoral programs, also consult the chapter on this in a guidebook for applying to graduate schools (see “Further Reading” at the end of this document). Many programs, but not all, will choose a fairly small number of applicants to interview, in person or by phone, then make final admissions selections after that. If you are invited for an interview, consult with at least one faculty advisor about preparing for it. Research the program thoroughly; note carefully the faculty’s interests and specialties. Preparing for interviews is also covered comprehensively in guidebooks, but must be customized to the specific program. Some likely questions for interviews at graduate programs in the helping professions concern: your career goals and how this graduate program fits them; the client populations with whom you are most interested in working; the clinical experiences and research topics that interest you in that graduate program; your research and Practicum experiences as an undergraduate at B.U.; the theoretical approaches to counseling or psychotherapy that interest you most. In an interview, you will be asked if you have any questions, so have a list prepared before you go. Remember that the interview is also your chance to assess the suitability of the graduate program for your goals. Assertively ask questions and gather all possible information. Ask about financial aid, especially assistantships and scholarships. Talk with students currently attending that program. It is a good idea to informally role-play questions and possible responses for the interview, with a friend or faculty member. A good online introduction to personal statements and interviews is available at: http://www.apa.org/gradpsych/2006/01/applicati.aspx Making the Final Selection This requires tedious waiting and then timely action. Not all programs will notify you at once. See an advisor to help throughout this process! Remember, you only need one good offer! (Dr. Dalton got into only one doctoral clinical psychology program, in late April. But that was all he needed.) If you receive an offer from a school that is not your top choice, let them know that you are very interested in their program and ask for a deadline for your reply. Then call the programs higher on your list and inquire about the status of your application. You may be placed on an alternate or waiting list, meaning that if the program’s top choices for students do not accept, they will offer admission to you. Do not take this as a rejection; it means they would be happy to have you as a student, but you are not in the top group. Call or email the program to ask how far down you are on the alternate list. Be sure to ask about financial aid when making the decision. If your choices are difficult, talk to at least one Psychology Department advisor, at least once. Do not accept an offer unless you are certain you will attend that program. When you have made your choice, inform all the other programs that accepted you. If you do not receive an acceptance from any of your schools, don’t despair. See a Psychology Department advisor. Explore your options with us. Self-Care and Social Support Applying to graduate school has moments of intense hope, intense work, long periods of waiting, moments of disappointment, and almost always a conclusion that can fill you with hope and anticipation, even joy – although you may not end up where you expected to be. You need to plan carefully for taking care of yourself during this process. That includes your own coping techniques, and social support you will need from others. Applying to graduate school is too important and too demanding to do alone. Your faculty members, in psychology or other departments, have been through this process. We remember its highs and lows for us. We want to support and guide you in this process; it’s one of the best parts of our job. In turn, we need for you to be honest with us, discussing your hopes, goals, strengths, limitations, disappointments, and uplifts. Only then can we provide you with the best help. Plan your work to spread it out over time. Exploring professions and specific graduate programs, taking G.R.E’s, writing applications – all this takes time, careful thought, and seeking of advice. Set aside moderate amounts of time spread over days and weeks. Working on anything about graduate school and your future raises your anxiety. That can block you from doing your work in a timely way. Focus on a small task, or several small tasks that you can do each day or week. Small wins pave the way to larger successes. To help get you through all this, cultivate a daily practice of some activity that promotes your own peace of mind. There are many ways to do this, and taking the time for that is well worth it in the long run. As much as you can, separate the process and outcome of graduate school applications from your overall self-esteem and self-respect. This is a competitive process, especially at the doctoral level. Many very qualified students, who will be very competent professionals in the future, will not be accepted by the graduate program(s) that they most want to attend. That is not about them, or you – it’s about the complexity of matching a large pool of applicants with a limited number of open seats in each graduate program. Deciding from among your second, third, or lower choices is a common experience – and in the long run, you will likely discover that the program where you ended up was a very good match for you after all. Don’t assume that there is only one profession, one graduate school, one pathway for you. There are many pathways to satisfying, rewarding work in the helping professions. Consider the options. Seek advice from faculty members about specific programs where the BU Psychology major has sent students in the past. Apply to a range of programs in which you are interested, at different levels of difficulty in admissions. Establish a relationship with a primary faculty advisor. Consult that mentor often during the process of planning, applying, waiting, interviewing, and choosing among acceptances. Don’t be shy about discussing (in general terms) personal commitments that may affect your decisions, such as a relationship that will affect your decisions about where to you would be willing to live. Finally, don’t be shy about asking that mentor to discuss some difficult aspect of the applicant process with you – personal statement, upcoming interview, final decision, or other steps. Cultivate a relationship with a supportive peer or two – another psychology major who is applying to graduate programs. That may or may not be one of your closest friends; there are advantages to choosing someone who is not as emotionally close to you. Think carefully about this choice; you want this relationship to be supportive, not competitive. Then make time to talk with that person often about how things are going for each of you. This can help support you in getting the work done, balancing applications with coursework, sounding out your thoughts and decisions, and providing support when you are discouraged. Be willing to provide as much support to your peer as you expect to receive. (If your peer wants more time than you have to provide, find a way to talk about what is realistic for both of you.) A faculty mentor and a peer provide different ideas and different forms of support, but you will need both. Prepare to be rejected by some of the graduate programs where you applied. As much as you can, separate that outcome from your self-esteem. Some faculty have recommended finding your own ritual or method for handling the immediate sting of a rejection letter, something that both recognizes your disappointment and allows you put it behind you and move on. Focus on renewing your hope and resilience. Finally, be hopeful, resilient, and optimistic. In our experience, students who plan and work carefully throughout the whole process, who seek and heed advice from one or more faculty members, and who cultivate supportive relationships with peers, are able to find graduate programs that are good matches for them, and that will enable them to pursue a rewarding professional future. Timeline for Graduate School Planning and Applications. Freshman and sophomore years Take 100-200-level psychology courses, especially our Statistics and Experimental Methods and Applications courses. Take a broad range of courses that will strengthen your writing and quantitative skills, and broaden your cultural perspective. Consider a minor and/or career concentration. See a Psychology Department member for advisement, at least once a semester. Join the Psychology Association and consider volunteering to help in faculty research. Junior Year Take 300-level psychology courses. Continue courses in other disciplines that will strengthen writing and quantitative skills. Plan when to do a Practicum. Plan when to do an independent research project. Take the GRE Preparation course and practice exam, General Test and take practice exams, unless you are certain you will apply to programs that do not require it, e.g. many social work programs. See Psychology Department advisor(s) for help with all this Summer before senior year Take GRE General Test, if required by programs in which you are interested. Begin choosing the types of programs to which you will apply (e.g., clinical psychology, school psychology, social work). Explore information about specific graduate programs. If applying to doctoral programs, buy and read a guidebook on applying to graduate schools in psychology. Early fall of senior year Conduct an Independent Study research project. Plan for presentation at an undergraduate research conference or at the Eastern Psychological Association in the spring. Take a Practicum in the fall, or plan one for the spring. Take capstone psychology course(s). Take GRE Subject Test in Psychology, if required by programs to which you will apply. Choose programs to which you will apply. Include acceptable backup programs where you are likely to be admitted. See Psychology Department advisor(s) for help with all this. Be honest, ask questions, listen carefully. Find a friend with whom you can be honest about your hopes, fears, hassles, disappointments, and uplifts. Also, one you are willing to support in return. Perhaps one who is also applying for graduate schools, but with whom you can be honest and supportive, not competitive. By Dec. 1 of senior year (doctoral level); By Feb. 1 of senior year (master’s level) Write applications for graduate programs. Ask an advisor to review your plans and personal statements. At least one month before the application deadline, ask three persons to write letters of recommendation. Discuss your goals and plans with each person. Provide each with all necessary forms, information, and addresses. February-March of senior year Conduct a Practicum or Independent Study research, if not done earlier. If invited to an interview, discuss it with an advisor and practice ahead of time. Practice your waiting skills; patience is a virtue. April-May of senior year See your advisor for advice about good news, bad news, choices, and questions. For doctoral programs, commitments made on or after April 15 are to be final. See also the timeline for doctoral programs on the APA website. Remember: our students have had very good fortune in graduate admissions when they seek and use advisement early and often. Further Reading. Books American Psychological Association. (Updated biyearly). Graduate study in psychology. Washington, DC: Author. (Listings and descriptions of doctoral and master’s programs in psychology and some related fields. Use this in conjunctions with an advisor. A copy can be used in Psychology Department office; no need to buy this one. You can also purchase online access to this volume.) (Note: the best way to use this guide is to choose whether you seek master’s or doctoral training, choose a specialty in which you seek training, and perhaps choose a geographic region, then review the programs that fit your choices.) American Psychological Association. (2008). Getting in: A step-by-step plan for gaining admission to graduate school in psychology (2nd edition). Washington, DC: Author. Buy, read and use this guidebook if you intend to apply to doctoral programs in psychology. Consider it if you intend to apply to other programs. Keith-Speigel, P., & Wiederman, M. (2000). The complete guide to graduate school admission: Psychology and related fields. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates [E-book: Taylor & Francis e-Library]. A very useful guidebook with lots of specific advice not available in the A.P.A. Graduate Study book: e.g., writing applications and personal statements, doing well in interviews, other topics. This advice doesn’t need to be updated yearly. A copy can be read in the Psychology Department. Applying to graduate school in psychology: Advice from successful students and prominent psychologists. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Many tips and suggestions, mostly with doctoral programs in mind. A useful addition to other sources on this list, but don’t rely on this alone. Norcross, J., & Sayette, M. (published biyearly). Insider’s guide to graduate programs in clinical and counseling psychology. New York: Guilford Press. Buy, read and use this guidebook if you intend to apply to doctoral programs in these areas of psychology. Essential inside tips and comparisons of these programs, with information not available in the A.P.A. Graduate Study book, such as whether programs emphasize research or clinical practice, and the dominant theoretical orientation(s) in a program. Websites American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org Information on applying to graduate programs: http://www.apa.org/education/grad/applying.aspx Information on careers and fields in psychology (requiring doctoral degrees): http://www.apa.org/careers/resources/guides/careers.aspx National Association of School Psychologists: http://www.nasponline.org/ Good information for students at: http://www.nasponline.org/about_sp/whatis.aspx Council on Social Work Education: http://www.cswe.org Listing of accredited programs in social work: http://www.cswe.org/Accreditation.aspx Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs: http://www.cacrep.org/template/index.cfm Listings of graduate programs accredited by C.A.C.R.E.P.: http://www.cacrep.org/directory/directory.cfm American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy: http://www.aamft.org Fraud, Waste and Abuse Hotline
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Result 17
Title4 Steps to Becoming a Psychologist
Urlhttps://www.bestpsychologydegrees.org/how-to-become-a-psychologist/
Description
DateStep 1. Get Started with an Undergraduate Degree
Organic Position14
H1How to Become a Psychologist
H2Step 1. Get Started with an Undergraduate Degree
Step 2. Complete a Master’s Degree in Psychology and Consider a Master’s-Level License
Step 3. Complete a Doctoral Degree: PhD or PsyD
Step 4. Earn a State License to Practice Psychology
H3
H2WithAnchorsStep 1. Get Started with an Undergraduate Degree
Step 2. Complete a Master’s Degree in Psychology and Consider a Master’s-Level License
Step 3. Complete a Doctoral Degree: PhD or PsyD
Step 4. Earn a State License to Practice Psychology
BodyHow to Become a PsychologistFeatured Programs:Sponsored School(s) Post UniversityFeatured Program: Online Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Request Info Southern New Hampshire UniversityFeatured Program: Online BS, MS in Psychology with many different focus options. Request Info Capella UniversityFeatured Program: Online programs include a BS in Psychology, as well as Master's, PhD, and PsyD programs in over a dozen specialty areas. Request Info Liberty UniversityFeatured Program: Bachelor of Science in Psychology and Ph.D. in Psychology – General Track Request Info Want to unravel the mysteries of the human condition? … Explore the universe of the human psyche? … Already have a specialized area of practice in mind that fascinates you?There are literally dozens of subfields to explore when it comes to studying and practicing psychology, making it one of the most vast and diverse fields of study.As a psychologist or psychological associate (a common term used to describe professionals educated at the master’s level), you could work in academia, government, or in private settings, where you conduct basic and applied research… You could work as a therapist, assessing and treating individual clients with mental, emotional, and behavioral problems or couples with marital issues… You could work as an addiction counselor, talking through issues related to substance abuse problems or behavioral addictions that drive patients to compulsively engage in online gaming, sex, or gambling… Or in an in-patient clinical setting where you’d work with severe cases including patients suffering from schizophrenia, acute paranoia, or self-harming behavior…   You could even serve as a consultant to community organizations, private industry, and government agencies.Your work may take you to laboratories, hospitals, courtrooms, prisons, schools and universities, corporations, and public health agencies. You could work independently or alongside any number of professionals, from scientists and physicians to lawyers, law enforcement officials, and policymakers. You could focus your research or practice on any number of individuals or populations, including children, older adults, business executives, and inmates, just to name a few. You could even dedicate your career to addressing societal issues like domestic violence or developmental disabilities like autism and ADHD.While there is an abundance of professional options and opportunities within the field of psychology, there is a common thread that runs through them all: earning a graduate degree in psychology.While a bachelor’s degree in psychology provides a solid foundation for future study and is often the minimum for working as a research associate, social worker, counselor or similar professional in the human services field, the master’s or doctoral degree has become the standard for earning the state license you need to practice psychology.Here’s what you need to do to become a psychologist:Step 1. Get Started with an Undergraduate DegreeStep 2. Complete a Master’s Degree in Psychology and Consider a Master’s-Level LicenseStep 3. Complete a Doctoral Degree: PhD or PsyDStep 4. Earn a State License to Practice PsychologyStep 1. Get Started with an Undergraduate Degree. Before you can begin your study at the graduate level, you must, of course, complete an undergraduate degree from an accredited college or university. While many people interested in becoming psychologists choose to complete an undergraduate degree in the same discipline, it’s not always a requirement to enter a master’s or doctoral degree in psychology.In fact, according to the American Psychological Association (APA), just 15 percent of all graduate programs in psychology require an undergraduate psychology major.Maybe you’ve already completed an undergraduate degree in a related area like social work, public health, marketing, or personnel management that can serve as a foundation for the psychology subfield you want to focus on in your career.However, it’s worth noting that, according to the APA, most graduate programs require candidates to have completed at least 18 credits of basic coursework during their undergraduate program, including statistics and research methods, so it’s always worthwhile to ensure the undergraduate program you choose will prepare you for future graduate study.Of course, earning a bachelor’s in psychology is undoubtedly the smartest choice if you’re just getting started and have plans for master’s or doctoral study, as it provides the most relevant foundation, teaching critical thinking, research ethics, and scientific problem solving in the context of psychology. Psychology remains one of the most readily available undergraduate degrees in the U.S., with the majority of four-year institutions offering a psychology bachelor’s degree.It’s also one of the most popular undergraduate degrees, according to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), which reported that during the 2013-14 academic year, psychology came in fourth for the number of degrees conferred. While many students who want to become a psychologist choose to complete a bachelor’s degree in psychology, it’s also become a popular undergraduate degree choice for students interested in pursuing master’s degrees in disciplines like healthcare, social work, law, and education, among others.You can complete either a Bachelor of Arts (BA) or a Bachelor of Science (BS) in Psychology, which consists of about 120 credits and four years of study.The major difference between the two is that the BS will often include a more extensive psychology course list, while a BA will often provide a broader course of study in the social and behavioral sciences. However, the APA notes that both the BA and BS in Psychology are an ideal choice for students interested in becoming psychologists.This is because both types of programs feature a general core that includes courses in research methods, statistical analysis, and an introduction to the principles of psychology. Other courses within a bachelor’s degree in psychology often include:Abnormal psychologyDevelopmental psychologySocial psychologyPsychological disordersResearch is often embedded into the psychology courses, and outside research assignments are commonplace.Step 2. Complete a Master’s Degree in Psychology and Consider a Master’s-Level License. A master’s degree in psychology is no longer considered just a stepping stone to a doctorate in psychology, as today’s master’s prepared psychologists enjoy a wide array of professional opportunities. The APA recognizes master’s-prepared psychologists as psychological associates or assistants. Depending on the state in which you live, you may be able to practice independently, similar to your doctorate-prepared colleagues.Each state sets its own standards for the practice of master’s-level psychological associates. While some states license these professionals as they do doctorate-prepared psychologists, other states limit regulation to a simple registration process. Some states require that psychological associates work under the supervision of doctorate-prepared psychologists, while others allow them to work independently. Still many other states don’t regulate these professionals at all.For example, if you live in Tennessee or Oklahoma, you can practice independently as a state-licensed psychological assistant, while in Indiana and Texas, you can practice independently as a school psychologist with a master’s degree. If you live in California or North Carolina, you must work under the direct supervision of a board-certified psychologist. About half of all states, including New York and Florida, do not regulate the practice of psychological associates at all.This means it’s important to research the requirements (if any) for the practice of master’s-level psychological associates through your state licensing board.Master’s degrees in psychology are offered as either a Master of Science (MS) or Master of Arts (MA). Though not set in stone, in general, an MS in Psychology will lend itself well to a career in research and further study to earn a PhD, which is historically a research-focused degree; while an MA in Psychology is often a better fit for students who want to practice psychology or earn a practice-focused PsyD.Master’s degrees may be terminal, stand-alone programs, or they may be part of a track that includes a doctoral degree program. Regardless, they consist of about two years of full-time study and between 50-60 credits. Many institutions offer flexible curriculum options for the completion of a master’s degree in psychology, including fully or partially online programs and part-time study.You may study general psychology or delve into one or more subspecialties, with focus options that include:Clinical psychologySchool psychologyCounseling psychologyNeuropsychologyForensic psychologyIndustrial-organizational psychologyBehavioral and cognitive psychologyGeropsychologyAccording to the APA, the top three terminal master’s degree programs include clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and industrial/organizational psychology.A terminal master’s degree will include a supervised experience at an approved internship site. You may also need to complete a thesis as part of your program. All programs that are part of a doctoral degree track will require you to complete a thesis. At the end of the program, you will petition for admission into the school’s doctoral program.Admission RequirementsIf you want to enter a master’s program in psychology, be prepared to possess a competitive GPA from your undergraduate degree and minimum GRE scores. Because these programs tend to be competitive, other requirements often include submitting letters of recommendation and a curriculum vitae, as well as sitting for a personal interview.Step 3. Complete a Doctoral Degree: PhD or PsyD. If you want to extend your level of education to the doctoral level to become a board-certified and licensed psychologist, you’ll either apply for a doctoral program in psychology upon completion of your master’s degree or as part of a combination master’s/doctoral program.Doctoral programs are designed as either a PsyD, geared toward the student who wants to practice, and the PhD, geared toward the graduate who wants to pursue a research-focused career. Some may also be designed as EdD degrees, for those with a goal of working in academia. The exact trajectory of your doctoral program will depend on a number of factors, including your sequence of education and training, so your doctoral course of study may be quite different from a colleague’s course of study.However, all programs require the completion of a comprehensive examination and a dissertation defense or other scholarly project. The APA Commission on Accreditation accredits clinical, counseling, and school doctoral programs, internship programs, and post-doctoral residency programs. Some states require candidates to complete an APA-accredited program.The completion of a PsyD program includes a one-year internship and at least one year in a post-doctoral residency in your chosen area of practice.Step 4. Earn a State License to Practice Psychology. To become a master’s-level psychological associate:In about half of all U.S. states, there are no requirements to practice as a psychological associate, while among states that license/register psychological associates, you may need to show proof of the completion of an internship or other post-grad experience and pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP). A few states also require candidates to pass a jurisprudence and/or oral examination.However, even among states that do not regulate psychological associates, jobs for these professionals always demand a minimum of a master’s degree in psychology.The EPP consists of 175 scored questions and is administered through Pearson VUE. Not all states that license/register psychological associates require taking and passing this exam.To become a doctorate-level psychologist:All 50 states require psychologists to be state licensed before they can independently practice psychology. Note: If you plan to work in academia (college or university), in a state or federal institution, in a private corporation, or in a research setting, you may not need to be licensed. License are typically only required for psychologists providing assessment and therapy direct to the public on an out-patient basis or within a clinical setting. Find out the requirements in place with your state licensing board to determine whether or not you’ll need a state license.Before you can qualify to take the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP). your state licensing board will first review your education and practical experience.In addition to a doctoral degree in psychology from an accredited college or university, most states require at least two years of supervised professional experience—about 2,000 hours in an internship and about 2,000 hours post-doc, in most cases. Some states, like Michigan, however, can require much more (6,000 supervised hours), while some states, like California (3,000 supervised hours) require less. Some states also require taking and passing a jurisprudence examination prior to state licensure.Rankings. The 10 Best Psychology Bachelors ProgramsTop 10 Online Child Psychology ProgramsTop 10 Online Psychology Masters ProgramsThe 10 Best Online Psychology ProgramsThe 10 Best Psychology Associates ProgramsPsych Subfields. Child PsychologyClinical PsychologyForensic PsychologySchool PsychologySports PsychologyMore...Subject Guides. Child Psychology GuideCognitive Psychology Resource GuideFeatures. Broke and Broken? The Psychological Effects of Poverty (Infographic)Oxytocin: How One Molecule Shapes Our Social Lives (Infographic)Parents Matter (Infographic)Stress and Your Health (Infographic)American Psychology (Infographic)The Psychology of Choice (Infographic)10 People Who Gained Extraordinary Abilities From Brain Damage10 Most Bizarre Branches of ParapsychologyThe Psychology of Disappointment (Infographic)Privacy Policy | Terms of UseReturn to top of pageCopyright © 2022 bestpsychologydegrees.org
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TitleThe Pros and Cons of Getting a Master’s Degree in Psychology | BestValueSchools
Urlhttps://www.bestvalueschools.com/the-pros-and-cons-of-getting-a-masters-degree-in-psychology/
Description
DateMay 26, 2021
Organic Position15
H1The Pros and Cons of Getting a Master’s Degree in Psychology
H2Featured Online Programs
What Is a Master’s in Psychology?
What Does Someone With a Master’s Degree in Psychology Do?
The Pros of Getting a Master’s Degree in Psychology
The Cons of Getting a Master’s Degree in Psychology
How to Decide if a Master’s Degree is Right for You
Alternatives to a Master’s Degree in Psychology
Get prepared for your next steps
Discover a program that is right for you
H3
H2WithAnchorsFeatured Online Programs
What Is a Master’s in Psychology?
What Does Someone With a Master’s Degree in Psychology Do?
The Pros of Getting a Master’s Degree in Psychology
The Cons of Getting a Master’s Degree in Psychology
How to Decide if a Master’s Degree is Right for You
Alternatives to a Master’s Degree in Psychology
Get prepared for your next steps
Discover a program that is right for you
BodyThe Pros and Cons of Getting a Master’s Degree in Psychology Laura Leavitt | Contributing Writer May 26, 2021 Are you ready to find your fit? The study of the human mind and any abnormalities or mental health issues that accompany the brain is a key component to programs that offer master’s in psychology degrees. The insights you learn in these programs are one of the main benefits of majoring in psychology. That said, it takes a significant time and money investment in order to earn a master’s degree in any field, psychology included. Because of the high cost of graduate degrees, most students expect to see a positive return on investment in terms of expanded job opportunities or higher pay — or both. The good news is that a master’s in psychology can be a valuable asset in your job search. This degree can be useful for employment opportunities in a variety of fields, from family services to behavioral counseling and beyond, and it may open up salary opportunities that you otherwise may not have had. Before you start applying for admission into master’s in psychology programs, though, it’s important to understand the pros and cons of this degree and learn whether earning one is the right move for you.  Featured Online Programs. Figuring out where to apply? These top, accredited schools offer a variety of online degrees. Consider one of these accredited programs. What Is a Master’s in Psychology? . Masters degrees in psychology are graduate degrees that allow students to gain specialized knowledge in a particular area of psychology. This type of degree prepares students for certain careers in psychology, from research to clinical counselor or school counseling or licensed marriage and family counseling.This type of master’s degree expands on and specializes in the type of psychology theory you learned at a bachelor’s level. Earning a master’s degree in psychology typically takes between two to four years to complete after you’ve earned your four-year bachelor’s degree, and it is more likely to open up doors in psychology-related jobs than just a bachelor’s in psychology would. Master’s in psychology programs allow you to narrow your focus and most programs will expect some background in psychology already — which is part of why this degree is a great option for those who have already earned a bachelor’s in psychology at the undergraduate level. When you pursue a master’s degree in psychology, you’ll have a wide range of concentrations or specialities to choose from. For example, you may have the option of pursuing a master’s degree in clinical psychology, a master’s in experimental psychology, or a master’s in organizational psychology. No matter what route you choose, though, you’ll study the existing psychology scientific literature, learn about how psychologists and scientists work in these fields, and put your learning into practice through internships in clinical psychology or through your own psychological research.What Does Someone With a Master’s Degree in Psychology Do?Depending on the focus of your master’s degree in psychology, you may have the option to pursue a variety of roles, from acting as a consultant in organizational psychology in order to help businesses operate more effectively, to working as an assistant researcher in a lab, or working with clients on a one-on-one basis. Many master’s degree in psychology graduates will opt to continue their studies with a doctorate in psychology or a related field. In some cases, you may need a doctorate to be a practicing psychologist who can work with patients in a clinical setting, though it will depend heavily on the licensing requirements in your  state. You may not be required to pursue a doctoral degree in psychology to act as a practicing counselor, though. Some master’s degrees are structured to be terminal degrees, which allows you to practice clinically at that level.While the job duties you’re responsible for in this field will vary based on your education level, experience, area of expertise, and other factors, a typical day on the job with a master’s degree in psychology could include:Working with clinical patients in a counseling setting Organizing workplace systems and meeting with employees in a human resources settingFilling out paperwork to document meetings with clients in a government services settingSetting up and conducting experimental research with a psychological research teamThe Pros of Getting a Master’s Degree in Psychology. When you weigh the pros and cons of getting a master’s degree in psychology, there are a number of possible benefits to consider. A few of the benefits of majoring in psychology include:Versatility in the job marketMaster’s in psychology degrees are considered relevant in many employment capacities, which is one major benefit of pursuing this type of degree. This degree could lead to a job in a therapeutic or counseling setting, a human resources department at a business, or in a laboratory. You may also be able to make the case that a master’s degree in psychology is relevant for advertising, marketing, a variety of government services, and even prison and parole officer work. While your master’s is likely to focus on a particular career trajectory as a specialization, you’ll still have a variety of options available to you if you change your mind about where you want your career to head in the future.  The freedom to choose a specialty that interests youWhen you start narrowing down the available master’s in psychology programs, you’ll find that you can focus on a number of specialties within the psychology space. For example, if you have a knack for and an interest in business, you may have the option to pursue a master’s in business psychology. If you particularly want to go into counseling, you can specialize in counseling psychology. If you love conducting research within this field, experimental psychology could be for you. The potential to directly help peopleIf you have a need to help people — especially those suffering from mental health issues or other issues that counseling or psychology could help — you may find this field extremely rewarding. After all, it does allow you to work directly with clients in a group or one-on-one setting, which lets you see firsthand how the work you do impacts others. With a degree from the right master’s in psychology program, you will gain access to a rewarding career that allows you to help many people on a day to day basis.Strong job outlook and growthThe job outlook for psychologists is expected to have a 3% growth through 2029, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is right on par with the average growth in other fields. That said, other areas of the field, which you can seek employment in with a master’s in psychology, are expected to grow at much faster rates. For example, the job outlook for marriage and family therapists is expected to grow by about 22% through 2029. Another area of psychology — substance abuse, behavioral disorder, and mental health counseling — is projected to grow by about 25% through 2029. Strong pay potential in many areasHaving a master’s degree in psychology tends to yield mid-range pay potential in most areas and higher-range pay in some areas. If you work to become a psychologist, the average yearly pay in this field was about $89,290 as of 2020, according to BLS data. The related field of mental health counseling had lower but still modest average annual pay of about $47,660 per year.The Cons of Getting a Master’s Degree in Psychology. You should also factor in the downsides or disadvantages of majoring in psychology when trying to decide whether to pursue this degree path. The cons of getting a master’s degree in psychology may include:Some jobs will require a doctorateIf you’re hoping to be finished with school after your master’s and want to work as a psychologist, you might want to consider your degree program carefully. The work a psychologist does tends to require both licensing at the state level and — in some cases — a doctorate. Your state is primarily what dictates whether you need a doctoral degree or a master’s degree to   state and the terms of the program dictate that you’ll be able to practice psychology after the masters program. Make sure you know what the requirements are before pursuing a graduate degree in this field.Minimal financial aid optionsUnlike bachelor’s degrees, master’s degree programs typically have fewer financial aid options, resulting in students having to take out more loans and gaining access to fewer grants. That could make this type of degree cost prohibitive for some students.That doesn’t mean you should discount the value of this degree, though. You’ll just want to talk to a financial aid counselor in order to get a complete picture of the cost of the program and your opportunities for financing it.Nonprofit and lower paying careers make it harder to pay back loansMany of the jobs in psychology are in nonprofit or helping fields, which often means you earn modest pay. Problem is, a lower paying job in the psychology field may not be enough to reduce the burden of your loan payback period. That’s why it’s important to be aware that if your goals in psychology involve public service or nonprofit work, you may face some hardship in paying for your degree out of your future earnings.Unexpected lack of career growthIf you’re considering experimental psychology or other fields in which people with doctorates take the lead, you’ll want to be prepared to work in lower roles like research assistant, which may be as far as you can advance without additional education. If you aren’t prepared to earn a doctoral degree in this field, just be aware that there may be unexpected “ceilings” you hit — even if you aren’t pursuing a role as a psychologist.Even successful careers can be emotionally taxingWhile many people find that helping and caregiving professions are rewarding, these fields also lead to potential for emotional drain and burnout. Remember that you are going to be helping a lot of people in some of their hardest moments, which can take a toll on your own mental health. This is less of a disadvantage of majoring in psychology than it is an occupational hazard, but you don’t want to pursue this type of degree unless you are fairly sure that you can cope with the emotional labor that comes with it. How to Decide if a Master’s Degree is Right for You. When weighing the pros and cons of a psychology major, you’ll want to first decide if you’re truly interested in working with clients who need guidance for mental health issues or other stressors. While a career in psychology encompasses more than just talk therapy, you will work with people who need support. If you’re ready and willing to take that on, along with the other potential cons in a helping field like this, then you may be on the right path with this degree. You’ll also want to talk to a guidance counselor or someone else with clear knowledge and association to the degree programs you’re considering about where their students typically end up working after graduation. If the possible career trajectories fit well with your goals and you can handle any costs associated with the program, you are likely to be on the right track while pursuing this degree. Alternatives to a Master’s Degree in Psychology. A master’s degree in psychology isn’t the only route you can take to end up in a helping field.If you’re interested in psychology, you may also want to look into other master’s programs, like master’s in social work (MSW), master’s in education (M. Ed.), or master’s in nursing or registered nurse (RN) programs, which would allow you to specialize in psychiatric nursing. If you haven’t studied psychology at the bachelor’s level yet, pursuing a bachelor’s in psychology part-time or online can be a way to see how far your interest leads before making the jump to a master’s program. Alternatively, you may find entry-level work in a counselor or therapist’s office or a psychologist’s lab before exploring the idea of a graduate degree. Doing that can give you first-hand exposure to the work you’d be doing instead of launching right into a master’s degree program without a clear idea of whether it’s the right fit. Laura Leavitt. CONTRIBUTING WRITER Laura Leavitt is a writer and teacher in Ohio who covers higher education for Best Value Schools. Her writing has appeared in Business Insider, Grad School Hub, The Billfold, The Financial Diet, and more. Fact-checked by. Angelica Leicht. SCHOOLS EDITOR Angelica Leicht is the schools editor at Best Value Schools who oversees our college rankings, school profiles, and other higher education coverage. She previously served as an education reporter at Kearney Hub, and an editor at the Dallas Observer and Houston Press. Her writing has appeared in Affordable Colleges Online, Bankrate, The Simple Dollar, and elsewhere. Get prepared for your next steps. Use articles and resources to uncover answers to common questions, get guidance on your goals, and learn about applying to schools. A Career Guide to Getting a Job With a Master’s in Psychology. June 25, 2021   |   Staff Writers If you’re pursuing a master’s degree in psychology, you may have been asked the following question: “What can you do with a master’s in psychology?” It may even be a... 8 Career Paths for a Master’s in Counseling Graduate. June 24, 2021   |   Erin Gobler Are you interested in helping others resolve their issues and hurdles through talk therapy? You may want to consider a career in the counseling field. Counseling is a field that’s... The Master’s in Mental Health Counseling Career Guide. June 16, 2021   |   Lyss Welding Mental health counseling jobs exist across many settings — from hospitals and government agencies to schools and private practices, and they’re projected to grow. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)... Discover a program that is right for you. Explore different options for you based on your degree interests. Close Latest Posts A Career Guide to Getting a Job With a Master’s in Psychology 8 Career Paths for a Master’s in Counseling Graduate The Master’s in Mental Health Counseling Career Guide 10 Reasons to Get a Master of Business Administration Degree The Best College Scholarship Options for LGBTQ+ Students
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Result 19
TitleMaster of Science in Psychology
Urlhttps://umdearborn.edu/casl/graduate-programs/programs/master-science-psychology
DescriptionThe Behavioral Sciences Department at the University of Michigan-Dearborn offers a Masters of Science (MS) in Psychology in two specializations
Date
Organic Position16
H1Master of Science in Psychology
H2The Behavioral Sciences Department at University of Michigan-Dearborn offers a Master of Science (MS) in Psychology in two specializations
Prospective Students
Clinical Health Psychology Student Admission Data
Current Students
Research Events
Office of Graduate Studies
H3
H2WithAnchorsThe Behavioral Sciences Department at University of Michigan-Dearborn offers a Master of Science (MS) in Psychology in two specializations
Prospective Students
Clinical Health Psychology Student Admission Data
Current Students
Research Events
Office of Graduate Studies
BodyMaster of Science in Psychology The Behavioral Sciences Department at University of Michigan-Dearborn offers a Master of Science (MS) in Psychology in two specializations. The Specialization in Clinical Health Psychology is a two-year 48-credit program that trains mental health care providers to work in primary care settings, as well as more traditional clinical psychology settings. The Specialization in Health Psychology is a two-year 39-credit program that provides students with intensive training in one or more content areas within Health Psychology Clinical Health Psychology Health Psychology Apply nowRequest informationVisit campus Prospective Students. Our program requires: a BA/BS in Psychology or a related major (minimum GPA 3.0) undergraduate courses in Introductory Psychology, Abnormal Psychology, and Statistics three letters of recommendation personal statement the Psychology (MS) program has decided to waive the GRE score requirement indefinitely For more information about the programs and our policies please see the MS in Psychology Student Handbook. Admission Requirements A BA or BS degree in Psychology or a related field with a cumulative undergraduate GPA of at least 3.0 Undergraduate classes in Introductory Psychology, Abnormal Psychology, and Statistics required; Health Psychology and Research Methods recommended but not required The Psychology (MS) program has decided to waive the GRE score requirement indefinitely. If English not your native language, official scores from an accepted English Proficiency exam are required. Please see further information on our How to Apply page. Personal statement instructions for both Health and Clinical Health Psychology. Three letters of recommendation (at least two of which are academic) are needed. Application Deadline Although we will continue to consider applications until both programs are full, we strongly recommend that you have all required application materials in by March 15th. We receive a large number of applications and individuals submitting late applications significantly reduce their chances of admission.  M.S. in Psychology admits for fall term only.   Transferring Credit from Other Institutions Up to six credit hours of graduate credit may be transferred from another accredited institution. A petition for a course from another institution to meet one of the requirements of the MS in Psychology: Specialization in Clinical Health Psychology or the MS in Psychology: Specialization in Health Psychology program will be considered by the Graduate Program Committee if: A copy of the course syllabus is provided. The course is similar to the course for which it is being substituted (i.e., similar in terms of level, content, grading methods). The course was taken in the past five years from a university and program judged to be of high quality. The course was passed with an ‘A’ or ‘B.’ The grade was determined primarily on the basis of papers, presentations, and/or examinations. Scholarship Opportunities Scholarships for new and current graduate students: Graduate Student Scholarships (main page) Non-Resident Tuition Scholarship Application You may be eligible for a non-resident graduate tuition scholarship if you meet the following criteria: Classified as a non-resident graduate student (or new admit) in a CASL graduate program taking 500+ level courses. Meet the program’s eligibility requirements for merit: 3.0 cumulative undergrad GPA (for new incoming students); 3.2 cumulative graduate GPA (to maintain for continuing students). Enroll for a minimum of 6 credit hours per term (3 credit hours in the summer or final term of enrollment). Have continued successful academic performance and progress towards completion of the degree and no academic misconduct convictions to assure continuation of the scholarship. This scholarship is awarded for consecutive fall and winter terms and the initial amount displayed in the student portal assumes a 6 credit hour registration. If a student enrolls in additional credit hours, an additional amount will be disbursed at the term’s drop/add deadline. Scholars may elect to use the scholarship during the summer term. However, a separate Summer Financial Aid application must be submitted.   Clinical Health Psychology Student Admission Data. Current Students. For more information about the programs and our policies please see the MS in Psychology Student Handbook.  See the Advanced Psychology Research Guide for help doing research for your courses, research projects, and theses. Research Scholarship Support for graduate student research projects and/or conference presentation is offered through the Office of Research.  For more information, visit the Campus Grants page. Forms Graduate Independent Study Form Thesis/Project Chair Contract Thesis Proposal Defense Form Application to Transfer to the Clinical Health Concentration Application to Transfer to the Health Concentration Faculty and Student Guide to Graduate Thesis Plan of Work Congratulations to the 2021 Three Minute Thesis Competition Winner: Charlie Giraud, MS in Psychology at UM-Dearborn! 3MT Competition Title: Discrimination, Concealment, & Multiple Minority Status within LGBTQ+ Populations Thesis/Dissertation Adviser: Dr. Michelle Leonard You can check out the recording of the 2021 Three Minute Thesis Event here! Research Events. Office of Graduate Studies . 1055 Administration Building Phone: 313-583-6321Fax: 313-436-9156 [email protected] Back to top of page
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TitleMaster's in Psychology Programs & Graduate Degree Guide
Urlhttps://www.mastersinpsychology.com/
DescriptionGuide to the Most Affordable Master's and Graduate Psychology Degrees such as MA, MS, PhD, PsyD, EdS, EdD and Home of the "Master's in Psychology Podcast"
Date
Organic Position17
H1Guide to Affordable Master’s and Doctorate Psychology Programs
H2Recent Podcast Episodes
Psychology Degrees by State
Psychology Branches and Degree Types
Recent Blog Posts
H318: Malissa A. Clark, Ph.D. – Well-known Researcher and Professor in the Growing Field of I/O Psychology Offers Practical Advice to Students
17: Damon A. Silas, Psy.D. – Clinical Psychologist, Author, and EFT Tapping Expert who Loves Connecting, Learning, Growing…and Dancing
16: Robert A. Bjork & Elizabeth L. Bjork, Ph.D. – Dynamic Duo and Pillars of Cognitive Research in Psychological Science
15: Gerald S. Drose, Ph.D., L.P. – Experienced Psychologist Shares his Personal and Professional Journey in his New Novel
Abnormal Psychology
Applied Psychology
Behavioral Psychology
Clinical Psychology
Cognitive Psychology
Community Psychology
Counseling Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Educational Psychology
Experimental Psychology
Evolutionary Psychology
Forensic Psychology
General Psychology
Health Psychology
Industrial Organizational Psychology
Legal Psychology
Neuropsychology
Personality Psychology
School Psychology
Social Psychology
Questions to Consider when Choosing a Psychology Graduate Program
Welcome to the MastersinPsychology.com Blog
H2WithAnchorsRecent Podcast Episodes
Psychology Degrees by State
Psychology Branches and Degree Types
Recent Blog Posts
BodyGuide to Affordable Master’s and Doctorate Psychology Programs Pursuing a master’s or doctorate in psychology degree is an important decision that affects every aspect of achieving your personal career goals once you have decided on one of the many psychology career paths. Competence in practice, a sense of professional value, more job opportunities and an increase in salary are meaningful factors when making this decision. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics states that job candidates “with a doctoral or education specialist degree and postdoctoral work experience will have the best job opportunities in clinical, counseling, or school psychology positions.” Earning a master’s in psychology in one of the many branches has proven to be a pivotal career choice for many mental health professionals. The U.S. Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics reports that there are thousands of higher education institutions offering bachelor’s or higher level degrees. Navigating through thousands of colleges and universities can be overwhelming. We feature comprehensive lists of U.S. colleges and universities, ranked by affordability, that offer master’s in psychology programs. In addition, we have also included a section for doctorate in psychology programs as well as related resources and podcasts. Edifying information relevant to the field of psychology can be found within our blog posts. Additionally, we are home of the Master’s in Psychology Podcast where the primary goal is to empower students to make educated career decisions and learn from those who are in the industry, such as psychologists, psychiatrists, psychology professors, students and more. Table Of Contents Recent Podcast EpisodesPsychology Degrees by StatePsychology Branches and Degree TypesRecent Blog Posts Recent Podcast Episodes. 18: Malissa A. Clark, Ph.D. – Well-known Researcher and Professor in the Growing Field of I/O Psychology Offers Practical Advice to Students . January 13, 2022 When Dr. Malissa Clark graduated from The University of Michigan with her B.A. in Organizational Studies, she wasn’t planning on attending graduate school, let alone … View Podcast>>> 17: Damon A. Silas, Psy.D. – Clinical Psychologist, Author, and EFT Tapping Expert who Loves Connecting, Learning, Growing…and Dancing . January 4, 2022 Dr. Damon A. Silas grew up in a military family so even though he was born in Massachusetts, he was only there for a short … View Podcast>>> 16: Robert A. Bjork & Elizabeth L. Bjork, Ph.D. – Dynamic Duo and Pillars of Cognitive Research in Psychological Science . December 6, 2021 Drs. Elizabeth and Robert Bjork have enjoyed long, illustrious careers as cognitive researchers in psychology and have been with the UCLA Department of Psychology for … View Podcast>>> 15: Gerald S. Drose, Ph.D., L.P. – Experienced Psychologist Shares his Personal and Professional Journey in his New Novel . October 20, 2021 Dr. Gerald Drose was born and raised in Charleston, SC in a tight-knit family. His father coached him in sports throughout his life and his … View Podcast>>> Psychology Degrees by State. The most affordable Graduate Psychology Degrees by state including separate affordability rankings for Master’s in Psychology and Doctorate in Psychology Programs. AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY DC Psychology Branches and Degree Types. There are many different degree types/categories/branches/fields/areas of specialization of psychology, however, most believe there are anywhere from 4 to 15 branches of psychology or more. For your convenience, here is a list of some of the branches of psychology. Abnormal PsychologyApplied PsychologyBehavioral PsychologyClinical PsychologyCognitive PsychologyCommunity PsychologyCounseling PsychologyDevelopmental PsychologyEducational PsychologyExperimental PsychologyEvolutionary PsychologyForensic PsychologyGeneral PsychologyHealth PsychologyIndustrial Organizational PsychologyLegal PsychologyNeuropsychologyPersonality PsychologySchool PsychologySocial Psychology Abnormal Psychology. Abnormal psychology is a branch of psychology that studies abnormal or unusual behavior, thoughts, or emotions. It focuses on gaining a better understanding of the variety of psychological disorders which affect human behavior and cause psychopathology. Most definitions of abnormal psychology include the idea that the abnormal psychologist is concerned with understanding the individual pathologies of the mind, behavior, mood, or emotions. The key is that these pathologies of thoughts, emotions, or behaviors are considered “abnormal” or “atypical”. There are many ways to define “abnormal” or “atypical” and they may differ based on the culture, age, location, and expected norms of the respective society. However, abnormal psychologists scientifically study and classify the behavior, thoughts, or emotions along the well-known bell-shaped curve. Abnormal psychologists who participate in research can apply statistical criteria to behaviors, thoughts, and emotions. As such, they can determine if these are statistically significant compared to the majority of people (e.g., they look at how many standard deviations from the norm the behaviors, thoughts, or emotions fall). Those behaviors which cluster in the middle are considered “normal” while those which fall on either of the extreme ends are considered abnormal. It is important to recognize that within the field of abnormal psychology, those behaviors considered normal and those considered abnormal are not synonymous with right or wrong. Rather, abnormal psychologists are concerned with how these “abnormal” or “atypical” behaviors cause distress for the person, their friends, family, or society. Furthermore, if these behaviors cause irrational or harmful behavior to self or others, then the abnormal psychologist would be brought in to better understand, diagnose, and treat these behaviors. In addition to using the statistical significance (deviation from the norm), distress, or harmful behavior to self or others (maladaptive behavior) as criteria for defining abnormality in psychology, the desirability of the behavior can also be used to determine if it is considered “abnormal” or “atypical”. For example, those with a high IQ (considered a genius) are statistically significantly different from those considered normal, however, most people would not view geniuses as abnormal in a negative way. On the other hand, those with an IQ on the lower extreme of the bell-shaped curve usually have lower cognitive abilities and are viewed as less desirable and may cause some discomfort and distress for those around them. Similarly, Tourette Syndrome (TS) belongs to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental conditions referred to as Tic Disorders. Some Tic Disorders are barely noticeable and can be transient while others are more noticeable and can persist into adolescence and adulthood. Therefore, those which are more noticeable may be considered more “abnormal” and cause discomfort or distress. Abnormal psychologists may take various approaches when treating the abnormal or unusual behavior, thoughts, or emotions. Some psychologists may take the behavioral approach by focusing on the observable behaviors and reinforcing positive behaviors and not reinforcing negative or maladaptive behaviors. Other psychologists may take a more cognitive approach by focusing on changing the person’s thoughts, perceptions, reactions, and reasoning in order to change their behavior. Another group of psychologists may take a psychoanalytic approach which takes its roots from Sigmund Freud and suggests that abnormal behaviors may stem from desires, memories, or unconscious thoughts. The belief is that these feelings influence conscious actions.  Still other psychologists may take a biological (or medical) approach by looking at the underlying causes of the disorders like chemical imbalance, genetics, or medical conditions. Similar to other types of psychologists, some abnormal psychologists work in clinical settings such as hospitals, clinics, or mental health facilities. Others work in a university or college setting or in research facilities. Those who work in the research arena typically focus their research on a particular psychological disorder (or group of disorders). Those who work in higher education usually teach and may conduct research. Abnormal psychology falls more under the theoretical and experimental branches of psychology (as opposed to the applied branch), therefore, you may not find many working in private practice. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) is considered the standard abnormal psychology and psychiatry reference book in North America. It is currently in its fifth edition and is known as DSM-5. The DSM-5 includes three main sections: the diagnostic classification, the diagnostic criteria sets, and the descriptive text. Another reference used by abnormal psychologists (especially in other parts of the world) is the ICD-10 which has been used by World Health Organization (WHO) member states since 1994. In particular, chapter five includes around 300 mental and behavioral disorders. Indeed, chapter five of the ICD-10 was influenced by previous versions of the DSM-5, therefore, you will find a great deal of similarities between the two. Applied Psychology. Applied psychology is a field which applies psychological methods, principles, and scientific findings to real-world problems of human and animal behavior. In other words, it puts practical research into action. Applied psychologists focus more on the implementation of real-world results versus abstract theories and lab experiments. Many psychologists believe there are two main types of psychology: experimental psychology and applied psychology. Experimental psychology focuses primarily on research, whereas, applied psychology takes this research and applies it to practical problems for people (as individuals, groups, or organizations). In particular, an applied psychologist will look at existing research and use it to solve problems in such settings as the workplace, health environment, legal/law enforcement, and the clinical environment. Some of the other branches of applied psychology include industrial/organizational (I/O), sports, forensic, educational, political, military, and consumer. It is important to remember that applied psychology is founded on experimental psychology in that applied psychology takes the research from experimental psychology and applies it to the real world to identify and develop solutions for problems to achieve tangible results. They work hand in hand to achieve measurable results.  Applied psychology wouldn’t exist without experimental psychology. Applied psychologists must not only have a good working knowledge of the experimental method (make observations, form an hypothesis, make a prediction [or multiple predictions], develop and perform an experiment to test the prediction[s], analyze and interpret the results, draw a conclusion, and report your results), they must also be able to apply this method to real-life situations instead of laboratory experiments/laboratory environment. Furthermore, applied psychologists must also feel comfortable working with, and speaking to, individuals, groups, and the public as they often need to persuade and educate them regarding their work. They must be able to create organize their thoughts and have strong writing skills which are necessary for creating proposals and reports. In addition, applied psychologists must know how to effectively communicate with their subjects in order to elicit honest and natural behaviors and feedback. Applied psychology encompasses a wide range of activities from laboratory experiments to field studies to direct clinical services for individuals, couples, groups, and organizations. Applied psychology has broadened since its early beginnings when it simply looked at testing and teaching methods to stress performance to evaluation of attitudes, morale, and feelings. Applied psychology will continue to broaden and expand as new experimental findings become available and as new problems arise. Students interested in continuing their education in applied psychology can visit our list of the most affordable applied psychology graduate programs and resources. Behavioral Psychology. Behavioral psychology is a branch of psychology which focuses on studying observable human behaviors and the methods of acquiring and changing those behaviors through conditioning. Behavioral psychology is often referred to as behaviorism. The behavioral approach, taken by behaviorists, involves studying behavior in a systematic and observable manner to better understand how interaction with the environment determines behavior. Behaviorism assumes that all learning occurs through interactions with the surrounding environment and that the environment shapes behavior. As a result, according to this school of thought, only observable behavior should be considered. In other words, behaviorists do not consider emotions, moods, or cognitions because these are far too subjective. Behavior analysis is also based on the foundations of behaviorism including utilizing learning principles to bring about behavior changes. Therefore, those who study behavioral psychology may also get involved with one, or both, of the two major areas of behavior analysis (experimental and applied). Experimental behavior analysis is research that is focused on adding to the body of knowledge about behavior. On the other hand, applied behavior analysis is research that is focused on applying these behavior principles to the real world (i.e., real life situations). For example, those focused on applied behavior analysis may apply the principles to help adults or children learn new behaviors or replace negative or problem behaviors. Others may apply the principles to help people with disabilities improve their behavior, increase their academic skills, or improve employee performance. Because behavior analysis focuses on the behavior (and not the underlying cognitions or mentalistic causes of behavior), it is unique in the field of psychology. In fact, Division 25 of the American Psychology Association (APA) is devoted solely to the area of behavior analysis. In particular, Division 25 explains that the name of their organization “shall be the Division of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, a Division of the American Psychological Association.” Furthermore, they state that one of the purposes of the organization shall be “to promote experimental studies, both basic and applied, in the experimental analysis of behavior…” This corresponds with much of the research available which shows there are basically three different ways to analyze behavior. First, you can study behavior through experimental investigation. Second, you can use applied behavior analysis which means you apply what researchers know about behavior and apply it to real-world situations. Third, you can use conceptual analysis of behavior to address the historical, philosophical, theoretical and methodological issues of behavior analysis. Behavioral psychology is often linked to cognitive psychology as the field examines theories of human learning and behavior like conditioning theories, social learning theories, and other models of information processing. Behavioral psychologists use empirical (observable) data along with theories of human behavior, cognition, and learning. Those who follow the theories behind strict behaviorism believe that almost any person (or animal) can be trained to perform any job or task no matter their personality traits, background, or thoughts. Strict behaviorists believe it only requires the right conditioning. Within behavioral psychology, conditioning is a theory which states that a reaction to an object or event can be learned or modified. The reaction is the “response” while the object or event is the “stimulus” and can be by a person or an animal. In other words, conditioning theory states that a response to a stimulus by an animal or person can be modified by learning (or conditioning). There are two main types of conditioning under this school of thought (classical conditioning and operant conditioning). Classical conditioning is a learning process that involves a neutral (environmental) stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. The conditioning (learning) occurs when the neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus then, eventually, the neutral stimulus evokes the same response as the naturally occurring stimulus even when the naturally occurring stimulus is absent. One of the best known classical conditioning experiments was done by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who decided to conditioning when he discovered that his dog subjects began to salivate not only when food (or meat powder) was given to them but they also began to salivate (even more) when the person who was feeding them came close to them without even seeing the food. To simplify and better understand this, we need to understand the terms Unconditioned Stimulus (US) or Neutral Stimulis (NS), Unconditioned Response (UR), Conditioned Stimulus (CS), and Conditioned Response (CR). At the beginning of his experiments (i.e., before conditioning) we can have an Unconditioned or Neutral Stimulus (person arriving to feed the dogs). At first the person arriving to feed the dogs did not elicit a gastric response (the dogs did not begin salivating). The Unconditioned Response was the dogs not salivating. However, during the conditioning, the dogs learned to associate the person arriving to feed them with the food itself. By the end of the experiments (i.e., after conditioning), the Conditioned Stimulus becomes the person arriving to feed the dogs which then stimulates the Conditioned Response (salivation). For those who have never owned a dog, please know that the gastric response of salivation normally is a reflex which happens to help aid digestion when the dog sees their food. However, as a result of this classical conditioning, the dogs now start salivating at the sight of the person who feeds them. Other experiments associated a bell or whistle when feeding the dogs (i.e., just before feeding the dogs, they would ring a bell or blow a whistle). Therefore, after conditioning occurs, the dogs would start salivating after hearing the bell or whistle (without actually seeing their food). Operant conditioning is a learning process that involves reinforcements and punishments so that an association is made between a behavior and a consequence of that behavior. If a behavior is followed by a positive or favorable result, then that behavior is reinforced and is more likely to happen again in the future. On the other hand, if a behavior is followed by a negative or unfavorable result, then that behavior is punished and is less likely to happen again in the future. Operant conditioning is sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning. One of the best known operant conditioning experiments was done by behaviorist B.F. Skinner when he carried out experiments with caged rats in his ”operant conditioning chamber” (“Skinner’s Box”). The rats learned that if they pressed on a lever, they would receive food (i.e., food would automatically be released for them). Reinforcement played a key role as they learned they would receive food whenever they pressed on the lever. An experiment which would fall under instrumental conditioning would be Edward Thorndike’s experiments involving placing cats in a puzzle box. In this experiment, he placed the reward (fish) outside of the puzzle box as the incentive. In order to get out of the puzzle box, the cats had to learn to undue a latch. At first, the cats couldn’t escape the box but eventually realized that undoing the latch freed them and gave them access to the fish. They then decreased the amount of time they spent trapped in the box by learning that the same action (undoing the latch) would give them their freedom and their reward. Thorndike termed this conditioning as the “Law of Effect” which resulted in the “stamping in” of a particular behavior (i.e., opening of the latch would be reinforced). On the other hand, if the cats were punished as a result of leaving the puzzle box then the behavior would be “stamped out” (i.e., opening the latch would punished and become less frequent). Though both operant conditioning and classical conditioning are learning processes, the key difference between the two is that operant conditioning creates an association based on the subject’s behavior and the effect or outcome it generates (e.g., rat presses a lever to receive a reward or a cat opening a latch to receive a reward). On the other hand, classical conditioning is concerned primarily with the behavior itself and how the behavior is learned (e.g., dogs salivating when the person enters the room versus only salivating when seeing the food). The biggest strengths of behavioral psychology include: it focuses on empirical data (easily observable and measurable behaviors), it is repeatable through scientific experiments, and it is useful in modifying behaviors in animals and people in the real-world. It also has practical applications in education, parenting, child care and learning as well as in therapy. Behavioral psychologists work in a variety of settings including education, healthcare, and correctional facilities. Not only can psychologists utilize behavioral psychology techniques, parents, teachers, and animal trainers can use these techniques. Some behavior psychologists work as counselors or behavioral therapists where they meet with clients to help assess and identify behaviors and create treatment plans to address or modify behaviors. Some behavioral therapies include aversion therapy, flooding, cognitive behavioral therapy, systematic desensitization, and other therapies to help people deal with anxiety, substance abuse, depression, aggression, and response to trauma. Students interested in continuing their education in behavioral psychology can view our list of the most affordable applied behavior analysis graduate programs and resources. Clinical Psychology. Clinical psychology is a branch of psychology focused on the assessment and treatment of mental illness, disability, abnormal behavior, and psychiatric problems. In other words, it is a branch of psychology concerned with providing mental, emotional, or behavioral health care for individuals, couples, groups, or families. Some of the more common issues or disorders that clinical psychologists deal with include severe substance abuse, sexual abuse, depression, anxiety, learning disabilities, and eating disorders. Generally, clinical psychologists take a continual and comprehensive approach to health care with the goal to understand, prevent, and relieve the issue or disorder to promote well-being and improve self-development. Clinical psychology takes general psychology a step further by integrating the science, theory, and clinical knowledge when meeting with clients to assess, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, or behavioral issues. Furthermore, clinical psychology is one of the most popular branches of psychology as you can find psychologists working in clinics, hospitals, private practice and some schools. In fact, many clinical psychologists hold academic positions and are engaged in teaching, research, and supervision. You may also find clinical psychologists serving as consultants and helping to develop and administer social programs. Students interested in continuing their education in clinical psychology can visit our list of the most affordable clinical psychology graduate programs and resources. Although clinical psychology shares many characteristics with other helping professions, sometimes this creates confusion.  For example, a clinical psychologist is different from a psychiatrist. Furthermore, clinical psychology must also be distinguished from counseling psychology. Although they may appear very similar, they are different in many ways. For more information review the counseling psychology section. Cognitive Psychology. Cognitive psychology is a branch of psychology that uses scientific study to explore and understand the internal mental processes related to attention, memory, perception, thinking, problem-solving, creativity, and language use. In other words, cognitive psychologists use the scientific method to study (and view) the mind as an information processor while attempting to build cognitive models which help explain what happens inside people’s minds during different life experiences and events. Unlike behavior psychology, behaviorism, and behavior analysis which focus on the observable behavior, cognitive psychology focuses on the internal events related to perception, attention, thought, language, and memory. Cognitive psychology has been influenced by approaches to information processing and information theory so much so that a key element of cognitive psychology is the view that the mind is an information processor like how a computer inputs, stores, and recalls data. Some research articles even reference two to three stages of memory including short-term memory, long-term memory, and sometimes sensory memory. In addition to comparing a human’s mind to a computer or machine, some cognitive psychologists have also begun comparing how a human’s mind receives, processes, and stores information to artificial intelligence. Another key element of cognitive psychology is the belief that human behavior can be understood and interpreted by how the human mind operates while receiving, processing, and recalling information. Cognitive psychologists are more interested in how the stimulus-response relationship works. Using the computer analogy, they look at all of the inputs and the relationship these inputs have with the outputs. They use lab experiments, interviews, memory psychology, and case studies as research tools to better understand how the mind works. One of the strengths of cognitive psychology is that it follows the scientific method and, therefore, is highly controlled and follow methods that can be replicated in lab experiments to produce reliable and objective data. In addition, the cognitive approach is probably one of the most dominant approaches in the entire field of psychology and it can be combined with various other psychological approaches. For example, if you combine cognitive psychology with behaviorism, you get social learning theory. If you combine it with biology, you get evolutionary psychology. As a result of cognitive psychology easily combining with other various psychological approaches, cognitive psychology has been integrated into other disciplines such as educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, developmental psychology, abnormal psychology and other cognitive sciences. For example, cognitive psychology has influenced social learning theory, cognitive neuropsychology, artificial intelligence, and others. Some of the methodologies or studies that have used the cognitive approach include lab experiments, case studies, computer modeling, interviews, observations, and hypnosis. Cognitive psychology and the cognitive approach have been applied in a variety of applications including education, memory and forgetting, moral development, learning styles, perception, attention, and eyewitness testimony. In addition, cognitive psychology has been applied to many forms of therapy (such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [CBT] which changes the way a person processes their thoughts to help make them more rational and positive). CBT has been applied and effective for treating depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorders, and some forms of addiction as well as other life challenges. Students interested in continuing their education in cognitive psychology can view our list of the most affordable cognitive psychology graduate programs and resources. Community Psychology. Community psychology is a growing specialty branch of psychology that focuses on how individuals relate to, and influence, their environment and local communities as well as society in general. In addition, more recent community psychology research has focused on how the environment and communities affect individuals. Therefore, community psychologists have recognized the reciprocal affect and complex individual-environment interactions in today’s society. Community psychologists examine a variety of economic, cultural, social, environmental, political, and international influences to better understand and identify problems so that they can develop and implement solutions within communities. The American Psychological Association (APA) has a division (Division 27) which focuses on community research and action. In fact Division 27 has its own website called the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA) which includes who they are, what they do, resources and publications available as well as current events and upcoming events dealing with community psychology. Community psychologists can utilize both applied psychology and theoretical psychology when engaging in this type of research. In addition, there are basically two ways to promote change or address a community problem. First, you can treat or change the individuals in the community.  Second, you can engage in research to change the system or structure in a community. The idea of community psychology is relatively new and was first used in 1965 at the Swampscott Conference (in Swampscott, MA) when nearly 40 psychologists met to discuss the possibility of new opportunities and roles for psychologists by training professionals to focus on social problems and community well-being. Since the Swampscott Conference, these new community psychologists have extended services to those who were under-represented while focusing on both treatment and prevention of social and psychological problems in a community and by working to build collaborative relationships with community members, groups, and organizations to identify and solve social problems. The field of community psychology has evolved to focus on prevention, promote positive change, social justice, health, and empowerment by taking an ecological perspective. A clinical psychologist traditionally takes an individualistic perspective when treating a person. That is, they focus solely on the individual. On the other hand, a community psychologist focus on how the community and the larger society affects the individual. In fact, they consider how individuals, communities, and societies are interconnected and affect one another. Many psychologists in this field of study have also referenced two other ecological principles (interdependence and adaptation). Interdependence is the idea that everything is connected so when one aspect is changed it will impact others. Adaptation suggests that behavior that is adaptive and works in one situation or setting may not work in another situation or setting. Therefore, the person will have to adapt and change their behavior to survive and thrive in the new situation. There are many other principles that have emerged from the field of community psychology. For example, action-oriented research (including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research) along with community-based participatory research and active participation by the citizens has been key features of community psychology. In addition, a respect for diversity, a sense of community, empowerment, and wellness have been other features of community psychology. Within the community psychology field, the ecological perspective incorporates the multiple layers or levels which need to be considered when looking at problems including the individual, family, neighborhood, community, society as well as the policies, structures, and systems of each all the way up to the national level. In the end, a community psychologist is a problem-identifier and a problem-solver of community issues. These issues may stem from the environment, system, or structure of the community or they may stem from the individuals in the community or a combination of both. Community psychologists may work in a variety of settings such as education, government, community organizations, nonprofit groups, and private consulting. In the academic setting, they may work at community colleges, smaller undergraduate colleges and larger universities to teach courses and develop, and conduct, original research. In the government setting, they may work in health and human services departments for city, county, state, and federal governments. Students interested in continuing their education in community psychology can view our list of the most affordable community psychology graduate programs and resources. Counseling Psychology. Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that focuses on treating less severe problems such as relationship issues and a variety of different emotional, behavioral, or social problems as well as marital, family, and career problems. In other words, a counseling psychologist focuses more on a patient’s emotional well-being or other social and physical issues which typically stem from life stresses associated with work, school, relationships, or family. Counseling psychologists typically focus on diagnosis, wellness and prevention. Counseling psychologists work in a variety of settings including universities and colleges as teachers, supervisors, researchers, and service providers. In addition, you will find counseling psychologists working as independent practitioners which provide counseling, psychotherapy, assessment, and preventative care to individuals, couples, families, and groups. In some cases, you will also find them working at community health centers, VA medical centers, family centers, rehabilitation centers, and within the business and industrial segments as well. So, what is the difference between clinical and counseling psychology? While both fall under the psychology domain and, therefore, share some overlap, there are also many differences between counseling and clinical psychology. For example, they share at least 3 similarities. First, when you look into each branch of psychology, you will find that both groups of psychologists provide psychotherapy and many participate in research. Second, you will find counseling psychologists in many of the same settings as a clinical psychologist (e.g., employed at colleges, universities, health clinics, hospitals, and private practice). Third, when a counseling psychologist and a clinical psychologist receive their license to practice, both are considered licensed psychologists (i.e., there is no difference in their licensure). There are some key differences between clinical and counseling psychology. Clinical psychologists tend to treat clients with more severe mental, emotional, or behavioral problems such as bipolar disorder, multiple personality disorder, phobias, and schizophrenia. On the other hand, counseling psychologists treat clients with less severe problems such as relationship issues, certain kinds of substance abuse, and marital, family, or career problems. Furthermore, clinical psychologists tend to focus on psychopathology in their training and treat the psychoanalytical and behavioral aspects of treatment. On the other hand, counseling psychologists usually work with patients who are healthier and fewer psychological problems which makes sense when you look at the origin of each. Clinical comes from the Greek word “kline” meaning bed. Counseling comes from the Latin word “counsulere” meaning advising. Clinical psychology focuses more on mental health disturbances whereas counseling psychology focuses more on providing guidance and advice. Students interested in continuing their education in counseling psychology can view our list of the most affordable counseling psychology graduate programs and resources. Developmental Psychology. Developmental psychology is a branch of psychology which focuses on how, why, and to what extent a person (and humans in general) changes throughout their lifetime. Early research tended to focus only on infants and children, however, more recent research has extended this to include adolescence, adulthood, aging, and the entire human lifespan. A developmental psychologist takes a scientific approach to examine how and why a person’s thoughts, behaviors, and feelings change throughout their life. Much of the research has focused on the physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development of a person through various stages of his or her life. Some of the areas of study include physical, emotional, cognitive, intellectual, social, and personality changes as well as language acquisition, formation and development of self-concept, identity, and moral understanding. Developmental psychologists examine the influences of nature vs. nurture, whether development can be viewed as a gradual process or seen as a sequence of separate stages, and whether personality traits change or stay the same over time. Depending on which theory you study, the number of developmental stages a person goes through ranges from 4 stages to 8, 12, or more stages. For example, Jean Piaget is considered the “Father of Developmental Psychology” and his theory of development is considered to be the first stage theory in the field. According to Piaget, all people pass through the same four stages of development. In addition, in order to progress to the next stage, the person must meet or exceed the goals of each stage. The first stage is known as the sensorimotor stage and represents the first two years of a baby’s life where babies are learning about, and experimenting with, the physical objects around them.  Language development and object permanence are goals of this stage. The second stage usually lasts until the age of 7 and is called the preoperational stage. This is where children use symbolic thinking to increase their understanding of a wide variety of concepts. The third stage is called the concrete operational stage and usually lasts until the age of 12. This is where children develop and demonstrate logical thinking skills as well as improvements in their reasoning skills. The fourth, and final, stage is the formal operational stage and typically begins around 11 or 12 years of age and lasts throughout adulthood. This stage is represented by an increased understanding of abstract concepts. Another well-known developmental theory is Erik Erikson’s 8 stages of personality development. His theory is known as the Psychosocial Developmental Theory because he was interested in an individual’s development (how one develops and changes their self-identity) and a person’s social/cultural identity (how one develops and changes their role within one’s family, friends, and society). Erikson was well-known in the areas of psychoanalytics and psychological development and is famous for coining the popular phrase “identity crisis”. Erikson believed that everyone goes through 8 stages of development throughout their life. Stage 1 is where the infant learns about trust vs. mistrust. If the infant receives consistent and reliable care from the caregiver, then he says the infant will gain a sense of trust and confidence. If the care is inconsistent or sporadic then the infant will feel unsafe and may grow insecure. Stage 2 is where the toddler learns about autonomy vs. shame and self-doubt. When a caregiver allows their toddler to safely explore the world around them while still serving as a safe base, then the toddler will feel secure enough to explore and gain autonomy and independence. On the other hand, if the caregiver fosters dependence and discourages the toddler from exploring, then self-doubt and even shame may develop. Stage 3 is where the preschooler learns about initiative vs. guilt. Erikson believes that preschoolers are focused on doing things themselves so when caregivers encourage these behaviors, they learn how to make their own decisions and can develop planning skills which can translate into an adult who can plan ahead and follow their own ambitions. If a preschooler is constantly criticized for doing their own thing or being assertive, they will learn to simply follow another person’s lead instead of making their own decisions. Stage 4 happens in the early school years where children learn about industry vs. inferiority. According to the theory, industry represents those children who are developing self-confidence and self-esteem as a result of receiving praise for their accomplishments. Inferiority happens when children are constantly criticized and do not achieve certain milestones (e.g., inferiority complex). Stage 5 is adolescence and is when adolescents’ learn about identity vs. role confusion. During this stage adolescents’ try to learn more about themselves and their identity by trying different personas to figure out which one fits them the best. Those who find their identity usually have established a coherent sense of self and their priorities. As a result, they can establish goals and abide by the values they set for themselves as adults. Those who do not develop a strong sense of self may not venture out by themselves or try different personas and, as a result, they have not developed a consistent and strong identity (i.e., identity crisis). Stage 6 is young adulthood and is where the person learns about intimacy vs. isolation. This stage is defined as anywhere from 20-24 years of age to 20-40 years of age. If a person can develop significant relationships where they can find affection and intimacy, then they will find many emotional benefits. On the other hand, if a person does not develop these types of relationships, they may become isolated and develop feelings of loneliness. Stage 7 is middle adulthood and is where adults learn about generativity vs. stagnation. During this stage people may offer guidance to others through parenting or mentoring and they may feel like they are contributing to society. In doing so, they develop a sense of purpose. If a person doesn’t feel like they are contributing to society (or have no impact on society), they may feel isolated or restless. In addition, they may feel like they have “peaked” (i.e., stagnated). The final stage, Stage 8, occurs late in adulthood and is where older adults learn about ego integrity vs. despair. This is the stage where people reflect on their life and if they feel like they have lived a full life, they can face aging and death with a sense of accomplishment. On the other hand, older adults who have regrets or disappointments may feel despair and cannot gracefully age and face death. There are other developmental theories that have proven to be influential within this field, however, instead of providing an overview of these theories, we will simply list them below for your convenience. Additionally, students interested in continuing their education in developmental psychology can view our list of the most affordable developmental psychology graduate programs and resources. Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Stage Theory. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Moral Understanding Stage Theory.Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology (EDP) Theory.John Bowlby’s Attachment Theory. Lev Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development Theory.Various Constructivism Theories (e.g., Cognitive Constructivism, Social Constructivism, Radical Constructivism). Educational Psychology. Educational psychology is a branch of psychology focused on the scientific study of how humans learn, retain, and apply knowledge. Psychologists in this field may include the emotional, cognitive, social, and behavior learning processes when studying how people absorb and retain information as well as how they apply this in their lives. Though education psychology was, and is, primarily studied in educational settings, people continue learning throughout their lives in a variety of settings. Therefore, educational psychologists have expanded their focus (and resulting applications) to other settings such as the workplace, home, public service, social, medical, and counseling. Moreover, they have expanded the group of people studied to include children of all ages in the education system as well as those middle-aged and older adults. Some educational psychologists have also focused their studies on particular groups of people who have particular learning challenges (e.g., attention deficit disorder [ADD], attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], dyslexia) or other behavioral problems that may inhibit learning. Educational psychologists incorporate theories and topics from other related fields of psychology (e.g., developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, etc.) to create, or build upon existing, research that can be applied in the real-world. The field of education psychology primarily uses quantitative methods to understand how cognitive and behavioral development as well as intelligence, social background, emotion, motivation, age, and setting impact a person’s learning. As such educational psychology has used, and expanded, theories of operant conditioning, behaviorism, constructivism, functionalism, humanistic psychology, Gestalt psychology, and information processing. Psychologists working in the educational field may work with teachers, educators, counselors, speech and language therapists to better understand how to answer questions regarding how to improve teaching, retention, and the learning environment so that students of all ages can improve their learning. In particular, they may evaluate and analyze existing teaching methods, testing methods, and particular education programs to determine how effective they are for students. Then they may develop new ones to help improve the learning process by changing the setting, teaching method, and resources used (e.g., textbooks, worksheets, lesson plans, tests, videos, online learning, etc.). Some education psychologists also work with students one-on-one as well as with parents and administrators. Others may coordinate their efforts with social workers, psychiatrists, and medical providers. Many educational psychologists focus, or specialize, in the development of specific groups of people. For example, some of them focus primarily on children while others focus on adults and still others focus on those with a learning disability. A smaller portion may also work with community organizations or learning centers while others might work at private or government research centers. Students interested in continuing their education to become an educational psychologist can view our list of the most affordable educational psychology graduate programs and resources. Experimental Psychology. Experimental psychology is the study of human and animal behavior by using scientific methods to better understand behavior. The scientific method is used in all sciences and is characterized as a method of research in which a problem is identified or a question is asked, research is conducted where relevant data is collected, an hypothesis (or multiple hypotheses) is formulated or proposed, an experiment is designed and conducted to test the hypothesis, data is recorded and analyzed (typically through observation), leading to a conclusion or multiple conclusions. These experiments may help psychologists develop theories that help identify and explain behavior by humans and animals. Though the science of psychology covers several areas from abnormal psychology to cognitive psychology to educational psychology to social psychology, it helps to view or separate these fields into two types: applied versus experimental.  Experimental psychology focuses primarily on experimental research and empirical methods, whereas, applied psychology takes this research and applies it to practical problems for people (as individuals, groups, or organizations). It is important to remember that applied psychology is founded on experimental psychology in that applied psychology takes the research from experimental psychology and applies it to the real world to identify and develop solutions for problems to achieve tangible results. They work hand in hand to achieve measurable results.  Applied psychology wouldn’t exist without experimental psychology. Visit the applied psychology section for further information. Experimental psychologists are interested in a wide variety of topics which include memory, cognition, emotion, motivation, perception, sensation, and learning, behavioral, and developmental processes. Some experimental psychologists spend their entire careers studying one problem or set of problems or one question or set of related questions. Their work and results often build upon each other and lead to more questions or larger findings which lead to a more comprehensive theory. The type of research an experimental psychologist conducts depends on their background, interests, and area of employment. Similar to other psychologists, experimental psychologists can work in a variety of settings including educational (colleges and universities) and research institutions as well as government and private industries or businesses. The key for those pursuing a career in experimental psychology is that most, if not all, of their attention is focused on experimental and empirical research and many have a passion for solving problems or pursuing and exploring theoretical questions. With this said, however, almost all psychologists may be considered experimental psychologists as research is the foundation of the discipline and many psychologists split their time spent on conducting research, teaching, and applying research (their own and others) to the real-world. Students interested in continuing their education in experimental psychology can view our list of the most affordable experimental psychology graduate programs and resources. Evolutionary Psychology. Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach to psychology that presumes that human cognition, behavior, and emotions are shaped by the pressure to survive and reproduce. In other words, evolutionary psychology focuses on how human evolution has shaped and changed our thoughts, actions, and feelings. Evolutionary psychology has its roots in evolutionary biology, cognitive psychology, and also draws on ideas from anthropology, genetics, behavioral ecology, archaeology, zoology, and artificial intelligence. Evolutionary psychologists believe that human behavior is shaped by human evolution and our need to survive, thrive, and reproduce so much so that our thoughts, emotions, and behavior represent adaptations that enabled our ancestors to survive. In this field of study, psychologists propose that we have functional mechanisms in our brain, called psychological adaptations or evolved cognitive mechanisms, which are products of natural selection or sexual selection in human evolution. Therefore, human behavior is a result of these psychological adaptations to address and solve persistent problems within our ancestral environments as well as current environments. The idea that we adapt to our environment is nothing new. Indeed, within evolutionary biology, the idea that our physiological systems such as our lungs, hearts, immune system, and other parts of our body have evolved and adapted over time is widely recognized. Evolutionary psychologists argue that modular adaptions of the mind serve different functions and have evolved as a process of natural selection. Examples of these psychological adaptations or evolved cognitive mechanisms include cheater detection mechanisms, incest avoidance mechanisms, foraging mechanisms, language acquisition modules, and intelligence and sex-specific mating preferences. One such behavior that serves our self-preservation is protecting and guarding our romantic partners. Our ancestors have guarded our mates because competition was harsh, and it is in our best interest to preserve our genes to ensure that we have offspring. Evolutionary psychologists argue that traits or behaviors that are universally recognized across many cultures are good candidates for evolutionary adaptations such as the ability to recognize and infer emotions, ability to identify and prefer healthier mates, and the ability to cooperate with others as these all help us survive and reproduce. These types of behaviors have generated many studies of human social behavior related to intelligence, mating preferences, perception of beauty, promiscuity, marriage preferences and patterns, and cheating tendencies and patterns. Some of the research in evolutionary psychology refers to a concept known as evolutionary mismatch or evolutionary trap which is when we find ourselves in a modern-day environment which is inconsistent with our ancestral tendencies. In other words, this happens when our innate evolved traits and tendencies, which once were advantageous in past environments, have now become maladaptive and disadvantageous in the current environment. Some evolutionary psychologists have applied this same idea to psychological adaptations or evolved cognitive mechanisms. Moreover, some evolutionary psychologists have argued that evolutionary psychology is not a subdiscipline of psychology, rather, it is an evolutionary theory that can serve as a foundational, metatheoretical framework that integrates the whole field of psychology much like evolutionary biology has for biology. Forensic Psychology. There are a variety of definitions for forensic psychology ranging from a relatively narrow definition to a broad definition. In general, forensic psychology is the application of psychological theory and practice to the legal arena. Other definitions focus on, and include, the people involved in the legal system (i.e., usually the perpetrators or criminals). For example, forensic psychology is the interaction of clinical specialties to the legal system and those who come into contact with the law. No matter what definition is used, forensic psychologists focus on the application of psychological theory and practice to criminal, court, and correctional systems. Another way of describing forensic psychology is looking at the definition of forensic which can be defined as “the scientific method for investigating crime”. Therefore, forensic psychology can also be thought of as applying both psychological theory and practice with the scientific method to the legal system. Those who study, and practice in, forensic psychology must have strong clinical skills and an understanding of the law, its terms, and its processes. It is important to note that forensic psychology is different from legal psychology. Legal psychology takes a more experimental focus whereas forensic psychology is more focused on the clinical application of psychology in the legal arena. Though legal psychology and forensic psychology are different, together they form what is generally referred to as the overall field of psychology and law. In fact, many schools offer a dual degree in psychology and the law. Moreover, those who want to become a forensic psychologist must have a Master’s degree (at a minimum) and either a PhD or PsyD as well as 1-2 years of organized and supervised professional experience. In addition, a person must obtain state licensure and may consider getting board certified. In other words, you would need to obtain a Bachelor’s degree, a Master’s degree and/or PsyD or PhD in forensic psychology, and may even consider getting a law degree (although not required) such as a Juris Doctor (a degree earned by attorneys). Once you obtain these degrees, then you will need to obtain the state licensure and may consider becoming board certified by the American Board of Forensic Psychology (ABFP) which, again, is not a requirement. Forensic psychologists may work in the legal arena or work in the academic setting. For example, those working in the legal system may work in prisons, jails, rehabilitation centers, police departments, law firms, other government agencies or in private practice. Those working in the academic field may work in colleges, universities, government agencies, and other settings. Some psychologists focused on the application of their research or experimentation in the forensic field may be called upon as an expert witness or be asked to evaluate people involved in a crime or those involved in custody cases. In particular, forensic psychologists have worked directly with inmates by providing screening and psychological assessments, individual and group therapy, anger and crisis management, and sometimes court-ordered assessments. Others have been asked to look at the cognitive and emotional states of someone involved in a crime (e.g., sex offenses, murder cases, etc.). Indeed, the sensationalism of television shows has highlighted the cases where a psychologist has to determine if someone was insane at the time of the crime. It is important to note that “insanity” is not a psychological term, it is a legal term and it varies by each state even though there is also a federal standard. In legal terms, a forensic psychologist may be asked to determine if a person possessed a guilty mind (mens rea) at the time a criminal act was committed. Students interested in continuing their education in forensic psychology can view our list of the most affordable forensic psychology graduate programs and resources. General Psychology. General psychology is a term used to describe the entire umbrella that is the science of psychology. General psychology can also be thought of as the study of the mind including its cognition, emotion, behaviors, perception, and self-perception. As one of the human sciences, general psychology is more difficult (and some say impossible) than the other sciences such as physics, biology, chemistry, astronomy, etc. because, by its very nature, psychologists try to study themselves…how do you psychoanalyze the psychoanalyst? In the end, psychology is the study of the mind, how it works, and how it affects behavior. Most of the research in general psychology has referred to different types of psychology including, but not limited to, cognitive, social, forensic, developmental, behavioral, clinical as well as others. In practical terms, general psychology has been around since humans began thinking about other people (why they act and behave the way they do, what they are thinking, etc.). However, most people would agree that general psychology became a disciplined science in the 1800s when it separated itself from the other sciences. Since then, the different types of psychology have grown but most people still refer to the main two categories of experimental and applied psychology. Experimental psychology focuses primarily on research, whereas, applied psychology takes this research and applies it to practical problems for people (as individuals, groups, or organizations). General psychology improved its reputation as a science when it began applying experimental method in its research (experimental psychology). When using the experimental method a psychologist will make observations, form an hypothesis, make a prediction [or multiple predictions], develop and perform an experiment to test the prediction[s], analyze and interpret the results, draw a conclusion, and report the results. Applied psychology is founded on experimental psychology in that applied psychology takes the research from experimental psychology and applies it to the real world to identify and develop solutions for problems to achieve tangible results. They work hand in hand to achieve measurable results. Applied psychology wouldn’t exist without experimental psychology. General psychologists are trained to have certain skills and possess clinical knowledge they use to help people deal with problems or stresses in their lives. They use a variety of techniques which are based on previous research or their own research. These techniques and skills are usually applied in the clinical setting while meeting, and treating, individuals. In addition to having clinical knowledge and skills, general psychologists also receive training on developing, administering, and interpreting various assessments and tests. These can be used to help a person understand their cognitive strengths and weaknesses, their intellectual skills and capacity, their personality characteristics, and many other preferences and aptitudes. Psychologists can work in government settings, clinical settings, academic settings, as well as in private practice. They typically work in the health field and work with those who have cognitive or mental health issues so they may work with other health professionals such as doctors (physicians, psychiatrists, pediatricians) and others to provide a more comprehensive treatment which may include therapeutic and medical management. Most general psychologists have a doctorate degree such as a PhD or PsyD. Some choose to complete the EdPsy which is specific to educational psychology. A PhD takes longer to complete (usually around 5 years) whereas a PsyD takes less time (usually around 3 years) and is popular for those interested in becoming a general psychologist who focuses on therapy rather than focusing on developing new theories or new techniques. Once you have completed your doctorate degree, most states require that you have a period of supervised working experience (usually 2 years) then you must pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP) which is administered by the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB). Students interested in continuing their education in general psychology can view our list of the most affordable general psychology graduate programs and resources. Health Psychology. Health psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on how all areas of our lives affect our physical health and well-being. Most of the current research in this field have focused on how psychological, social, and biological factors influence health, fitness, and illness. In addition, health psychologists also look at how behaviors (good and bad) impact our ability to prevent, and recover from, illness or cope with a chronic illness. Moreover, health psychologists are not only concerned with how our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors affect our health, they are also concerned with how our health affects our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Therefore, it is reciprocal in nature as much as it is causal. Some of the research has referred to health psychology as medical psychology or behavioral medicine. Whatever term is used, health psychology wasn’t recognized as a separate branch of psychology until the late 1970s when several psychology professionals sponsored a petition to create a new health psychology division within the American Psychology Association (APA). As a result of their efforts, Division 38 of the APA – the Health Psychology Division – was created in 1978. Division 38 is now called the Society for Health Psychology and they seek “to advance contributions of psychology to the understanding of health and illness through basic and clinical research, education and service activities and encourages the integration of biomedical information about health and illness with current psychological knowledge”. One of the main approaches used in the field of health psychology today is known as the biosocial model which posits that a combination of psychological, biological, and social factors contributes to a person’s illness and health. Psychological factors may include a person’s stress levels, personality characteristics, and overall lifestyle. Biological factors may include genetic and personality traits. Social factors may include family, friends, and work support systems and the relative closeness of those relationships as personal and cultural beliefs. Health psychologists using the biosocial model will look at all of these factors to help determine the causes of illness as well as developing and implementing plans for prevention and recovery. With this in mind, many health psychologists work with medical professionals in healthcare facilities (hospitals, clinics) as well as working for non-profit organizations and in the government and private sectors. Of course, many health psychologists also work in academia at colleges and universities. Those who do work in the academic field may teach and conduct research. Some may also work in specialty practices such as oncology, rehabilitation facilities, pain management, or other areas such as treating patients suffering from PTSD or those wanting to quit smoking or treating an eating disorder. The field of health psychology has grown substantially recently as a result of more people living longer and taking control of their health instead of simply relying on their traditional medical doctor’s advice. For example, life expectancy in the United States in 1959 was 69.9 years compared to 78.9 years in 2016. However, this same research showed that the rate of increase in life expectancy has slowed down over time and life expectancy has actually decreased slightly after 2014. Health psychologists look for possible reasons for these trends. Another reason why we have seen a growth in health psychologists is people are looking for other (alternative) ways to help prevent, treat, and cope with illness and their overall well-being. This is where the medical field and health psychology field can work symbiotically to take a more holistic approach to improve the care and overall well-being of their patients. Students interested in continuing their education in health psychology can view our list of the most affordable health psychology graduate programs and resources. Industrial Organizational Psychology. Industrial/Organizational psychology (I/O) is an applied discipline within the field of psychology with a broader scope than other fields relative to the knowledge and skills required for the job, the worksites and the daily responsibilities. Industrial/Organizational psychology can also be referred to as occupational psychology. The field of I/O psychology has been informed by knowledge from occupational medicine, industrial psychology, industrial engineering, economics, preventive medicine and public health. As society was shifting from an agrarian economy into the industrial era, companies’ greatest concerns were material production and the bottom line. Working conditions for their employees was a distant second. Early studies were focused on ways to increase productivity and were adopted, often, at a cost to the workers. Eventually, in response to a dramatic increase in the number of stress-related worker compensation claims, stress-related physical and psychological disorders were recognized as a leading occupational health risk. Companies began to see the need for understanding how people behave in a work environment. Armed with that knowledge, an industrial/organizational psychologist may be tasked with determining what policies or actions an organization should take to get the best performance from its employees as well as ways for employees to obtain maximum job satisfaction. Workplace issues can often be resolved because of industrial/organizational psychologists working with business owners, managers and individual employees. An I/O psychologist is seen as someone who can increase the effectiveness of an organization and reduce organizational risk factors for stress, illness and injury. While industrial/organizational psychology is an applied discipline of psychology, I/O psychologists also conduct research. Research has examined the relationship between high levels of work demand and the latitude that a worker has to make decisions. Another model used examines the relationship between effort and reward. The purpose of research is to understand how working conditions affect worker health and safety. To become an I/O psychologist, you must have at least a Master’s degree in psychology. Some positions may require a PhD degree. In addition to higher education, I-Os may also choose to distinguish their qualifications through certification and licensure programs. Often I/O psychologists hold both a counseling degree and a business degree. Courses in business management, organizational psychology, mediation, and employment law are recommended. Core curricula often include the following topics: survey of occupational safety and health; job stress theory and mechanisms; organizational risk factors for occupational stress, injury, and illness; health implications of stressful work (physical and psychological) and social and economic outcomes; organizational interventions (e.g., work redesign); and programs for reduction of occupational stress, illness and injury (e.g., employee assistance programs, work-family programs). Most commonly, industrial/organizational psychologists are hired by large organizations that have many employees. The employee may be part of a human resources department; or, if the organization is particularly large, they may be a part of a separate department. I/O psychologists are also found in work environments such as academic institutes, private practices, research firms, large businesses, leadership development centers, human resource departments, employment assistant programs, and government or private consulting firms. Some industrial/organizational psychologists choose to be self-employed or work on a freelance basis; however, they may not step out on their own until they have gained experience over a number of years and have built a client base. I/O psychologists usually work a traditional schedule, seldom working weekends or evenings. Other industrial/organizational psychology positions that may have similar job descriptions and responsibilities include health and safety advisor, recruitment consultant, occupational hygienist, employee relations officer, human resource manager, training and development officer/manager, and ergonomist. The employment outlook is comparable to positions in other fields of psychology. The median salary is $47.76 an hour.  The growth in number of positions is estimated at 13%. Students interested in continuing their education in I-O Psychology can view our list of the most affordable industrial organizational psychology graduate programs and resources. Legal Psychology. Legal psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on issues related to law, the court system, and legal processes. Much of the research in legal psychology involves empirical research that focuses on the issues related to the law, legal institutions and processes, as well as those involved in the legal process. For example, legal psychologists will apply cognitive and social principles when dealing with eyewitness memory, jury selection and decision-making, the investigation process and interviewing process. Some legal psychologists argue that one of their goals is to help improve the legal process so that it runs more smoothly and has less impact on the people involved. One of the goals of psychology is to understand behavior while one of the goals of law is to regulate and control behavior. Legal psychology is a combination of the two with the focus on the people involved in the legal process and the process itself. The term, and branch of, legal psychology is relatively new in the field of psychology. Some argue that it is used to help differentiate it from forensic psychology. Though legal psychology and forensic psychology are different, together they form what is generally referred to as the overall field of psychology and law. In fact, the American Psychological Association has created a division (Division 41 – American Psychology – Law Society [AP-LS]) that takes a multidisciplinary approach by including research, clinical practice, public policy, teaching and training from a variety of perspectives within the field of psychology including social, developmental, cognitive, and clinical. With this said, it is important to note that forensic psychology is different from legal psychology. Generally, legal psychology takes a more experimental focus and examines the issues that occur within the legal system whereas forensic psychology is more focused on the clinical application of psychology in the legal arena especially in criminal cases. More specifically, legal psychologists focus more on the thoughts and behaviors of jurors, the jury selection process, the court system process, and other legal processes. Legal psychologists typically work with lawyers, police officers, and judges to research and show patterns within the legal system. They are not necessarily focused on, or concerned about, the criminals or defendants. On the other hand, forensic psychologists are usually involved in criminal cases and are focused on the suspects, convicted felons/criminals, and defendants. Forensic psychologists are often asked to help determine if a suspect was sane at the time they committed a crime. In addition, they may also be asked to determine if a suspect or criminal will be likely to commit crime again in the future if released from prison. In order to determine this, the forensic psychologist will interview the suspect or criminal (usually in jail or prison or at a police station). In other words, forensic psychologists typically work with suspects, defendants, and criminals whereas legal psychologists usually work with lawyers, judges and police officers. Legal psychologists may also work in an administrative capacity to help develop and implement new legal policies and procedures which improve upon existing policies or attempt to address new issues or concerns. They may work for a city council, a mayor, or other city officials to help devise the language in a city’s ordinance. Most of the time, however, legal psychologists evaluate and assess the individuals involved in the legal and court process (e.g., the jurors, the jury process, witnesses, expert witnesses, etc.). They may also need to evaluate a parent seeking custody of a minor child or an inmate scheduled to go to trial or an inmate scheduled for release. Legal psychologists may work in a variety of settings within the criminal justice system as well as outside of it. They may work in the courthouse, in private practice, in correctional facilities or detention centers, or they may work for federal law enforcement agencies. Legal psychologists may also work in the academic field as teachers, researchers, or administrators. According to the APA, jobs such as legal psychologist (those where psychology and law intersect), are going to experience higher growth and be in more demand than those such as the general psychologist. Neuropsychology. Neuropsychology is a combination of neuroscience (the study of the brain and nervous system) and psychology (the study of the mind including its cognition, emotion, behaviors, perception, and self-perception). Therefore, neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on how the brain and the nervous system influences a person’s thoughts (cognitions) and behaviors. This field of study is both experimental and clinical in nature. While neurology is focused on the pathology (the study of the causes and effects of illness/disease or injury) of the nervous system, neuropsychology aims to discover how the mind responds to, and works through, disease or injury. Neuropsychologists evaluate and treat people to better understand how their cognition and behavior are influenced by brain activity (or lack thereof) in different parts of the brain as a result of injury or disease. Generally, when a physician requests neurological testing for a patient, it is completed by a clinical neuropsychologist. Furthermore, it is usually ordered for people who have experienced an illness or injury (primarily to the brain). The clinical neuropsychologist will then utilize various methods to assess the illness or injury to diagnose the cause, help manage the illness or injury, and develop a rehabilitation plan for the patient. Some of the methods include standard neuropsychological tests, functional brain imaging or brain scans (e.g., SPECT, PET, MRI, fMRI, and CAT or CT), electrophysiology measures (e.g., EEG, MEG), and the use of experimental tasks which measure reaction time and accuracy on tasks related to specific neurocognitive processes (e.g., CANTAB, CNSVS). There are a variety of approaches used by neuropsychologists in this field of study including experimental neuropsychology, clinical neuropsychology, cognitive neuropsychology, behavioral neuropsychology. Experimental neuropsychology takes an experimental psychology approach to discover the relationship between cognitive function and the nervous system. Clinical neuropsychology uses knowledge from both neurology and psychology to assess, manage, and treat/rehabilitate those who have experienced an illness or suffer an illness. Cognitive neuropsychology applies both experimental and clinical approaches into one to better understand how the brain and mind functions within those who have a neurological illness or suffered from brain injury. Within this area, there are multiple models used by cognitive neuropsychologists. Behavioral neuropsychology is an approach that uses the ideas from behavioral theory and neuropsychological principles to study the nerves, neurotransmitters, and circuitry of the brain and how (and why) these processes affect behavior. Please note that researchers in this field refer to behavioral neuropsychology as other names such as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology. Neuropsychologists may work in government or private research facilities as well as in the academic field at universities or colleges so they can conduct their research and teach at the same time. Clinical neuropsychologists may work in a variety of healthcare settings such as hospitals, clinics, physicians’ offices, or serve as clinical-trial consultants (when new drugs or treatments are being trialed). Though the majority of neuropsychologists engage in research, some of them work directly with patients to help diagnose and treat their disease or injury. For example, they may work with patients who have neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s (or other forms of dementia), Parkinson’s disease, or a variety of learning disabilities. Students interested in continuing their education in neuropsychology can view our list of the most affordable neuropsychology graduate programs and resources. Personality Psychology. Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that attempts to study the personality of individuals as well as the similarities and differences between, and among, different people and groups. The word personality comes from the Latin word persona which means “mask”. Personality is a combination of thought patterns, feelings and emotions, behavior, and motivation that influence a person’s overall expectations, values, attitudes, and perception and self-perception. The study of personality psychology has focused on three broad areas:  One area is focused on understanding the differences in specific personality characteristics within an individual (e.g., if one is more of an introvert or extrovert). Another area of focus is understanding a person’s overall personality type (where the person falls on all of the specific personality characteristics). A third area of focus is studying the similarities and differences in these patterns and personality types between, and among, different people and groups. Most of the research in this area references five basic philosophical assumptions (questions) that help determine personality including:  Freedom vs. Determinism (how much control does one have over their own behavior and the motives behind it?), Heredity vs. Environment (nature versus nurture), Uniqueness vs. Universality (the extent to which one person is unique or similar to others), Active vs. Reactive (do humans act through their own initiative or act as a result of outside stimuli), Optimistic vs. Pessimistic (the extent to which humans play an integral part in changing their own personalities). There are a number of different approaches to studying personality, however, the major personality theories include: Type theories (psychological classification of different types of people) attempt to develop personality types based on characteristics that can be thought of as an either-or situation while others can be thought of as existing on a continuum. One of the more well-known type theories is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator which was created by Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine Briggs, during WWII. This model resulted in 16 personality types. There are many other type theories in this field of study.Psychoanalytical theories attempt to explain human behavior based on the interaction of three significant components (id, ego, super-ego). Sigmund Freud was the founder of this school of thought.Learning theories (a.k.a., Behaviorist theories) explain behavior and personality as responses to external stimuli. In other words, it applies social learning theory to the development of personality and behavior.Cognitive theories explain that behaviors are a result of cognitions (e.g., expectations) about the world around you and emphasize that cognitive processes help shape your personality.Humanistic theories argue that people have free will and this is the most important determinant of behavior. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers were well-known proponents of this theory and believed in a hierarchy of needs and the idea that people strive to become self-actualized (people “fulfilling themselves and doing the best they are capable of doing”).Biopsychological theories focus on the role biology (genetics) and the brain have on the development of personality. Many research articles have referred to the case of Phineas Gage where, in 1848, an iron rod was driven through Gage’s head and his personality changed as a result.Evolutionary theories explore how variances in personality may be a result of natural selection. Charles Darwin is the founder of the theory of evolution of the species upon which the evolutionary approach to personality psychology is based.Drive theories attempt to explain personality based on primary and secondary drives. For example, personality could develop from consistent habitual responses of an individual (i.e., their habits). The secondary, or acquired, drives are learned through a process of classical conditioning. Furthermore, the secondary drives are built on primary drives and may vary based on the social environment (e.g., culture). John Dollard and Neal Elgar Miller are associated with this school of thought. Personality psychologists may work in mental health facilities, rehabilitation centers, hospitals and clinics or may have a private practice and work out of their office. Those who focus more on research may work in the academic field in colleges or universities or work for governmental agencies or private research organizations. Students interested in continuing their education in personality psychology can visit our list of the most affordable personality psychology graduate programs and resources. School Psychology. School psychology incorporates multiple branches of psychology (educational, developmental, clinical, community and applied behavior analysis) into the practice of consultation, intervention and assessment of school childrens’ psychological health to help meet educational needs. This is done in collaboration with families, teachers, and school administrators. The science of school psychology is historically grounded in educational psychology. School psychology is a somewhat new practice as it began in the early 20th century when the need for special education learning arose more in the classroom. The formation of school psychology education has matured throughout the years to include diverse training in research and application to equip school psychologists to provide a variety of services to students, school administrators, teachers and community programs. Educational psychology and school psychology both study the science of human learning. Both school psychology and educational psychology use psychology theory and research methodology to better understand the cognitive and behavioral processes of learning. This research data is used to design educational programs to assist educators in teaching. Main differences between school psychology and educational psychology include degree program training, credential/certification requirements, and workplace environment. Many educational psychologists are involved in research or consultation but may also be in the school environment. The majority of school psychologists work directly with students, families and teachers in a school facility. School psychologists have such a dynamic skill set that their profession could easily be described as a five-in-one psychologist. They apply psychology to every facet of the learning process within the school, partnering with teachers and family members to foster growth in education and eliminate negative climates for students. They are trained in individual and systemwide crisis prevention and are proactive in communicating with school administration and educators to ensure preventative programs are being executed for the health and safety of students and staff. According to the National Association of School Psychologists, they are “a highly skilled and ready resource in the effort to ensure that all children and youth thrive in school, at home, and in life.” School psychologists mostly work in K-12 grade schools, but some work in other school-based settings such as universities (research or teaching), school district administration offices, or as consultants to juvenile rehabilitation/treatment centers. A career as a school psychologist is both rewarding and challenging. Workload due to high demand of school psychologists with low numbers of applicants leaves many professionals in the field overworked and scattered among multiple schools. Addressing new technology issues, pressure from assessment testing, and budget cuts in school funding also add to the challenge of practicing school psychology. Overall, however, most school psychologists love their careers and find that navigating through the challenges is ultimately worth the reward of helping students overcome obstacles to achieve success in learning both at school, at home, and in their communities. Working in a school as a school psychologist requires a graduate school education. A school psychologist has a diversified portfolio of educational instruction. An undergraduate bachelor’s degree, followed by completion of a master’s degree program is the first step towards a career in school psychology. Most people then continue their education with a specialist degree or doctorate degree. A master’s specialist degree is the minimum degree accepted for certification requirements to enable the graduate to be able to work as a school psychologist. These degree programs last about 3 years with an experience-building internship built into the program. A doctorate degree usually requires 5-6 years commitment time. See our list of most affordable U.S. school psychology graduate programs and resources for more information. Social Psychology. Social psychology is the study of individuals and groups in interpersonal relationships and how personal reactions (thought, feeling and behavior) are influenced by the presence of others (physical or imagined). The data discoveries from this field of study is used to benefit larger-scale social problems that affect all of society. A few social problem examples that the science of social psychology helps examine and minimize include prejudice/discrimination, substance abuse, general crime, technology/social media controversy, judicial system concerns, ecological/environmental issues, and family, school, and workplace breakdown. Social psychologists normally choose from two different category types for the career path that best fits them. The first category career type is in research. Many social psychologists spend their careers creating and conducting experiments in laboratories or universities. Grouped within the “research” category can also be “academia”. Social psychologists may also be professors at colleges and universities where they also manage their research. The second career type category is application. Social psychologists can also be employed in both the private and public sector of our economy. The job paths vary as there is a wide variety of businesses, non-profit organizations, and government entities that employ social psychologists in different areas of work. Consulting, marketing research, business management, political strategy, education policy and program evaluation, and data/technology analyzing are a few of the types of “application” social psychology careers. The work that social psychologists contribute to society affects major aspects of our lives. Social psychologists generally have a love for their work and a profound sense of accomplishment knowing that their work positively affects multitudes of people everyday. Some of the research methods that social psychologists have developed and done in the past have been used for many years and have helped society in numerous ways. Modern social psychology research, especially with technology, has become increasingly more in demand as we try to discover how technology affects interpersonal relationships. Most social psychology careers in research or teaching require a doctorate degree. Careers in “application” may only require a master’s degree. Degree programs names vary. For example, you can pursue a graduate education in general psychology but have an emphasis in social psychology. A master’s degree generally takes two years. A doctorate in social psychology normally takes 5 years to complete. The salary and job outlook depends on specialty and degree level earned. Students interested in continuing their education in social psychology can visit our list of the most affordable social psychology graduate programs and resources. Recent Blog Posts. Questions to Consider when Choosing a Psychology Graduate Program . November 10, 2020 Every year, prospective graduate students will begin the process of submitting applications for psychology graduate programs. In fact, some estimate more than 100,000 applications will … Read More>> Welcome to the MastersinPsychology.com Blog . April 6, 2020 We envision using this open forum to accomplish multiple goals. We want to serve the existing psychological community. More specifically, we are focused on helping … Read More>> Scroll to Top
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Result 21
TitlePsychology Degree Guide 2021 | Find Accredited Programs
Urlhttps://psychologydegreeguide.org/
DescriptionTake the first step to your career in psychology! Explore 7000+ accredited on-ground & online psychology programs in our comprehensive guide
Date
Organic Position18
H1
H2WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH A PSYCHOLOGY DEGREE?
PSYCHOLOGY FIELDS BY THE NUMBERS
THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCREDITATION
TOP FIELDS
HOW TO CHOOSE A PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM
Putting it All Together
FIND PROGRAMS BY STATE
PAYING FOR A PSYCHOLOGY DEGREE
1. Save as Much as Possible as an Undergraduate
2. Take Loans Only When Necessary
RESOURCES FOR PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS
H3DEGREES
FIELDS OF STUDY
STATES
ONLINE PROGRAMS
Social Workers
Psychologists
Psychiatrists
Counseling
Forensic Psychology
School Psychology
Social Psychology
Educational Opportunity
Professional Goals
Financial Resources
Financial Challenges of Getting a Psychology Degree
Why is it Important to Minimize Loans as a Psychology Major?
Mental Health and Wellness Resources for Students of Color
A Student’s Guide to Handling Post-Pandemic Back-to-College Anxiety
PhD vs PsyD: What’s the Difference?
H2WithAnchorsWHAT CAN YOU DO WITH A PSYCHOLOGY DEGREE?
PSYCHOLOGY FIELDS BY THE NUMBERS
THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCREDITATION
TOP FIELDS
HOW TO CHOOSE A PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM
Putting it All Together
FIND PROGRAMS BY STATE
PAYING FOR A PSYCHOLOGY DEGREE
1. Save as Much as Possible as an Undergraduate
2. Take Loans Only When Necessary
RESOURCES FOR PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS
Bodyhttps://www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-N7F4C3" height=0 width=0 style=display:none;visibility:hidden> Toggle navigation HomeDegreesCertificateAssociate’s DegreeBachelor’s DegreeMaster’s DegreeDoctorate DegreeOnline DegreesFields of StudyApplied Behavior AnalysisApplied PsychologyArt TherapyBusiness PsychologyChild PsychologyClinical PsychologyCognitive PsychologyCounseling PsychologyEducational PsychologyForensic PsychologyHealth PsychologyHuman ServicesIndustrial and Organizational PsychologyMarriage and Family CounselingMental Health CounselingNeuroscience and NeuropsychologyPastoral CounselingPsychoanalysis and PsychotherapyPsychologySchool PsychologySocial PsychologySocial WorkSports PsychologySubstance Abuse CounselingStatesResourcesRankingsPsychology ExplainedStudent ResourcesCareer GuidesResearch & TechnologyStudent InterviewsResource GuidesHomeDegreesCertificateAssociate’s DegreeBachelor’s DegreeMaster’s DegreeDoctorate DegreeOnline DegreesFields of StudyApplied Behavior AnalysisApplied PsychologyArt TherapyBusiness PsychologyChild PsychologyClinical PsychologyCognitive PsychologyCounseling PsychologyEducational PsychologyForensic PsychologyHealth PsychologyHuman ServicesIndustrial and Organizational PsychologyMarriage and Family CounselingMental Health CounselingNeuroscience and NeuropsychologyPastoral CounselingPsychoanalysis and PsychotherapyPsychologySchool PsychologySocial PsychologySocial WorkSports PsychologySubstance Abuse CounselingStatesResourcesRankingsPsychology ExplainedStudent ResourcesCareer GuidesResearch & TechnologyStudent InterviewsResource GuidesTake the first step TO A CAREER IN PSYCHOLOGYFind Psychology Programs DEGREES. Where you are on your career path will determine which degree program you are looking for. FIELDS OF STUDY. Psychology majors can work in industrial, educational or even government settings. STATES. If you’re like many students, where you study can be almost as important as what you study. ONLINE PROGRAMS. What’s the best part about attending an online degree program? Flexibility!WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH A PSYCHOLOGY DEGREE?Psychology is the most human of sciences. No other discipline examines the human experience as closely or as deeply as psychology. Every aspect, every nuance of behavior, is carefully dissected and explored by psychologists everywhere. Every step we take in our life brings with it countless psychological aspects — what are we thinking, why are we thinking it, and what led us to think that way are just a few of the questions psychologists seek to answer.The study of psychology as a discipline is exciting and fascinating, but what can you do with a psychology degree? What are your career choices?While a psychology degree can prepare you for a number of occupations, doctoral graduates are the best positioned to pursue careers as psychologists. Typically, a bachelor’s degree is a stepping stone with very few psychology jobs available. Psychology master’s degrees are often the minimum you’ll need to start your career, and a Master of Social Work (MSW) is typically required to work as a counselor. Most professional psychologists will possess a doctorate in psychology, such as a Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) or Ph.D. in Psychology.Once you’ve achieved your educational requirements and are ready to hit the job market, there are three primary focus areas for most psychology graduates. Social Workers. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), social workers are required to have MSW (Masters of Social Work) and LCSW (Licensed Clinical Social Work) degrees.Training includes graduate courses on human behavior, psychotherapy, and community resources as well as two years of graduate training, followed by two to three years of supervised clinical work.Unlike psychiatrists and, in some states, psychologists, social workers cannot prescribe medications. The median pay of social workers, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, is $44,200 per year (or $21.25 per hour based on a 40-hour workweek).The social worker field employees the most graduates of the three (there are over 600,000 social workers in the US) and the field is projected to grow at a rate of 19% in the 10-year period from 2012 to 2022 — an increase seven percentage points higher than general psychology jobs. Psychologists. Psychologists haven’t historically been allowed to write prescriptions, though some states have started to make exceptions to this rule, the APA notes. In the rare cases where they can, additional training is required, though the training does stop short of an M.D. Psychologists must complete four years of undergraduate work, a master’s degree, and either a Ph.D, PsyD, or Ed.D to become eligible for licensure.Coursework includes graduate courses in human behavior, development, personality, research, statistics, psychotherapy, assessment and ethics. In addition to a 2-year master’s degree program and four to six years of doctoral work, most psychologists will also need to complete up to two years at a full-time internship.On earnings, the BLS reports that psychologists earn median pay of $69,280 per year (or $33.31 per hour based on a 40-hour workweek), an average bump of more than $25,000 per year compared to social workers. Job growth is pacing at general psychology’s 12% average. Psychiatrists. Psychiatrists are a level up from psychologists and several up from social workers. Psychiatrists are required to have either a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree.Training involves medical school with a “broad focus on biological functioning (4 years) followed by specialized residency about mental illness and its treatment, with a focus on medications (3-4 years),” the APA notes.Annual mean wages across the United States range from $124,000 in poorer locations to $265,000 annually. The overall mean annual wage is $182,700 (or $87.84 per hour based on a 40-hour workweek), the BLS states.Their job outlook is expected to remain relatively low over the 10-year period from 2012 to 2022. As of 2014, there were only 25,080 psychiatrists employed throughout the U.S., an average of just over 500 per state. By comparison, there are 607,300 social workers and 160,200 psychologists.Find Psychology Programs Now PSYCHOLOGY FIELDS BY THE NUMBERS. Psychiatrists earn on average $182,700 per year while psychologists can expect $69,280 and social workers $44,200Job growth for psychiatrists is expected to remain low, while psychologists should increase 12% and social workers 19%Of those employed amongst the three fields, 3% are psychiatrists, 20% are psychologists and 77% are social workersTHE IMPORTANCE OF ACCREDITATION. In most states, you will need a degree from an accredited psychology program to be granted a license to practice.To find an accredited psychology or psychiatry program in your area, start with your short list of schools, browse the course catalog and talk to faculty in their psychology departments. If you’ve already made a school selection, discuss plans with your advisor.To learn more about the importance of accreditation and how it can affect your school choices, read this article on psychology degree program accreditation.TOP FIELDS. Counseling. Forensic Psychology. School Psychology. Social Psychology. MORE HOW TO CHOOSE A PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM. Choosing a psychology program today is both easier and more challenging than it used to be. On the one hand, it’s easier because you have so many opportunities to learn: on-campus, online or a combination of both. On the other hand, the field is so rigorous and competitive you can’t afford to get by on a bachelor’s degree alone, at least if you plan on working in a psychology-related field after graduation.When deciding how to choose a psychology program, you have to balance it on three primary factors: educational opportunity, professional goals and financial resources. Educational Opportunity. In 2013, U.S. News and World Report ranked the top 244 schools in the country for general psychology. Considering there are close to 2,500 public and private colleges/universities in the U.S. alone, that list is hardly exhaustive.The American Psychological Association (APA) is a good place to start when finding a program to meet your needs. While the APA only accredits doctoral programs, students may attain pre-doctoral qualifications without incurring massive debt. Also, lack of APA accreditation will not necessarily be a deal breaker, as states set licensing standards independently.The Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB), is a valuable resource for learning about the credentialing standards in your state of interest. The ASPPB also offers many resources for psychologists looking to take the Examination for Professional Practice of Psychology (EPPP) licensing exam once a doctoral degree is attained.Professional Goals .  A Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Ph.D in Psychology or Doctor of Education (Ed.D) can open many doors professionally. This is beneficial since there are dozens of career specialties to choose from. Some of the most common, the APA notes, are in the business, education, health, environment, public safety and performance psychology fields. The accrediting body also keeps a free database of job openings for psychology professionals. Currently, there are over 500 postings, with more added daily.You do not have to be actively looking for a job to get value from job postings, as these reveal the types of specialized opportunities available. Also, personal relationship building is a good way to hone in on professional goals. As you engage in coursework, ask questions and seek the counsel of your professors. For internships and other field work prior to completing your doctoral degree, it’s also wise to create and maintain strong working relationships with your supervisors and colleagues. Financial Resources. As Business Insider pointed out in a piece from August 2015, your odds of getting a job that you apply for are 2.6% to 6.6% higher if referred by a current employee than if you have no connections whatsoever. In other words, connections aren’t just good for helping shape your personal goals, they can actually get you employed. So cultivate those relationships!Completing psychology licensure is costly, so it’s important you find the financial resources to handle it. To help control costs, consider completing an associate’s degree plan (2-year) at a community college and transferring to a state school to finish out the 4-year bachelor’s degree program.Controlling expenses at the undergraduate level helps to reduce the overall financial burden of a doctoral degree plan. To see if you qualify for financial aid, contact the financial aid office at the school you are attending. Also, speak with faculty in their psychology departments, preferably those with student advisory experience. Last but not least, fill out your Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) every year. Deadlines depend on your state of residence and the school year for which you are applying. You can see the specifics for your situation at this link.Putting it All Together. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that over the 10-year period from 2012 to 2022, the psychology profession will grow by around 12%. Of that 12%, only doctoral candidates will have the best opportunity for growth. Do the best you can. In a perfect world, you would be able to follow the exact career path at the school of your dreams and graduate with a perfect job waiting on you. But to be employed in the field, and manage your post-grad debt, it’s important to find a balance among the three areas mentioned above.Find Psychology Programs NowFIND PROGRAMS BY STATE. Location can be a very important component of a degree program, especially if you are hoping to take advantage of residential in-state tuition (and maybe even live at home to save money). Also, you may want to consider going to school in the state you want to work in after graduation and begin making your career connections early. Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington DC West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming MichiganPAYING FOR A PSYCHOLOGY DEGREE. The College Board reports that the average cost of tuition and fees for the 2015–2016 school year is $32,405 for private colleges and universities and $9,410 for state residents at public institutions ($23,893 for non-state residents).This information reveals two things: 1) Getting a degree of any kind isn’t cheap, but can vary greatly depending on where you go; and 2) Strategy is required to minimize costs. This is especially true for individuals pursuing a degree in psychology.Financial Challenges of Getting a Psychology Degree. The average 4-year degree could run anywhere from $37,640 for in-state residents at public colleges and universities to $129,620 for students at private universities, based on the College Board’s numbers. Most positions require doctoral degrees, which entail getting a master’s degree and a Ph.D or PsyD, so there is no “cheap” option, and incurring six figure debts in tuition and fees isn’t just possible — it’s likely. That said, there are a couple options to help control the costs..1. Save as Much as Possible as an Undergraduate. There are several ways a student can save as an undergraduate. Firstly, it is best to focus on the most affordable school while completing general education requirements. Community colleges, the Princeton Review reports, run “thousands of dollars cheaper than tuition for private and public four-year universities,” with an average in-state tuition of just $3,347 per year. That’s a savings of close to $6,000 per year compared to the next cheapest option (4-year public universities for in-state residents).Students who attain their general education requirements at a community college before moving to a four-year school to finish up their degree will save $12,000 or more off the cost of their undergraduate degree.In addition to controlling these costs, students should focus on getting as many grants (Federal Pell) and scholarships (community, academic, athletic) as possible.Also, on-campus work-study programs can be a beneficial source for aid that doesn’t have to be paid back. A school’s financial aid office should have all the details necessary to determine eligibility.Other money-saving tips include buying used textbooks as much as possible (or delaying the purchase of a textbook to see if it’s really necessary). Furthermore, students can “buddy up” with a fellow classmate and split the cost of a book. Most schools are fine with attendees, who wish to get a part-time job.Last but not least, staying at home — if one lives close to campus or can do all classes online — is another effective way to save.2. Take Loans Only When Necessary. Educational loans — in the form of Subsidized and Unsubsidized Federal loans — will cover everything a student needs to pay for whichever school he is accepted to; but each comes with its share of advantages and disadvantages. With Subsidized loans, the government pays interest for as long as the student is going to school half-time. This extends to six months after graduation (the grace period), and during approved deferment (or postponement of the loan). Subsidized loans are dependent on the school you attend and may not exceed financial need.Unsubsidized loans are a bit more flexible, but they require the student to maintain interest payments during all periods of the loan. Aid amount is determined by the school based on need and other financial aid that the student qualifies for. Failure to pay interest when due can result in the creditor adding that debt to the student’s principal amount, thus compounding the life/amount of the loan.Why is it Important to Minimize Loans as a Psychology Major?Minimizing loans as much as possible will make the overall cost of education palatable, but for candidates pursuing a career in psychology, it is difficult to get through undergraduate and postgraduate work without taking at least some loan-based assistance.According to Peterson’s, the average cost of a master’s degree depends greatly on the program, type of school, and the student’s status as an in-state or out-of-state resident. On average, the site notes, public university postgraduates pay $30,000 annually while private university postgrads pay $40,000 annually. If a master’s degree takes two years to complete, that can range anywhere from $60,000-$80,000 per year, and psychology majors hoping to work in the field will need to go beyond that.A doctoral degree, according to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), runs a net of around $23,200 annually at public institutions and $35,800 annually at private schools. This is tuition and fees only and does not account for books, meals, living arrangements, etc. With the average program taking five years to complete, that is a cost of potentially $116,000-$179,000 per year in addition to undergraduate costs and the cost of a master’s degree.To go further with the math, let’s use the example of a student who starts out at community college. He completes his general education requirements before transferring to an in-state public college or university and finishing his bachelor’s degree. Under this scenario, the student has already accrued $25,000 in tuition and fees. Add another two years at a public university ($60,000) to finish his master’s degree. Once his doctoral degree is finished — assuming he is able to keep his net costs low for the five-year period, he would owe around $201,000.Looking at 2013, Debt.org found that $5,750 per student in “gift aid from all sources” was awarded to full-time undergraduates at public colleges and universities. Full-time undergraduates at private, nonprofit schools received an average of $15,680 per student. Using the student in our example above, he could have theoretically escaped with an undergraduate degree only $2,000 in debt. That would drop the total cost of his education to $178,000.For postgraduates, scholarships like these at the American Psychological Association (APA) can pay as much as $5,000 annually, and one is not limited in the number of applications they can make to these and other gift aid opportunities.Find Psychology Programs NowRESOURCES FOR PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS. Mental Health and Wellness Resources for Students of Color. Many organizations promote mental health care for BIPOC communities, focusing on the needs of Black, Indigenous, Latinx and AAPI students. A Student’s Guide to Handling Post-Pandemic Back-to-College Anxiety. Many college students may experience anxiety about post-pandemic life. Here are some tips for managing anxiety over your return to campus. PhD vs PsyD: What’s the Difference?If you are interested in pursuing a doctoral degree as a psychologist, there are two main options to consider: the PsyD and the PhD. We will explain the difference.MoreSearch
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TitleHow to Get a Master's in Psychology
Urlhttps://careersinpsychology.org/how-to-get-a-masters-in-psychology/
DescriptionInterested in earning a master's degree in psychology? Learn more about requirements, how long this type of degree takes, and more
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H1How to Get a Master’s in Psychology – Your Complete Guide to Choosing a Master’s and What it Could Mean for Your Psychology Career
H2Getting a Master’s in Psychology Unlocks Hundreds of Career Paths
Picking the Right School For a Master’s Degree in Psychology
Master’s in Psychology Requirements for Coursework and Research
Job Prospects and Salary With a Master’s Degree in Psychology
H3Is it hard to get a master’s in psychology?
How many years does it take to get a master’s in psychology?
What is required to get a master’s degree in psychology?
Is a master’s in psychology worth it?
Written by careersinpsychology
Research Careers
Finding a Program
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H2WithAnchorsGetting a Master’s in Psychology Unlocks Hundreds of Career Paths
Picking the Right School For a Master’s Degree in Psychology
Master’s in Psychology Requirements for Coursework and Research
Job Prospects and Salary With a Master’s Degree in Psychology
BodyHow to Get a Master’s in Psychology – Your Complete Guide to Choosing a Master’s and What it Could Mean for Your Psychology Career Featured Programs: Sponsored School(s) Arizona State University Featured Program: BA and BS in Psychology - And Many other Online Behavioral Science Programs Request Info Purdue University Global Featured Program: Online Master of Science in Psychology Request Info Choosing your psychology degree path involves making a lot of difficult choices. Are you going to be content with a bachelor’s degree, and the various entry-level options it offers in industries ranging from marketing to social services? Or do you have a burning desire to become a clinical psychologist, requiring a long haul through to a doctorate and the years of research and supervised experience you need for that license? Getting a master’s in psychology offers you a middle path that has a lot of advantages for both education and career. At only two years of study past your four-year bachelor’s program, it’s a relatively fast graduate program to navigate. And with dozens of different specializations and almost unlimited career options waiting for you on the other side, it’s a path that pays off quick and gets you into a job you will love without spending almost a decade in school. Want to see if a master’s degree in psychology makes sense for you? Keep reading! Getting a Master’s in Psychology Unlocks Hundreds of Career Paths. Psychology careers with a master’s are virtually unlimited. It’s an unusual field in that your options with a master’s degree in psychology may actually be greater than with a doctorate. That’s because doctoral programs in psychology are almost entirely oriented toward creating either academic or clinical professionals in the field. There are relatively few specializations available, and much of your training will be in research and psychotherapy. But there are hundreds and hundreds of other uses for psychology in the world. Top tech companies are hungry for psychologists who understand what’s going through user’s minds as they navigate web pages or use software programs. Big manufacturers want to know how to increase productivity without over-stressing the workforce. Government agencies and non-profits need expert advice on social psychology as they role out public health initiatives. Most of those jobs need some kind of advanced degree. A bachelor’s just won’t cut it. Master’s programs open up all these options and more, and they do it at a lower cost and faster pace than a doctorate. Is it hard to get a master’s in psychology? Hard is all relative when you are talking about psychology degrees! Is a master’s degree in psychology tough to earn? You bet it is. Those people who want to hire you need to know you have real expertise in the field, which means you are going to study hard and long and prove your skills before you graduate. But the total cost of a master’s degree will only come to around $40,000, according to data from the National Center for Education Statistics from 2019. That’s a fraction of what a doctorate would run you. And you have more freedom to choose your specializations and pick something you will enjoy, which always makes life easier. FIND SCHOOLSSponsored Content How many years does it take to get a master’s in psychology? How long is a master’s degree in psychology? Well, the degree itself will only take you about two years to complete. Of course, you can’t get into that master’s program without first completing a bachelor’s degree, so expect to invest another four years for that. And you will find your odds of being accepted to a master’s program go up if you have a little demonstrated work experience under your belt… a year or two is not uncommon. So you could spend up to eight years on your path to a master’s in psychology. Picking the Right School For a Master’s Degree in Psychology. Choosing a school to pursue a master’s degree in psychology involves thinking ahead about your career choices. Although there are dozens and dozens of different concentrations available in master’s-level psychology studies, not every school offers every option. You’ll need to find a university that has the kind of program you are interested in. There are also financial and location concerns to consider. The $40,000 quoted above for tuition costs is just an average. According to NCES, public schools charge in-state students about $12,171 per year for graduate studies. But a private school can go over $25,929. Only you can weigh what you can afford, and what the benefits are from that elite level of study. Other costs come from where the school is located. If you are living in New York, you are paying New York rents and cost-of-living expenses, even if you got the deal of the century on your tuition. Many master’s in psychology programs are available online today, which can alleviate this issue, but either way you need to make sure you find the right fit all around. EXPLORE MASTER’S PROGRAMS IN PSYCHOLOGY Master’s in Psychology Requirements for Coursework and Research. The advanced skills you get in a master’s in psychology program are earned in intensive and detailed coursework and research. A lot of the specific classes and projects you take on will revolve around your chosen concentration. If you’re specializing in sport’s psychology, expect to spend a lot of time diving into the mental aspects of physical performance and the psychology of team-building, for example. But there are a lot of general courses that you will take that are common in getting a master’s in psychology in any specialty. The standard master’s in psychology requirements will include: Physiology and Human Lifecycle Development - You’ll study the biological and neurological running gear that underly human cognition and exam the cognitive and affective bases of human behavior. Those courses will take you through the growth of the human mind and how thought and emotion change over the course of a lifetime. Psychopathologies and Treatment - Psychologists also investigate how mental illness develops and presents by studying diagnostic and treatment techniques for a wide variety of mental health issues. In some concentrations this will include clinical practicum with real patients. Social Psychology - Psychology isn’t all inside an individual’s head. The culture, upbringing, and environment in which they exist all influence cognition and behavior, so you will study how social circumstances both influence and are shaped by psychological factors. Ethical and Professional Standards - Messing around with people’s heads is a serious business, so all master’s in psychology programs include a healthy helping of the ethical and professional considerations that professional psychologists are expected to follow. Research - At the master’s level, you’re no longer just learning out of books and accepting what you are told in lecture. You’re expected to dig in and get your hands dirty with legitimate research in psychology, learning the standards for designing experiments and interpreting data as well as writing and documenting findings. Most psychology master’s degrees also include a health helping of on-the-ground experience through practicum or internships in your chosen specialization. This is a time for you to put your classroom experience into real-world practice so you can develop realistic and proven skills that employers will appreciate. What is required to get a master’s degree in psychology? Getting a master’s in psychology typically requires completing 30 to 40 semester credits of coursework. Even more importantly, you will have to complete a master’s thesis. A thesis paper is a scholarly work that runs from 40 to 80 pages and can take most of your final program year to complete. And that’s building on your first year, which will be laying the groundwork and planning your research. In a real sense, your entire master’s program revolves around the thesis. The paper will be on an original subject designed to present your own thoughts and findings in the field you are concentrating in. You’ll go through multiple revisions with your advisor and defend the paper in front of a committee who will ensure you have explored every angle and that your logic is spot on. Some master’s programs now allow a capstone project to provide the same type of synthesis of your studies as a thesis paper, but you’ll find just as much work is involved, even if there is less writing. Job Prospects and Salary With a Master’s Degree in Psychology. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) forecasts a three percent job increase overall for psychologists between 2019 and 2029, about the same as the average job growth rate for the country. But that’s not to say that certain positions or industries won’t expand faster. What do those jobs pay? According to BLS, the 2020 average salary for psychologists was $82,180. That’s a pretty solid salary in the first place, but it looks even better when you consider that the category includes many psychologists who only earned a bachelor’s degree. At the top end of the profession, the upper ten percent of jobs can earn more than $137,590. Of course, master’s-prepared psychologists can go in many different directions for careers. A couple of paths that BLS tracks salary data for include: Industrial-organizational psychologists - $96,270 Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists - $79,820 But you are free to forge your own path and can shoot for six figures in the tech industry, or find satisfaction in social services jobs that don’t offer great paychecks, but offer off-the-charts levels of fulfillment from helping individuals or communities with your skills. FIND SCHOOLSSponsored Content Is a master’s in psychology worth it? A master’s in psychology is worth it if it leads you to a happy, fulfilling, meaningful career. Those are the stakes you really come to understand through the study of psychology: not just the pursuit of money, but the internal satisfaction that all individuals crave. Of course, a master’s is a pretty solid investment in the financial department as well. If you compare the median annual salary for psychologists to your likely college costs, you’ll see that you can basically make your investment all back in a year of work. Written by careersinpsychology. View all posts by: careersinpsychology Research Careers. Psychologists Counselors Therapists Social Workers Finding a Program. Associate's Programs Bachelor's Programs Master's Programs Doctoral Programs Program Directory Explore Degree Paths. Choosing a School / Degree Bachelor's Degrees Master's Degrees Doctorate Degrees Work Experience. Psychology Internships
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Result 23
Title2020/2021 Edition (Insider's Guide To Graduate Programs In ...
Urlhttps://www.amazon.com/Insiders-Graduate-Programs-Counseling-Psychology/dp/1462541437
DescriptionThis expertly written guide, now in its 2020/2021 Edition, is the resource you can rely on to help you choose--and get into--the graduate clinical or ...
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TitleGraduate School | Psychology Department | Cal Lutheran
Urlhttps://www.callutheran.edu/college-arts-sciences/psychology/resources/grad-school.html
Description
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H1Graduate School
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BodyGraduate School We have put together the following information to help you plan for obtaining an advanced degree in psychology. This information is in response to frequently asked questions about differences among various degrees in Psychology and what is needed in order to obtain admission to advanced degree programs. In addition to this overview, we have available in the Psych Assistants office ((Swenson 208): Graduate Study in Psychology (APA guide to all accredited graduate programs in psychology), and materials from most graduate programs filed by state. BA/BS While these degrees prepare students for a wide variety of jobs in both the public and private sector following graduation, jobs as a professional psychologist are not available with a BA or BS and usually require an advanced degree. If you are thinking of going on for a Ph.D. or a Psy.D, we usually recommend the BS since a broad and solid background in psychology makes a student more competitive in getting into these graduate programs. MA/MS This allows a student to work under the supervision of a licensed psychologist (i.e., in a clinic or institution), or to teach and/or counsel at community colleges in California. California does not license psychologists or counselors (except MFTC) at the master’s level, although some other states do. Masters programs sometimes do not require G.R.E. scores for admission especially if GPA is high. Admission is based on GPA and letters of recommendation. Internship and volunteer experiences usually provide an additional edge in getting into the better masters programs. A master’s degree (like Cal Lutheran’s Master in Clinical Psychology) can be an advantage in getting into a Ph.D. or Psy.D. program because it demonstrates your ability to do graduate work and research. If you are using the masters as a stepping stone to a Ph.D., do a good thesis and/or other independent research while you are in the masters program. Ph.D. programs, looking at master degree students, place heavy emphasis on the quality of their research. If you plan to continue on to a Ph.D. in a particular field of psychology after obtaining a masters degree, it is wise to choose a master’s program in that particular field. Cal Lutheran offers two masters programs. See Dr. Puopolo for more information about Cal Lutheran’s graduate psychology programs.  Psy.D. This degree is a relatively recent development and prepares a student to be a professional psychologist, licensed in the State of California to do independent clinical work (other states vary in their acceptance of this degree for licensure). This degree is not the best route if you want a career teaching as a college or university professor. About 20% of faculty at colleges and universities have a Psy. D.. Admission to these programs is competitive and good GRE scores are essential along with field and /or research experience and good letters of recommendation. We recommend the Clinical Practicum (494) and/or the Research Practicum(495) as well as any other field experience you can get (i.e., Internship) in order to make your application to a Psy.D. program competitive. Competencies to emphasize include: Written and Oral Communication, Quantitative Reasoning, Cultural Perspectives, Critical Thinking, Values and Judgment, Interpersonal Skills, Empirical Methodology and Field Specific Knowledge. Many Psy.D. programs (i.e., Pepperdine) prefer people with a Masters degree (and give one year of credit towards the Psy.D.). Cal Lutheran offers one Psy.D. in Clinical Psychology program. Ph.D. You may receive a Ph.D. in either an experimental or clinical area. Experimental areas include Social, Developmental, Cognitive, Learning, etc. (too many to list). A Ph.D. in experimental prepares a student primarily for university or college teaching/ research or work in the private sector. Admission is competitive and requires excellent grades, GRE scores above 1200 for the old GRE and 305 for the new GRE (higher for major research universities like UCLA), and great letters of recommendation. As an undergraduate a BS is suggested. Research and/or field experience is necessary in order to be competitive. In addition to the five required courses for the major, suggested undergraduate courses to prepare for admission to an experimental program include: Human Cognition, Sensation and Perception, Principles of Learning and Memory and/or History and Systems, and courses in your area of interest. Check to see what the school you are applying to requires. Particularly important competencies to acquire are: Written Communication, Quantitative Reasoning, Critical Thinking and Empirical Methodology, and Field Specific Knowledge. A Ph.D. in clinical psychology prepares a student for licensure as an independent practitioner as well as for an academic career. These graduate programs are impacted and highly competitive. Admission is based heavily on GRE scores (1250 is probably minimum for old GRE or 310 for new GRE; professional schools may have lower requirements), GPA (3.6 or better), field and research experience, and excellent letters of recommendation. In addition to the five required courses for the major, suggested undergraduate courses to prepare for admission to a clinical program include: Theories of Personality, Human Cognition, Psychological Testing, Principles of Learning and Memory and History and Systems. In addition, you should consider (if you qualify) doing Honors in Psychology which requires a thesis and completing the BS in Psychology which includes the additional course in Advanced Research Design and Statistics (Psy 412). Particularly important Competencies to acquire are: Written Communication, Oral Communication, Quantitative Reasoning, Critical Thinking, Interpersonal Skills, Empirical Methodology. If you are interested in a Ph.D. Program, I would suggest a GRE preparation course (i.e., Princeton Review), getting as much field and research experience as possible while an undergraduate, and a rigorous set of courses. Outside of psychology, I recommend Calculus, that you take Chemistry and Biology to fulfill your Core 21 science requirements. You might also consider and emphasis area related to your field of interest in Psychology. MFCC and LCSW Degrees These degrees are not granted by psychology departments, but psychology students interested in counseling rather than research often go into these graduate programs. Both are licensable in California and most other states and allow practitioners to engage in private practice. The MFCC (Marriage and Family Counseling) is usually a two year degree and the LCSW (Licensed Clinical Social Worker) is a three to four year degree. Letters of Recommendation Letters of recommendation requested by graduate schools ask about a student’s motivation to complete the degree, maturity and judgment, intellectual capability, creativity, writing and communication skills. We need to know you in order to write more than a perfunctory letter – so share your ideas and activities with us, don’t just be a face in a class. When you request a letter of recommendation, please refer here for our detailed information guide.  Download Graduate School Guide (PDF) Contact Us [email protected](805) 493-3454 ©
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TitleInsider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: 2020/2021 Edition (Hardcover) | Golden Lab Bookshop
Urlhttps://www.goldenlabbookshop.com/book/9781462541447
Description
DateJan 20, 2020
Organic Position22
H1Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: 2020/2021 Edition (Hardcover)
H2
H3Description
About the Author
Praise For…
H2WithAnchors
BodyInsider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: 2020/2021 Edition (Hardcover) By Michael A. Sayette, PhD, John C. Norcross, PhD, ABPP $65.00 Usually Ships in 1-5 Days Description. This expertly written guide, now in its 2020/2021 Edition, is the resource you can rely on to help you choose--and get into--the graduate clinical or counseling psychology programs that meet your needs. The Insider's Guide is based on intensive research and includes information, advice, and decision-making worksheets not available from any other source. A handy time line pinpoints important steps to take in the months and years leading up to submitting your applications. In-depth profiles on more than 300 accredited programs provide details on specializations or tracks, admission requirements, acceptance rates, financial aid, research areas, and clinical opportunities. The 2020/2021 Edition includes profiles of 16 additional programs, as well as the latest information on prerequisite coursework, student loans, and more. About the Author. Michael A. Sayette, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of Pittsburgh, with a secondary appointment as Professor of Psychiatry at the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. He also is on the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and the Center for the Neural Bases of Cognition, a joint program of the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. Sayette has published primarily in the area of substance abuse, with a focus on the development of psychological theories of alcohol and tobacco use. Dr. Sayette is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Association for Psychological Science. He is a recipient of the Provost’s Award for Excellence in Mentoring at the University of Pittsburgh, as well as the Toy Caldwell-Colbert Award for Distinguished Educator in Clinical Psychology from the Society of Clinical Psychology, and the Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award from the Society for Addiction Psychology. Dr. Sayette is Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of Psychology at the University of Pittsburgh and has directed graduate admissions for the clinical psychology program. He has presented seminars on applying to graduate school at several universities in North America and Europe. John C. Norcross, PhD, ABPP, is Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of Scranton, Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry at the State University of New York Upstate Medical University, and a board-certified clinical psychologist. Past president of the Division of Clinical Psychology and Division of Psychotherapy of the American Psychological Association (APA), he has served on the APA’s governing Council of Representatives and the Board of Educational Affairs. With more than 400 scholarly publications, Dr. Norcross is a recipient of the Distinguished Career Contribution to Education and Training Award from the APA and the Pennsylvania Professor of the Year Award from the Carnegie Foundation, and is a Distinguished Practitioner of the National Academies of Practice. Dr. Norcross has conducted workshops and research on graduate study in psychology for many years. Praise For…. "Your book was the pivotal resource that helped me find my way to my current career. I was one of those first-generation college students who really had no idea what I was doing until I came across your book. The Insider’s Guide was truly indispensable and is largely responsible for my career today.”--Daniel J. Taylor, PhD, Professor of Psychology, University of Arizona "I highly recommend that all applicants to clinical and counseling psychology graduate programs use this excellent guide to identify programs that match their specific career interests, goals, and strengths....As the training director of an APA-accredited counseling psychology program, I appreciate the detailed instructions for preparing a compelling personal statement, creating a flawless CV, forging professional relationships that will lead to strong letters of recommendation, and interviewing successfully. It will be a pleasure to meet prospective graduate students who have put this 'insider' information to good use!"--Sharon "Sherry" Rostosky, PhD, Professor and Director of Training, Counseling Psychology, University of Kentucky "The Insider's Guide was an essential tool in helping me find the right doctoral program. When applying to graduate programs in psychology, it can be difficult to navigate between counseling or clinical, and PhD or PsyD. This book is organized in a way that helps you compare and contrast programs....There are so many programs to choose from--use this book to sort out those you are most interested in, and you will end up saving money on applications and finding the best fit."--Kimia Mansoor, PsyD student, The Wright Institute, Berkeley, California “The Insider's Guide was an invaluable resource for me as I tackled the tedious process of applying to graduate school. With so many programs out there, this book provided me with vital information to narrow down which ones would be right for me. The book provides important details on each program--such as types of funding, emphasis areas, and internship statistics--in a clear and organized manner....I recommend it to all my friends going through the process."--Mallorie Carroll, PhD, psychology resident, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston "The advice and insights in this book helped me figure out my career and research interests, and it saved me from a lot of extra effort and heartache that I experienced when I was working on the application process on my own. Highly recommended for anyone considering graduate school!"--Theresa Trieu, doctoral program applicant"[The authors] guide the applicant along every step of the application process. They point out the pitfalls, loopholes, benefits, and drawbacks to almost every element of applying to graduate school. They fulfill their purpose to the greatest possible degree and provide a resource that is thorough and articulate. Worry not, potential psychology graduates: the Insider’s Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology is your number-one resource and will provide you with all of the information you need.” (on the 2016/2017 edition)— PsychCentral.com"This is the only in-depth and practical reference every student must have when considering graduate study in psychology. As the field continues to evolve, so do the institutions. Students planning to pursue graduate education need this guide to make the right graduate program decisions….The authors are cognizant of the needs of undergraduates and returning graduate students. As in prior editions, the authors clearly share a considerable amount of insider knowledge in a genuinely logical manner….This is the how-to guide for any undergraduate looking to apply to grad school in psychology. This edition does not disappoint. Every edition evolves with the graduate process in psychology and honestly answers the questions that arise among those considering graduate study in psychology. Every undergraduate program should make this mandatory reading for their undergraduates and anyone considering graduate psychology education. I have had the pleasure of reviewing this guide since the 2002/2003 edition, and I always look forward to reviewing the latest one. I recommend it to all of my undergraduate students who are considering pursuing a career in psychology. Quite simply, it is the best guide on pursuing graduate programs in clinical and counseling psychology. *****!” (on the 2018/2019 edition)— Doody's Review Service"The Insider's Guide focuses on the complete application process with sample documents, worksheets, and timelines. Advice, warnings, and an easy-to-read format give this book an edge over resources providing program descriptions only, such as the American Psychological Association's Graduate Study in Psychology and Peterson's Graduate Programs in the Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences." (on the 2014/2015 edition)— American Reference Books Annual Product Details ISBN: 9781462541447 ISBN-10: 1462541445 Publisher: The Guilford Press Publication Date: January 20th, 2020 Pages: 488 Language: English Categories Study Aids / Graduate School Guides Psychology / Education & Training Psychology / Clinical Psychology Related Editions (all)   Paperback (February 5th, 2010): $27.95 Paperback (January 16th, 1998): $21.95 Paperback (February 11th, 1994): $19.95 Hardcover (March 5th, 2018): $65.00 Paperback (March 6th, 2018): $29.95
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TitleApplying to Clinical Psychology Programs
Urlhttps://psychology.ucsd.edu/undergraduate-program/undergraduate-resources/graduate-career-resources/applying-grad-school/clinical-psych-programs.html
Description
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Organic Position23
H1Applying to Clinical Psychology Programs
H2Types of Clinical Psychology Programs
Do I Need Research or Clinical Experience?
Workshops and Downloadable Resources
Further Resources
Applying to Graduate Programs
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H2WithAnchorsTypes of Clinical Psychology Programs
Do I Need Research or Clinical Experience?
Workshops and Downloadable Resources
Further Resources
Applying to Graduate Programs
BodyApplying to Clinical Psychology Programs Applying to clinical psychology programs involves many of the same steps (in particular, the statement of purpose, letters of recommendation, taking the Graduate Record Examination, and interviews) as other psychology graduate programs.  The application timelines are also the same or similar.  Thus, the same resources and tips that we provide on this website for those topics apply to clinical psychology applications.  However, there are a variety of different types of clinical programs to choose from, students should take relevant coursework in clinical psychology, and they might need to demonstrate not just research experience, but clinical experience as well.  Here we further explore those issues.  Types of Clinical Psychology Programs. Becoming a clinical psychologist – a psychologist that specializes in research and/or treatment of mental health – involves a variety of graduate training routes.  These can occur at the doctoral (PhD or PsyD) or master’s levels (and a related possibility is a PhD in Counseling Psychology; additionally, for those seeking to take a medical approach, including the prescription of medication, training to become a psychiatrist – i.e., the holder of an MD or DO degree – is an avenue).  Here we overview several of the major routes for becoming a clinical psychologist.1 PhD in Clinical Psychology The doctoral degree, earned over approximately 4-6 years (plus an internship year), equips its recipient to conduct research, teach, and/or work as a practicing clinician.  It is the most versatile of the degrees that can be earned in clinical psychology.  PhD programs in clinical psychology are heavily research-focused and are typically designed around a scientist-practitioner model which idealizes the ability to both conduct research and practice.  Among all graduate programs, clinical psychology doctoral programs are among the most difficult to get into; admission rates are lower than that of law school, medical school, or other research-based graduate programs (for instance, 8 accepted out of 300 applicants).1 Clinical psychology PhD programs typically provide funding to graduate students, however, thus making this route less financially burdensome.  PsyD in Clinical Psychology Developed in the 1970s as an alternative to the traditional PhD, the PsyD is a professional doctoral degree that is more clinically focused.  Holders of the PsyD can work as a practicing clinician; access to teaching opportunities is however more limited than those holding PhDs.  The PsyD is typically earned over 4-6 years (plus an internship year), similar to the PhD, but the research component of the program is greatly reduced (a greater proportion of graduate training occurs in clinical settings).  PsyD programs are easier to be admitted into, but also tend to be more expensive. Master’s Degree in Clinical Psychology, Counseling Psychology, or Social Work Typically completed in two years, a master’s program can be a faster way to earn a graduate degree and enter the workforce.  Acceptance rates are higher than for doctoral programs, although annual program expenses can be higher.  There are a variety of master’s programs that aspiring clinical psychologists may wish to pursue – ranging from clinical psychology to social work – and many confer on its holder the ability to work in private practice or in corporate/organizational settings. Do I Need Research or Clinical Experience? According to the Council of University Directors of Clinical Psychology (CUDCP), having research experience is critically important and “it is not necessary to have prior experience assisting with clinical work”.2  Similar statements can be found in other guides to applying to clinical programs.1  Thus, just as with other psychology graduate programs, research experience is critically important.  The CUDCP further specifies that serving in a post-baccalaureate research assistant position, completing a Senior Thesis or Honors Thesis, or other type of supervised research experience is especially useful.2 However, although clinical experience is not necessarily required, gaining such experience can be valuable in helping you determine whether the clinical psychology route is genuinely your preferred career choice.  It also is not likely to hurt your application, and given the competitiveness of many clinical psychology programs, may actually help your application stand out.  Workshops and Downloadable Resources. Workshops For in-person discussion of the process of applying to graduate programs in psychology, including clinical psychology programs, please consider attending this department’s “Paths to PhDs” workshop and other related events (for dates and times, please check the undergraduate workshops calendar). Further Resources. How-To Videos      Applying to Grad School Videos Recommended Reading American Psychological Association (2007). Getting in: a step-by-step plan for gaining admission to graduate school in psychology.  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Keith-Spiegel, P., & Wiederman, M. W. (2000). The complete guide to graduate school admission: psychology, counseling, and related professions. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. APA Videos on Graduate Applications Preparing and applying for graduate school in psychology [12-part video series] Preparing and applying for graduate school in psychology [video slides in PDF format] Further Resources Mitch’s uncensored advice for applying to graduate school in clinical psychology [PDF] Applying to graduate school in clinical psychology, a student’s step-by-step guide [PDF] I just got an interview for a clinical psychology program now what do I do? [PDF] Getting into clinical psychology graduate school, a guide by the CUDCP What do clinical psychology programs look for in applicants from the APA What does it take to get into graduate school in clinical psychology from Northwestern University References.   1 Prinstein, M. (2012).  Applying to graduate schools in clinical psychology.  DePauw University. 2 Council of University Directors of Clinical Psychology.  (2017).  Getting into clinical psych grad school.   Applying to Graduate Programs . Finding and Choosing Graduate Programs of Interest Timelines for the Graduate Application Process Applicant Qualifications, Admissions Criteria, and Acceptance Rates Writing Statements of Purpose and Other Application Essays Requesting Letters of Recommendation Preparing for the Graduate Record Examination Graduate Admissions Interviews Applying to Clinical Psychology Programs Applying to Medical School and Professional Health Programs Accepting Graduate Admissions Offers Applying to Grad School Videos
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Urlhttps://www.apa.org/education-career/guide/subfields/clinical/education-training
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TitlePreparing for Graduate School | Department of Psychology
Urlhttps://www.stonybrook.edu/commcms/psychology/undergraduate/preparingforgradschool.php
DescriptionDepartment of Psychology at Stony Brook University
Date
Organic Position25
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H2Preparing for Graduate School
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H2WithAnchorsPreparing for Graduate School
Bodyame src="//www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-P43R9T>m_auth=jCHsNovKQBjtTL9y_RXzMQ>m_preview=env-1>m_cookies_win=x" height="0" width="0" style="display:none;visibility:hidden"> Skip Navigation Search College of Arts and Sciences Department of Psychology Home About Areas of Study Calendar Department History Grievances Leadership Newsletters Graduate Areas of Study PhD Program Masters Program Current PhD Student Information Research Themes Undergrad Academic Advising Calendar of Events Frequently Asked Questions Get Involved Honors Program Internships New Students Other Resources Peer Mentoring Program Preparing for Graduate School Psychology URECA Scholarships Subject Pool Overview Tips and Tricks   Research Themes Facilities Affirm Anxiety Disorders Clinic CANDA Intergrative Neuroscience Krasner Psychological Center Marital Therapy & Forensic Assessment SCAN Center Shared Facilities People Faculty Staff Diversity Contact Alumni Update Form Contact Us Website Questions Support Us Home Undergraduate Psychology Preparing for Graduate School Preparing for Graduate School. Graduate School Application Timeline Months Actions September - December (Junior Year) Plan Courses Gain  Research  or  Internship  Experiences Explore Career & Graduate School Options Visit   Career Center January - May (Junior Year) Plan Courses Gain  Research  or  Internship  Experiences Explore Career & Graduate School Options Begin Work on Personal Statement Visit   Career Center  (if you have not done so) May - August (Junior Year) Gain  Research  or  Internship  Experiences Prepare for (or possibly take) the  GRE Explore Specific Graduate Programs August - November (Senior Year) Choose Programs - Get Applications Take  GREs Request Letters of Recommendation Continue Work on Personal Statement Learn How to Request  Official Transcripts December - January (Senior Year) Apply to Doctoral Programs January - March (Senior Year) Apply to Masters Programs March - April (Senior Year) Learn Admission Decisions May - August (Senior Year) Graduate!  NOTES: It is best to begin searching for  Research Opportunities by your Junior Year as there is quite a bit of training to get you up and running in a research lab. Many faculty may require a year commitment from you just for this reason. Each requirement will be worked out one on one with you and the faculty member. Students in Psychology are NOT required to do an  Internship  although they can be a valuable experience in helping you determine a career path.  It is important to visit the   GRE  website  if you are planning on post-baccalaureate work. Here you will find information to help you prepare for the GREs. You will also use their website to schedule your test date and seat. Once you have scheduled your date, you can go back to the website to order a free software program from GRE to help you prepare for the exam. Typically a graduate program will request 3 Letters of Recommendation. When asking for Recommendation Letters from faculty, be sure to give them at least 30 days notice. You want to give them enough time to ask questions about your plans as well as review writing samples and your resume so that they can write the most effective recommendation for you. If you plan to take a year off, still discuss your request with the faculty member you will want a recommendation from as they may ask you to give them periodic updates during your hiatus so that when the letters are needed they have the most up-to-date information on you. The  Career Center  is not just for searching careers; they also offer guidance in researching graduate programs. A counselor can lead you to graduate school information for you to explore. The Career Center also offers an Annual Graduate School Fair so be sure to check their website for the next offering. Tips for Graduate School Preparation Career Center Graduate School Resources The Importance of Undergraduate Research Graduate School Advice:  Prepared by the Director of Graduate Studies at Duke University Application Process:   provides an excellent summary about the entire application process and the steps you can take to make yourself the strongest possible applicant. Program listings: Provides  a variety of information about getting into graduate school and a listing of all programs currently accredited by APA Department list:  Provides  links to over 1000 psychology department web sites where you can find information on the graduate training being offered. Timeline for Graduate School Resources for Graduate Students in Psychology:  Helpful links from The University of Michigan Psychology Degree Guide:  Psychology Degree Guide provides searchable information on more than 6000 undergraduate and graduate programs. The Psychiatrist, Psychologist, and Psychoanalyst: the Difference between the 3 P's Clinical Psychology PhD vs PsyD Considering Graduate Study in Clinical Psychology? Getting a Good Letter of Recommendation Areas of Specialization in Psychology for Master's and PhD Master's and Doctoral-level Careers in Psychology and Related Fields     Undergraduate Psychology See pages advising Overview Academic Advising B.A. versus B.S. Course Offerings Summer '16 through Spring '19 Declaring the Major Fall20 Forms Future Course Offerings Major Checklists Mission and Goals People Requirements Suggested Semester Schedules Calendar FAQ (General) FAQ (Transfer) Get Involved Honors Program Internships New Students Newsletters Other Resources See pages peer mentoring Peer Mentoring Program 2021-2022 WORKSHOP MATERIALS Meet the Mentors Mentee Request Form Mentee Flyer Mentor Flyer See pages Mentor Qualifications Mentor Application Mentor Qualifications mentoring program events Newsletters 2021-2022 Preparing for Graduate School Psychology URECA Scholarships Subject Pool Overview syllabi Tips and Tricks Undergraduate Psychology See pages advising Overview Academic Advising B.A. versus B.S. Course Offerings Summer '16 through Spring '19 Declaring the Major Fall20 Forms Future Course Offerings Major Checklists Mission and Goals People Requirements Suggested Semester Schedules Calendar FAQ (General) FAQ (Transfer) Get Involved Honors Program Internships New Students Newsletters Other Resources See pages peer mentoring Peer Mentoring Program 2021-2022 WORKSHOP MATERIALS Meet the Mentors Mentee Request Form Mentee Flyer Mentor Flyer See pages Mentor Qualifications Mentor Application Mentor Qualifications mentoring program events Newsletters 2021-2022 Preparing for Graduate School Psychology URECA Scholarships Subject Pool Overview syllabi Tips and Tricks Department of Psychology Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2500 Phone: Undergraduate Office: 631.632.7802 Graduate Office: 631.632.7855 Report an accessibility barrier © Admin Login 2021 Stony Brook University
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Result 29
TitleMasters Program in General Psychology | The City College of New York
Urlhttps://www.ccny.cuny.edu/psychology/psch-masters-general
Description
DateDec 5, 2021
Organic Position26
H1Masters Program in General Psychology
H2
H3Program's Choices
FAQs
International Students
Admission Info
Careers
Apply Now
H2WithAnchors
BodyMasters Program in General Psychology APPLICATION DEADLINES: April 15th - Fall Semester November 15th - Spring Semester   About the Program. The Graduate Program of General Psychology at the City College of New York provides a solid, broad-based graduate education in psychology. It is designed for students to acquire knowledge in research methods and topics in psychology, or who need to enhance their background and credentials either for the job market, or to advantage themselves in applying to doctoral programs.  Courses include about 15-25 students, and are usually in the form of seminars. After completing the program’s  first semester, students may take up to 40% of their coursework at other CUNY branches, including doctoral courses offered through the Graduate Center.                    OFFICE OF ADMISSIONS | APPLY NOW | FOLLOW YOUR APPLICATION   Program's Choices. Students in the Master’s Program in General Psychology have two choices for completing the degree: 1-Without a Thesis  This option involves intensive coursework and requires students to complete a total of 40 credits to graduate. 2-With a Thesis  This option involves research-intensive thesis experience and requires students to complete a total of 31 credits to graduate. Requirements for ALL students: -Maintain a minimum GPA of 3.0. -Take PSY V0100: Advanced Experimental Psychology I (4 credits | 2 lec. + 4 lab hr./wk.).  -Take PSY V0500: Statistical Methods in Psychology I (3 credits | 2 rec. + 2 lab hr./wk.) -Take one course from the following areas: Cognition, Neuroscience, Psycholinguistics, Psychometrics, Psychopharmacology, and Sleep. Or else achieve a score in at least the 65th percentile on the advanced psychology section of the Graduate Record Examination. Requirements for THESIS students: Thesis students are required to enroll in PSY B9900 Psychological Research and Seminar, for which 3 credits are received, with no grade, until completion of the thesis project. Students are also encouraged to enroll in PSY B9800 Tutorial for at least one semester prior to B9900 while they develop their thesis plans and complete the proposal. FAQs. Q1: I have no background in psychology. Can I still apply for the program? Yes. Our program welcomes students with different academic backgrounds; however, applicants must prove that they have received some psychology education, such as introductory psychology and statistics courses.  If you have fulfilled those two courses with at least a B, you can apply to the program with the condition that, if admitted, you will take experimental/research methods classes at the undergraduate level concurrently with your master’s classes during your first year, and earn at least a B. These required undergraduate courses do not count toward your required graduate credits. Q2: As an undergraduate, I did not take any statistics or research methods courses. What are the steps I can take in order to qualify? You must take the classes as a non-matriculated student either at CCNY or outside of CCNY. Q3: I have not taken an Experimental Psychology course in undergraduate studies, but I took Research Methods. Does that qualify to apply to the program? Yes. Research Methods is likely the same course by another name. Different schools use either. Q4: What do you look for in a successful applicant? We look for applicants who are likely to be successful in graduate school and demonstrate evidence that they will be able to perform well academically. Our courses are research-oriented and require strong statistical and research methods’ skills at the graduate level. Students must maintain a 3.0 GPA to graduate from this program. Q5: Is the GRE required?  Yes. The GRE is a requirement for all students, no matter what grade you received for the statistics course as an undergraduate. A good score on the GRE is very important. Most of the students apply for the Ph.D. Programs - which requires good performance on the GRE. Q6: My undergraduate GPA is lower than 3.0, what can I do to improve my chances of getting into the program? You may take the following steps to demonstrate your eligibility as an applicant: Provide a comprehensive explanation in your personal statement as to why your undergraduate GPA is lower than 3.0. Enroll in courses as a non-matriculated student and demonstrate that you can do well in graduate-level courses. The admissions committee considers all components of the application. Strong letters of recommendation, a transcript trajectory of improvement, a high GRE score, and a personal statement explaining effectively the poor grades can offset a low GPA. Q7: What is the typical class size? Master’s courses usually consist of 15-25 students and are conducted as seminars. Q8: Can I register as a part-time student? Yes. Most students are part-time. You pay for the number of credits you take, and you move toward completion by how many credits you take. Q9: Do you have classes on weekends? We occasionally offer weekend courses, but most courses are offered in the afternoon or evening from Monday to Thursday. Q10: Can I schedule a meeting with the program’s representative? If you have any inquiries not answered on this page, please contact our program’s director, Dr. Vivien Tartter at %76ta%72t%[email protected] %6ey.edu" rel="nofollow"> [email protected]   Q11: When is the deadline to apply?  Fall - April 15th  Spring - November 15th Q12: Will this degree let me practice as a therapist? A: The MA General Psychology degree does not enable licensure as a Counselor, but completing the CASAC track within satisfies the state's academic requirements for being a Substance Abuse Counselor.   International Students. Welcome! Whether you are obtaining or maintaining a non-immigrant international student status, please visit the two links below for the latest information on deadlines, requirements, and specific issues. CUNY: Student Guide & Tutorial CCNY: International Students Overview Admission Info. Students may enter the program with an undergraduate major either in Psychology or in another field. Acceptance is based on assessment of the student's overall record and promise. The Graduate Record Examination is required; however, admission is based on flexible criteria. Special attention is given to the student's performance in the undergraduate courses of statistics and experimental psychology (or research methods). Students who have earned less than a B in either of these courses, or who have not taken them, are advised to contact the Director of the Masters Program in General Psychology, Dr. Vivien Tartter at [email protected] before applying. Prospective students should note that it is not necessary to obtain a Masters degree before applying to a Ph.D. program, but is a way to improve your credentials if your psychology background, undergraduate transcript, or direction for graduate study needs buttressing. Students who do move to Ph.D. programs sometimes can transfer credits, but often cannot. Students may apply from the Masters in General Psychology to the Masters in Mental Health Counseling program. If accepted, the courses taken in the General program will transfer as elective credits. Careers. The American Psychological Association’s booklet, Psychology: Careers for the Twenty-first Century, reports that most professionals with a terminal master’s degree handle research and data collection and analysis in universities, government and private companies. Others find jobs in health, industry and education, the primary work settings for psychology professionals with master’s degrees. Government and industry positions in personnel and in mental health are often filled by persons with master’s degrees in psychology. Workers with their Master’s degree usually work under the supervision of a doctoral level psychologist, especially in clinical, counseling, school and testing and measurement psychology. Over the past forty years our program has had a national and international reputation for providing outstanding training in psychology. Other institutions’ graduate programs have come to rely on the fact that students who achieve in our program can do so in theirs because we maintain high standards. The faculty members are full-time professors. Most are also faculty in one of the ten City University of New York doctoral programs. The faculty members are all experienced teachers, researchers and/or clinicians; some are community consultants and evaluation researchers. The Director of the Program is Dr. Vivien Tartter. Masters students can become involved in activities on the City College campus such as peer counseling, teaching-assisting, drug-and-alcohol counseling, and research in many areas of psychology. Apply Now.   Apply Now   Deadline Spring  -   November 15th Fall     -   June 1st Requirements Step 1 The complete application form Application Fee Step 2 Mail all supporting documents Personal statement Two letters of recommendation (at least one letter should be academic) Transcripts from all post-secondary institutions attended Resume/CV TOEFL/IELTS tests and scores GRE score Where do I send application’s supporting documents? All application materials should be submitted online via the Apply Yourself website. Nothing should be mailed to the program director or to the department directly. All supporting documents such as official transcripts, application fee, and any other supporting materials should be mailed to the Office of Admissions at: WILLE  ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, ROOM 101 160 CONVENT AVENUE NEW YORK, NY 10031 For more information on how to apply, please visit the CCNY’s Graduate Admissions official website or read the FAQ section above for further inquiries.    I truly believe that I made the most out of my time as an MA student at CCNY: I took courses that enriched my research skills; I had the opportunity to teach undergraduate courses, such as Applied Statistics and Lifespan Development; and I had the accessibility to amazing mentorship by teachers whose research and teaching experience closely resembled mine.   - Sebastian Cordoba, Class of 2016 - LinkedIn Profile   . APPLICATION DEADLINE Fall April 15th Spring November 15th   Contact Information Vivien C. Tartter Program Director North Academic Center Room 7/209, 216 160 Convent Avenue New York, NY 10031 e:  [email protected]    p: 212-650-5709 | 212-650-5708 CCNY Resources Accessibility Center  Bursar Financial Aid Health Services  International Students: CUNY | CCNY IT Service Desk Public Safety  Registrar  Student Life Writing Center Last Updated: 12/05/2021 21:05
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Result 30
TitleMasters Degree in Psychology - College Educated
Urlhttps://collegeeducated.com/online-degrees/masters-degree-in-psychology/
DescriptionWhen you have a bachelor’s degree in psychology, you can choose from a wide variety of entry-level jobs. But many people with bachelor’s degrees do not
Date
Organic Position27
H1Masters Degree in Psychology
H2What is Psychology?
Online Master’s in Psychology
Is a Master’s in Psychology Worth it?
Program Highlights
Potential Job Titles
Psychology Career and Salary Outlook
Sample Curriculum
A Rewarding Career
H3
H2WithAnchorsWhat is Psychology?
Online Master’s in Psychology
Is a Master’s in Psychology Worth it?
Program Highlights
Potential Job Titles
Psychology Career and Salary Outlook
Sample Curriculum
A Rewarding Career
BodyMasters Degree in Psychology Contents hide 1 Masters Degree in Psychology 1.1 What is Psychology? 1.2 Online Master’s in Psychology 1.3 Is a Master’s in Psychology Worth it? 1.4 Program Highlights 1.5 Potential Job Titles 1.6 Psychology Career and Salary Outlook 1.7 Sample Curriculum 1.8 A Rewarding Career 1.8.1 Paying for College 1.8.2 Careers 1.8.3 Online Degrees 1.8.4 Resources When you have a bachelor’s degree in psychology, you can choose from a wide variety of entry-level jobs. But many people with bachelor’s degrees do not necessarily build a career in the field of psychology. This is because psychology has many applications in various fields. Any firm that is in the business of serving customers, like firms in the hospitality industry, can use employees with psychology degrees. Those who are serious about continuing with their psychology career go beyond their bachelor’s degree and take up a master’s degree in psychology. A master’s degree in psychology is a graduate degree chosen by individuals interested in a career in psychology. Some students may choose a master’s in psychology as a stand-alone program to achieve a specific career goal such as research while others used it as a foundation for a doctoral degree. A master’s degree in psychology can open up doors to lucrative careers within the health and education fields. There are also jobs for master’s degree holders in the corporate world. In any industry, the responsibilities are similar, but the settings are different. What is Psychology? Psychology is a scientific and multifaceted discipline that involve the study of the mind and behavior. It also includes various sub-fields, such as clinical, health, human development, social behavior, sports and cognitive processes. Professionals studying, researching or practicing psychology often focus on specific topics, such as nature vs. nurture; memory; attraction; and free will vs. determinism, among many others. Although psychology covers a lot of ground and a lot of area, it mostly involves four areas of focus, which include describing, explaining, predicting and changing the mental processes and behavior of certain individuals. Describing – The first part of psychology involves describing the mental actions and behaviors to others. Explaining – Once professionals have described the individual’s behavior, they explain or propose a theory on why the behavior is taking place. Predicting – Professionals predict what future behavior will be based on their explanation of the behavior. If they’re inaccurate with their predication, they often need to go back and alter or revise their explanation. Changing – Change can only take place after the behavior has been accurately described, explained and predicted. Online Master’s in Psychology. Many bachelor’s degree holders want to pursue graduate courses but can’t do so immediately because of financial and time constraints. Now, it is even easier to get a master’s degree in psychology through an online program. The courses are set up so that you can work around your schedule and deal with schoolwork when you can. However, don’t think there is a lack of discipline to an online master’s program. These are still taught by the same instructors you would get in a brick-and-mortar setting, and they are giving the same challenging and engaging curriculum you would receive in-person. Technology has also improved, and the online courses of today make you feel like you are right there in the classroom. The option of studying in remote classrooms (your own home, coffee shops, etc.) can be very attractive because you can work during the night and attend classes online either live or asynchronously, whichever works best with your schedule. Most colleges and universities offer programs online and on-campus, and since Psychology is a popular program, it is not hard to find lots of options. Some online universities offer more advanced software that can allow students to ask questions while the online lesson is in progress. Is a Master’s in Psychology Worth it? If you want to advance in the field of psychology or business, then yes, a master’s is worth it. However, if you don’t have a strong motivation, then the trials of a graduate degree may not be for you. You should talk to others in the field and check your own motivations prior to enrolling. The APA has a good list of reasons not to get a degree, but the reasons to get a master’s are many: Greater job prospects More esteem and regard in the field Ability to work as a trained psychologist Higher salary Rewarding career Program Highlights. The master’s in psychology degree generally takes about two years to complete. The candidate is generally required to have a bachelor’s degree. While the bachelor’s degree does not necessarily need to be in psychology, the student should have completed prerequisite courses such as research methods, statistics and psychology theory or introductory psychology. Master’s in psychology programs are often competitive in nature with schools often only admitting a certain number of students. Applicants to this program may also be required to have a minimum grade point average of at least 3.0. They may also be required to submit the following. Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) scores Resume describing research and academic experience Letters of reference Personal statement An outline of who they feel the psychology degree can help them meet their career goals The master’s in psychology is a popular degree choice for students interested in online learning. The candidate can work in a psychology-based job while earning the degree. Various colleges and universities across the nation offer master’s degree in psychology programs. The master’s in psychology program can vary from school to school but typically offers students a choice of what are of psychology they wish to study. These might include clinical psychology, diversity management, experimental research, community psychology, industrial-organizational research, psychological science, and school psychology. Many psychology master’s degree programs also offer students a choice of two different tracks. Those wishing to advance to a doctoral degree typically choose the research track, which requires the student complete a thesis. Students who wish to work with clinical licensed psychologists generally choose the other option. Potential Job Titles. Graduates of the master’s degree in psychology are qualified for positions in several areas of psychology. Clinical Psychology Experimental Psychology Sport Psychology Industrial and Organizational Psychology Human Factors Psychology Business Psychology Applied Psychology Forensic Psychology Upon completing the master’s degree in psychology, the graduate may find work in various settings, including non-profit organizations; family and child service organizations; schools; local, state or federal governments; community colleges; law enforcement agencies; healthcare agencies; group homes; and religious organizations. Possible job titles include: Family services worker Human resource manager Social service manager Market researcher Instructor at a community college Research assistant Organizational consultant Health project coordinator Project manager/coordinator Data manager/analyst Employee trainer Intervention advocate Although graduates of the master’s degree in psychology may find work in psychology fields like clinical psychology, school psychology and counseling, these areas usually, require a doctoral degree, which takes about two to three more years of college beyond the master’s degree. Most psychologists, especially clinical psychologists, must be licensed; however, licensure requirements vary from state to state. Certification is also typically required for clinical positions. However, individuals with the master’s degree may work with licensed clinical psychologists as assistants or in research settings. Psychology Career and Salary Outlook. Psychologists are expected to experience a job growth of 14 percent during the 2018-2028 decade as reported by the U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). More people today are turning to psychologists for help dealing with problems, which is increasing the demand for psychologists. They are also needed to work with school students and the aging population as well as with veterans suffering from war trauma and PTSD. Psychologists are also in demand to work with students suffering from learning disabilities. There are various types of psychologists, and the career outlooks for each one various. The BLS predicts that about 26,100 new psychologist jobs will be created by 2028 of these 23,800 being clinical, counseling and school psychologist roles, 200 of these jobs being industrial-organizational psychologists and 2,100 being all other types of psychologists. The salary outlook for graduates of a master’s degree in psychology can vary depending on the position the candidate holds, but the potential for good wages is very good. As of May 2019, psychologists overall earned a median annual wage of $80,370. Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists earned $78,200 while industrial-organizational psychologists earned $92,880 and psychologists, all other types earned $101,790. Source: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193031.htm Sample Curriculum. Although the overall curriculum for a master’s degree in psychology program may be fairly similar from one school to another, a difference may be found in students who choose a specific concentration. One example might be a Master’s in Psychology with a concentration in development psychology or industrial-organizational psychology. However, students typically have a choice of choosing an area of concentration or a general curriculum. The master’s degree program is usually comprised of about 36 credits. This might include six credits in research methods, six credits of electives, nine credits of core courses, nine credits of additional electives and six credits on the capstone course. Core courses might include the following: Research Methods I Research Methods II Behavioral Assessment I Behavioral Assessment II Cognitive Study Social Psychology Developmental Psychology Professional Issues and Ethics A major requirement of graduate students is a capstone project, which is usually in the form of a dissertation or thesis. Students choose a specific area of research and are usually required to have it approved by their instructor. Because of the important role the thesis plays in the program, students often begin work on the thesis in the first year. They make a hypothesis, research it and have to not only present their hypothesis to the instructor but must also prove it through extensive research. A Rewarding Career. You can continue with your career in psychology as long as you complete your graduate studies. Many psychologists with doctorate degrees still enjoy working in the same field after several decades. Those that have retired from the corporate scene have taken the option of writing books to share their wealth of experiences and knowledge in psychology. Some take on a rewarding academic career as professors in a college or university. Many psychologists work in research, as psychological findings are important in many aspects of society, like in law enforcement and in the educational field. Psychologists help shed light to various issues and solve problems for other people as long as the case has something to do with human cognition and behavior. In short, you will never run out of jobs if you have the credentials to build a stable career in psychology. Go back to psychology degrees Paying for College. 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TitleMaster's in Psychology Online | MS Degree Program | SNHU
Urlhttps://www.snhu.edu/online-degrees/masters/ms-in-psychology
DescriptionAdvance your understanding of the human mind with an online Master's in Psychology from non-profit, accredited and affordable SNHU
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H1Online Master's in Psychology MS Degree Program
H2Apply Now
Online Students
International Students
Campus Students
Earn Your Master's in Psychology Online
Online Master's in Psychology Program Overview
8 Types of Psychology with Real-World Perspective
Concentration Options
Career Outlook
Start Your Journey Toward an Online Psychology Degree
Courses & Curriculum
Minimum Hardware Requirements
Tuition & Fees
Frequently Asked Questions
University Accreditation
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H3Psychology (MS) - Child & Adolescent Development Psychology
Psychology (MS) - Forensic Psychology
Psychology (MS) - Industrial Organizational Psychology
Why SNHU for Your Master's in Psychology
Admission Requirements
How to Apply
What can I do with an online master's in psychology?
Can I get my psychology degree online?
Can you be a psychologist with a master’s?
Can you be a therapist without a PhD?
How long does it take to get your master’s in psychology?
Do I need a bachelor's in psychology to get a master’s?
How much can you make with a master’s in psychology?
Are a psychologist and a counselor the same thing?
How do you become a counselor?
What is the best accredited school for psychology?
How to Become a Social Worker
Why a Master's in Psychology Positions You for Diverse Opportunities
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H2WithAnchorsApply Now
Online Students
International Students
Campus Students
Earn Your Master's in Psychology Online
Online Master's in Psychology Program Overview
8 Types of Psychology with Real-World Perspective
Concentration Options
Career Outlook
Start Your Journey Toward an Online Psychology Degree
Courses & Curriculum
Minimum Hardware Requirements
Tuition & Fees
Frequently Asked Questions
University Accreditation
Related Articles
References
BodyOnline Master's in Psychology MS Degree Program Register By: March 19 Classes Start: March 21 Apply Now Earn Your Master's in Psychology Online. $627/credit (36 credits total) Transfer up to 12 graduate credits Experiential learning opportunities Choose from 3 specialized concentrations Learn from experienced faculty No application fee or GRE/GMAT scores required Request Info Apply Now Online Master's in Psychology Program Overview. Gain the expertise you need to advance your career with the Master of Science (MS) in Psychology online degree program at Southern New Hampshire University. This accredited online master's degree program can help prepare you to play an important role in the mental health and wellness of diverse populations in various environments – from hospitals to schools, government facilities and beyond. You'll deepen your understanding of research methods, cognitive psychology, social psychology and personality, learning theory and ethical practice, while focusing on the real-world application of psychological research. Our master's in psychology online degree program offers the flexibility to pair your psychology studies with the exploration of complementary disciplines. The 8-course core features classes in psychology research, measurement, ethics and more. Learn how to: Explain psychology's ability to promote agency and wellbeing Address issues by evaluating the relevance, priority and appropriateness of responses Plan, conduct and evaluate research to advance knowledge in psychology and promote wellbeing Use theories, methods and research to generate new ideas and findings Incorporate empathy, reflectivity and an appreciation for collaboration and diversity of perspectives into work Demonstrate a clear understanding of professional ethics Diversify your knowledge by sticking with the general track or develop a deeper understanding of your interests when you choose one of 3 concentrations: child and adolescent development psychology, forensic psychology and industrial organizational psychology. Please note that the MS in Psychology at SNHU is not a clinical psychology program and will not lead directly to licensure. 8 Types of Psychology with Real-World Perspective. The study of psychology can be personally and professionally rewarding. Among the many concentrations in the field you can find diverse opportunities to learn about how people interact with one another in relationships, in the workplace and more. Concentration Options. Psychology (MS) - Child & Adolescent Development Psychology . Help support the wellbeing of children with your master's in psychology with a concentration in child & adolescent development psychology. In this program, you'll develop assessment, intervention and consultation strategies that address the unique individual, cultural and psychological needs of children. Note: If you're looking to work in a clinical position in child psychology, you may have to seek state certification or licensure (and additional educational requirements may need to be met). Learn more about earning your master's in child psychology. Career outlook: Adding a concentration in child development to your master's in psychology degree could be advantageous for getting positions in organizations that focus on children. You could find work developing, coordinating and administrating childhood programming for community centers, daycares, schools and nonprofits. This concentration puts you in a great position to move onto doctorate studies in child psychology so that you can pursue a career as a child psychologist. Courses may include: Developmental Psychology Cognitive Neuropsychology Intervention Strategies Child and Developmental Psychology Seminar Request Info Apply Now Psychology (MS) - Forensic Psychology . Ready for a psychology career working with lawyers, police officers, victims and offenders? In the master's in psychology with a concentration in forensic psychology, you'll learn the research, analysis, assessment and human behavior skills needed to apply psychology principles in the criminal justice system. Learn more about earning your master's in forensic psychology. Career outlook: With your concentration in forensic psychology, you could pursue jobs like crime analyst, forensic case manager and jury consultant. Roles like forensic psychologist will likely require that candidates have completed their doctorate degrees. Courses may include: Forensic Psychology Assessment for Forensic Psychology Intersection of Law and Psychology Psychology in the Courtroom Request Info Apply Now Psychology (MS) - Industrial Organizational Psychology . Improve employee performance, motivation and general well-being with the master's in psychology with a concentration in industrial organizational psychology. Industrial organizational psychology – also known as I/O psychology – is the study of individual and group behavior in the workplace. Learn more about earning your master's in industrial organizational psychology degree. Career outlook: The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics says that industrial-organizational psychologists will be required to help select and retain employees, create training opportunities, increase productivity and efficiency, handle conflicts and improve morale.1 Courses may include: Motivation in the Workplace Psychology of Leadership Organizational Consulting Seminar in Industrial & Organizational Psychology Request Info Apply Now Career Outlook. Our master's in psychology online degree program will put you in a great position to pursue doctoral-level coursework or a career in any number of fields. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, you can expect to see a heightened demand for psychology-related positions through 2030:1 Psychologists: 8% growth (on pace with the national average for all occupations). Market research analysts: 22% growth. Post-secondary teachers: 12% growth. Training and development specialists: 11% growth. While this online degree does not lead to any form of licensure, you'll graduate from SNHU with an understanding of psychological theory and methods applicable in a variety of nonprofit, corporate and education settings. Upon graduation, you’ll possess the knowledge, skills and dispositions necessary for affecting change within organizations. Graduates of the online master's in psychology program will find that there is opportunity for employment in a variety of fields, including: Business. Drive human resources strategies and develop better business operations using insights you've gained. Marketing. Research and survey key audiences to help drive sales for all kinds of products and services. Education. Prepare the next generation of psychology majors by teaching college courses as an adjunct instructor. Health services. Design programs for at-risk populations that aim to prevent or intervene in negative behaviors for better outcomes. Criminal justice. Provide psychological context for police officers, attorneys and judges in criminal cases. Sports management. Set realistic goals and help athletes overcome mental obstacles to perform better in their sport. Information technology. Inform decisions made about how new technology looks and is used with your knowledge of human behavior. And if you're already in one of these fields, the new skills and knowledge garnered from the online graduate psychology program will serve as an asset to your work. For Karen Raquel Quezada '21, her master's degree helped her get promoted within her organization. "My supervisor expressed her excitement when I was in my last term," she said. "She encouraged my growth within the company and requested my transcripts as soon as I finished my last semester so I could be offered a new position. This degree helped me to get promoted – I am officially an in-home therapist and I love my job." Interested in working hands-on with patients in a clinical setting? Consider enrolling in our CACREP-accredited online master's in mental health counseling. This program was designed to prepare students to meet the educational requirements for licensure as a clinical mental health counselor in most states. Start Your Journey Toward an Online Psychology Degree. Why SNHU for Your Master's in Psychology . Flexible With no set class meeting times, you can learn on your schedule and access online course materials 24/7. Affordable As part of our mission to make higher education more accessible, we’re committed to keeping our tuition rates low. In fact, we haven’t raised our online tuition rates, some of the lowest in the nation, since 2012. Prior coursework and work experience could also help you save time and money. SNHU’s transfer policy allows you to transfer up to 12 credits from your previous institution. You could also earn college credit for previous work experience. Respected Founded in 1932, Southern New Hampshire University is a private, nonprofit institution with over 150,000 graduates across the country. SNHU is regionally accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education (NECHE), which advocates for institutional improvement and public assurance of quality. Recently, SNHU has been nationally recognized for leading the way toward more innovative, affordable and achievable education: “Most Innovative” regional university honors from U.S. News & World Report each year since 2015 A $1 million grant from Google.org to explore soft skills assessments for high-need youth Recognition as a 2017 Digital Learning Innovator by the Online Learning Consortium Network At Southern New Hampshire University, you'll have access to a powerful network of more than 300,000 students, alumni and staff that can help support you long after graduation. Our instructors offer relevant, real-world expertise to help you understand and navigate the field. Plus, with our growing, nationwide alumni network, you'll have the potential to tap into a number of internship and career opportunities. 96.5% of students would recommend SNHU (according to a 2019 survey of 9,200+ online students). Discover why SNHU may be right for you. Admission Requirements . Expanding access to quality higher education means removing the barriers that may stand between you and your degree. That’s why you can apply at any time and get a decision within days of submitting all required materials: Completed Application Undergraduate transcripts, which we can retrieve for you by submitting a Transcript Request Form Acceptance decisions are made on a rolling basis throughout the year for our 5 graduate terms. If you don't have a background in psychology or a related field, you may need to take up to 3 foundation courses. For those who do not meet the minimum requirements, the following courses may be required: Foundations of Psychology Foundations in Statistics Foundations in Research Methods Note: This program does not prepare you for state licensure. How to Apply . If you’re ready to apply, follow these simple steps to get the process going: Complete free graduate application Submit undergraduate transcripts Work with an admission counselor to explore financial options and walk through application process Courses & Curriculum. Taught by instructors with professional credentials and experience, the MS in Psychology curriculum will provide you with a solid foundation in psychology aligned with the industry's expectations and standards. Throughout your courses, you'll deepen your understanding in crucial areas of psychology including: Cognitive psychology. Understand how mental processes such as memory, language, attention, learning and decision-making inform psychology. Ethical practice. Study moral principles within the field of psychology and apply expected professional standards of conduct. Personality. Explore the theories, research and approaches pertaining to personality and its variation throughout populations. Research methods. Learn how to gather and analyze data to plan and conduct research in real-world applications. Social psychology. Examine contemporary and classic theory on how people interact with the environment, technology and society as a whole. You'll also sharpen your critical thinking and problem-solving skills while applying theory to practical applications. Whether your bachelor's degree was in psychology or you've decided to begin a new career, enrolling in the master's in psychology program could be a great choice for you. Because psychology is such a widely applicable discipline, the statistical analysis and research skills you gain in the MS in Psychology program will prepare you for work in a surprising variety of professions and contexts including: Advocacy, social services and law enforcement Business and marketing Employee training and human resources Consultancy and project coordination Technology, research and data analysis Course instruction and more The master's in psychology curriculum culminates in a capstone and seminar, in which you'll integrate all you've learned into a faculty- and peer-reviewed project centered on a contemporary issue in psychology. In this capstone, you'll synthesize what you've learned, integrating the knowledge and skills you have developed throughout your coursework. The capstone work was the most important work that Karen Raquel Quezada '21 said she did at SNHU. "The reason this class stood out to me was because it allowed me to get a sense of everything that I learned in my program throughout those last two years," she said. "I was able to incorporate everything that I learned into that one final paper. The takeaways that I use frequently are practicing being ethical and creating healthy boundaries in my workplace and reminding myself to do no harm." Full Course Catalog View Full Curriculum in the Catalog MS in Psychology List of Courses Courses May Include MS in Psychology Online PSY 510 Research Methods in Psychology I In this course, students will learn methods commonly used in psychological research. As part of these methods, students learn how to gather and analyze data across a variety of settings. These newly acquired skills and techniques will be reinforced by application to a contemporary issue in psychology. PSY 520 Research Methods in Psychology II In this course, students will develop a deeper understanding of the research process and data analysis by applying skills learned in Research Methods in Psychology I and building on them with new skills and techniques including advanced research design and use/interpretation of higher-level statistical tests (ANOVA, regression, etc.). These newly acquired skills and techniques will be reinforced by application to a contemporary issue in psychology. PSY 530 Social Psychology The focus of this course is on contemporary social psychology issues and research related to people's interactions with the environment, technology, and society, as well as classic studies and theories in the field-including those related to conformity, obedience, identity, and attitudes that remain relevant. Students will evaluate the perspectives, relevancy, and usefulness of social psychology to real world issues and problems. PSY 540 Cognitive Processes Students will investigate topics in cognitive psychology, including memory, language, attention, learning, and decision-making. Students will evaluate the perspectives, relevancy, and usefulness of cognitive psychology to real world issues and problems. PSY 550 Measurement and Assessment Learn and apply psychometric techniques commonly used in psychology. Explore measurement techniques and strategies used in the development and administration of psychological tests and assessments. Analyze and assess test and assessment results. Examine the ethical issues related to test and assessment administration and interpretation. PSY 560 Theories of Personality This course will emphasize contemporary theories, research, and approaches in personality psychology, connecting these to classic theorists such as Freud as well as other historical traditions and perspectives. The past and present impact of these theories within the ever-changing field of psychology will be explored, as well as the impact they have on culturally diverse clients and special populations. PSY 570 Ethical Practice in Psychology This course provides a comprehensive overview of the principles of ethical practice within the field of psychology. Topics include experimentation, confidentiality, respect, resolving ethical dilemmas, professional standards of conduct, and the psychology of ethical behavior. PSY 790 Capstone in Psychology This capstone course is the culminating experience for the M.S. in Psychology program. The aim of the capstone is to assess students' ability to synthesize and integrate the knowledge and skills they have developed throughout their coursework, rather than introducing new concepts. This course is structured to support student success in fulfilling program requirements. Total Credits: 36 Minimum Hardware Requirements . Component Type  PC (Windows OS)  Apple (Mac OS)  Operating System  Currently supported operating system from Microsoft.   Currently supported operating system from Apple.  Memory (RAM)  8GB or higher  8GB or higher  Hard Drive  100GB or higher  100GB or higher  Antivirus Software  Required for campus students. Strongly recommended for online students.  Required for campus students. Strongly recommended for online students.  SNHU Purchase Programs  Visit Dell  Visit Apple  Internet/ Bandwidth  5 Mbps Download, 1 Mbps Upload and less than 100 ms Latency  5 Mbps Download, 1 Mbps Upload and less than 100 ms Latency  Notes:  Laptop or desktop?  Whichever you choose depends on your personal preference and work style, though laptops tend to offer more flexibility.  Note:  Chromebooks (Chrome OS) and iPads (iOS) do not meet the minimum requirements for coursework at SNHU. These offer limited functionality and do not work with some course technologies. They are not acceptable as the only device you use for coursework. While these devices are convenient and may be used for some course functions, they cannot be your primary device. SNHU does, however, have an affordable laptop option that it recommends: Dell Latitude 3301 with Windows 10.  Office 365 Pro Plus is available free of charge to all SNHU students and faculty. The Office suite will remain free while you are a student at SNHU. Upon graduation you may convert to a paid subscription if you wish. Terms subject to change at Microsoft's discretion. Review system requirements for Microsoft 365 plans for business, education and government.  Antivirus software: Check with your ISP as they may offer antivirus software free of charge to subscribers.  Tuition & Fees. Tuition rates for SNHU's online degree programs are among the lowest in the nation. We offer a 25% tuition discount for U.S. service members, both full and part time, and the spouses of those on active duty. Online Graduate Programs Per Course Per Credit Hour Annual Cost for 15 credits  Degree/Certificates $1,881 $627 $9,405  Degree/Certificates (U.S. service members, both full and part time, and the spouses of those on active duty) $1,410 $470 $7,050  Tuition rates are subject to change and are reviewed annually. Additional Costs: $150 Graduation Fee, Course Materials ($ varies by course) Frequently Asked Questions. What can I do with an online master's in psychology? . Psychology is a broad field, and earning your MS degree in psychology can open doors when it comes to the job market. Before enrolling, it’s important to understand what you can do with a master’s in psychology. “Your master’s degree is a great tool and gateway to many opportunities,” said MS in Psychology alumnus Weston Corbitt '15G. A graduate degree in psychology may open opportunities in corporate training and development, market research analytics, sales and a plethora of additional career paths. “One of the best things about a graduate degree in psychology is that it’s so wide-ranging in its career applications,” said Dr. Barbara Lesniak, senior associate dean of social sciences at SNHU. “For example, there are many options in the corporate world, like training and development, management, sales and marketing. Virtually any job in which you deal with people and need to know how to relate to them and what influences their behavior will benefit from a graduate degree in psychology.” Can I get my psychology degree online? . Yes, it is possible to get your psychology degree completely online. Many highly regarded, accredited schools provide online psychology degrees. You can earn your MS in Psychology online at Southern New Hampshire University, a nonprofit, award-winning school with learners across the globe. SNHU is committed to expanding access to education. With affordability at top-of-mind, we offer some of the lowest online tuition rates in the nation, helping you keep your dreams of earning your degree within reach. Earning your degree online also allows you to do your coursework on your schedule, too. "Studying online made me feel in control of my learning," said Karen Raquel Quezada '21. "It gave me the freedom to still be a mother and a full-time worker, and still have the time to complete my work for school." Can you be a psychologist with a master’s? . According to the American Psychological Association, the term psychologist is reserved for professionals with doctoral education and training, and many states have licensing laws prohibiting the use of “psychologist” in a job or professional title of a person who does not meet those requirements.2 But you'll find that earning your master's in psychology is a great benefit when it comes to landing other jobs within the field. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, a master’s degree is highly desired when it comes to teaching psychology and for many industrial-organizational psychology positions.1 BLS also suggests that while the majority of positions in clinical counseling and research psychology require a doctoral degree, you might be able to find work in those fields as an assistant under the supervision of a doctoral psychologist.1 However, if a doctorate degree is your goal, SNHU’s psychology master’s program is designed to set you up for success at the doctoral level, which will open doors in most types of psychology. Can you be a therapist without a PhD? . The short answer is yes. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, a therapist usually needs at least a master's degree and a license to practice.1 It's important to note that several different education pathways can help lead you to a career practicing psychotherapy. For example: Psychiatrist, which requires either an MD or a DO (Doctor of Osteopathy). Psychologist, which requires a doctoral degree, usually a PhD or a PsyD (Doctor of Psychology) in clinical or counseling psychology. Clinical mental health counselor, which requires an MA (Master of Arts) or MS (Master of Science) in mental health counseling. An MEd (Master of Education) is a common pathway for those working as school counselors. In addition, becoming licensed to practice independently requires another 1-2 years of post-master’s supervised work experience. SNHU offers a CACREP-accredited MA in Clinical Mental Health Counseling for students interested in pursuing counseling licensure. The MS in Psychology is not a clinical psychology program. How long does it take to get your master’s in psychology? . Like most graduate-level programs, a master’s degree in psychology can generally be completed in 1-2 years. Southern New Hampshire University’s Master of Science in Psychology program is 36 credits (12 3-credit courses). Offering 5 graduate terms a year, learners at SNHU can advance at a pace that is comfortable and provides for a healthy balance between education, work and other life priorities. Do I need a bachelor's in psychology to get a master’s? . No. While you do need a bachelor's degree to pursue a master's in psychology, your undergraduate degree does not have to be in psychology – or even a related field. At Southern New Hampshire University, we find that many of our MS in Psychology students do not have a psychology background but are looking to take on new responsibilities, add new insights to their current profession or even switch up their careers completely. For this reason, we've developed 3 foundation courses to help all of our master's in psychology students succeed: Foundations of Psychology Foundations in Statistics Foundations in Research Methods If you've earned your bachelor's degree in psychology or a related field, you shouldn't have to take these foundation courses. Likewise, if you don't have a background in psychology, but you've completed coursework, including introductory classes in psychology, statistics and social science research as part of your undergraduate studies, you can apply to waive the prerequisite foundation courses. How much can you make with a master’s in psychology? . Earning a graduate degree in psychology can create new opportunities for you, but your salary will ultimately depend on whatever field and role you choose. “Getting a graduate degree in psychology will help in applying for and obtaining higher-paying jobs in the field such as administering social services programs, being an administrator in a nonprofit, conducting research or working toward becoming a licensed professional,” said Thomas MacCarty, associate dean of social sciences at SNHU. Overall, the BLS reported that psychologists had a median annual salary of $82,180, with clinical, counseling and school psychologists specifically earning $79,820 in 2020.1 Note: These positions, along with most jobs listed as "psychologist," typically require a doctorate and licensure. Interested in teaching? According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, postsecondary teachers made a median annual wage of $80,790 in 2020.1 Are a psychologist and a counselor the same thing? . While psychology and counseling are closely related fields, the occupations of psychologist and counselor are not interchangeable. Let's start with how psychologists and counselors are alike. First off, it's important to understand that neither are medical doctors. Medical doctors who diagnose and treat mental illness issues are known as psychiatrists. As physicians, psychiatrists are licensed to prescribe medication to patients. Read this article on the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist if you're interested in learning more. Overall, both psychologists and counselors use their knowledge of the human mind to make lives better. How are they different? Clinical psychologists, like counselors, work 1-on-1 with clients in therapeutic settings. In these instances, psychologists make use of testing to help clients while counselors rely on different therapeutic approaches to address patient issues. But unlike counseling, many psychology roles are not clinical and do not involve therapy or case management. Since the science of psychology is so widely applicable, graduates of psychology degree programs could find themselves working in fields like advertising, business operations, traffic safety, education, criminal justice, recruitment, research and more. How do you become a counselor? . Typically, professional licensed counselors will need to earn an MA (Master of Arts) or MS (Master of Science). This may vary slightly with school counselors, who usually earn an MEd (Master of Education). Generally, these degrees require 2-3 years of coursework including an internship. Our online Master of Arts (MA) in Clinical Mental Health Counseling, for example, requires 60 total credits, including a combination of coursework, face-to-face residencies and supervised fieldwork. This CACREP-accredited program also integrates hands-on learning experiences, including face-to-face and virtual residencies to help you apply your skills in professional environments. What is the best accredited school for psychology? . There are many great accredited schools providing psychology degrees, but choosing which is best depends on what you prioritize in your own life. When it comes to affordability and flexibility, Southern New Hampshire University is a great choice. At $627 per credit, SNHU offers some of the lowest online graduate tuition rates in the nation – rates that haven't been raised in a decade. With 5 graduate terms per year and no set class times or login requirements, studying online at SNHU gives you the flexibility to earn your degree without forcing you to make any drastic changes to your life. In your research, you might find mentions of the American Psychological Association – a renowned scientific and professional psychology organization. Note that SNHU's master's in psychology is not APA-accredited because the American Psychological Association only accredits doctoral, internship and postdoctoral residency programs. SNHU is accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education (NECHE). University Accreditation. Southern New Hampshire University is a private, nonprofit institution accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education (NECHE) as well as several other accrediting bodies. This program and its concentrations are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP). Student achievement data can be found on College Navigator. Related Articles. . How to Become a Social Worker . Why a Master's in Psychology Positions You for Diverse Opportunities . References. Sources & Citations (1, 2) . 1Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, on the internet, at: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/psychologist.htm (viewed Sept. 23, 2021). https://www.bls.gov/ooh/business-and-financial/market-research-analysts.htm (viewed Sept. 23, 2021). https://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/postsecondary-teachers.htm (viewed Sept. 23, 2021). https://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/training-and-development-managers.htm (viewed Sept. 23, 2021). Cited projections may not reflect local and/or short-term economic or job conditions and do not guarantee actual job growth. 2American Psychological Association, Careers in Psychology, on the internet, at: https://www.apa.org/careers/resources/guides/careers (viewed Sept. 23, 2021).
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Result 32
TitleMaster’s in Counseling Psychology - California MFT / LPCC - National University
Urlhttps://www.nu.edu/ourprograms/collegeoflettersandsciences/psychology/programs/master-arts-counseling-psychology/
DescriptionGuide families, couples, and individuals to mental wellness with a Master’s in Counseling Psychology. 4-week online classes to earn your California MFT & LPCC
Date
Organic Position29
H1Master of Arts Degree in Counseling Psychology (California)
H2Master of Arts Degree in Counseling Psychology (California)
Help Guide Families, Couples, and Individuals to Mental Wellness
Program Learning Outcomes
Contact Us
FAQs
Why Choose National University?
Program Disclosure
Request Information
Search the site
Terms & Conditions
H3Why Earn a MA in Counseling Psychology at NU?
Value of a Master’s in Counseling Psychology
Degree and Course Requirements
Course Listings
How long does it take to get a master’s in psychology online?
Is a master’s in psychology worth it?
Can you earn a master’s in counseling psychology online?
Can you be a psychologist with a master’s degree?
What is the difference between a master’s in psychology and counseling?
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H2WithAnchorsMaster of Arts Degree in Counseling Psychology (California)
Help Guide Families, Couples, and Individuals to Mental Wellness
Program Learning Outcomes
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Why Choose National University?
Program Disclosure
Request Information
Search the site
Terms & Conditions
BodyMaster of Arts Degree in Counseling Psychology (California) Brittnei P. & Antwan S.Class of 2020 & Class of 2020, Military Veteran Help Guide Families, Couples, and Individuals to Mental Wellness. The Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology degree at National University prepares you with the advanced knowledge and skills needed to be an effective counselor who can make difference. If you’re called to give back to the community and help others seeking mental wellness, this is an excellent path for you. Upon completion of the program, you’ll be well-prepared to sit for the Marriage and Family Therapist (MFT) License mandated by the Board of Behavioral Sciences in the state of California. You will choose from two specialization options based on your career goals: the standard Marriage and Family Therapist Option and the Combined MFT/LPCC Option. The MA Counseling Psychology MFT option is for students committed to helping individuals, couples, families, adolescents, and children in psychotherapy. You’ll learn how to assess, diagnose, and treat psychological stress or impairment, mental disorders, or problems that arise in couples and families, and how to work in various mental health settings. Only licensed MFTs may provide counseling to families and couples. The MA Counseling Combined MFT/LPCC option is for students interested in also being licensed as a Professional Clinical Counselor (LPCC) in California. It meets the academic requirements for both the LMFT and LPCC. The combined option adds three courses specific to the scope of practice for LPCCs, including career counseling, research, and assessment techniques. This option includes additional hours of practicum training experience to meet state requirements for PCC trainees. The specialization focuses on individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and vocational counseling. This master’s in counseling psychology degree is designed for California only. Either option may not meet requirements in other states. Students should consult the licensing boards of the appropriate states for information about licensure outside of California. Request Information 4-Week Classes. Balance work, life, and school with available four-week classes. Year-round Enrollment. Our admissions team reviews applications year-round. 180K Alumni Worldwide. Become a part of NU’s global alumni community. $30 Million in Scholarships. Explore National University’s scholarship opportunities.Eligibility requirements apply.   Program Learning Outcomes. Upon successful completion of National University’s MA in Counseling Psychology program, graduates will be able to: Demonstrate core psychological concepts and therapeutic skills that underpin counseling, psychotherapy, and mental health counseling. Demonstrate current professional standards of ethics, values, and laws related to the practice of professional psychotherapists. Demonstrate cultural competence in addressing the mental health needs of people of diverse backgrounds and circumstances, including an appreciation for the wide cultural diversity among California’s multiple diverse communities. Apply a working knowledge of a range of topics important to mental health practice, including (but not limited to) psychopharmacology, addictive and compulsive disorders, structured psychological assessment, relational violence, gender and sexuality, and trauma/crisis. Understand norms and principles of public mental health work, including (but not limited to) case management, collaborative treatment, evidence-based practice, strength-based model, resiliency, and recovery-oriented care to work with clients. Integrate professional development through self-reflection, emphasizing personal capacities such as self-awareness, integrity, sensitivity, flexibility, insight, compassion, imagination, and personal presence. Request Information Why Earn a MA in Counseling Psychology at NU? At National University, our programs are designed for working professionals, like you, who want to further their education to make a more meaningful contribution in the field. You’ll have access to online and on-site programs, four-week classes, tuition scholarships, and a number of student resources. You will be working closely with professors who are also practicing professionals in their field, meaning you will gain skills that can be applied to your job right away. Faculty care about your success and are also mentors for you throughout your program, and even after you finish your program and progress in your career. Although many of our programs are online and allow you the freedom to study at your own pace, you are never alone. You have access to the writing center, math tutoring, and the Veteran Center for those making the transition from military life to civilian life. Value of a Master’s in Counseling Psychology. Psychology practitioners are essential to the health of communities across the nation. Now’s your chance to make a significant difference in your community. Marriage and family therapists work in a variety of settings, such as private practice and mental health centers. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of marriage and family therapists is projected to grow 22% from 2019 to 2029, and substance abuse, behavioral disorder, and mental health counselors is growing by 25% — both much faster than the average for all occupations.* LPCCs may choose to pursue opportunities within school systems or at career centers, helping clients with academic plans and employment issues. You may also pursue a career as a marriage and family therapist, rehabilitation counselor, or mental health counselor which may practice in any of the following settings: Private or group practices Hospitals Clinics Community health centers Universities and colleges Substance abuse rehab facility Military assisting with PTSD *Source: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/psychologists.htm Cited projections may not reflect local and/or short-term economic or job conditions and do not guarantee actual job growth. Candidates are strongly encouraged to conduct their research. Degree and Course Requirements . To receive the Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology, students must complete at least 90 quarter units of graduate work. A total of 13.5 quarter units of graduate credit may be granted for equivalent graduate work completed at another institution, as it applies to this degree, and if the units were not used in earning another advanced degree. Students for whom English is a second language must take and pass an English Language Proficiency exam prior to beginning any coursework. Students should refer to the section on Graduate Admissions for specific information regarding additional application and evaluation requirements. Course Listings. Prerequisites for the Major. (2 courses; 9 quarter units) Students who hold a bachelor’s degree in psychology may request these courses to be waived. Please contact the Lead Faculty. Course Description PSY 501A Foundations in Counseling I PSY 501B Foundations in Counseling II Core Requirements I (6 courses; 27 quarter units) Students will take classes from this sequence, then take 3 area of specialization courses, Core Course Sequence II. Course Description PSY 605 Lifespan Development – Prerequisite: Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology, or PSY 501A, and PSY 501B PSY 620 Perspectives on Psychology – Prerequisite: Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology, or PSY 501A, and PSY 501B PSY 610 Case Management – Prerequisite: Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology, or PSY 501A, and PSY 501B PSY 611A Counseling Paradigms I – Prerequisite: Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology, or PSY 501A, and PSY 501B PSY 612A Clinical Assessment I PSY 612B Clinical Assessment II – Prerequisite: PSY 612A MFT Core Requirements II. (3 courses; 13.5 quarter units) Students interested in becoming a licensed marriage and family therapist will take these courses between Core Sequence I and III. Course Description PSY 636 Child and Adolescent Therapy PSY 632A Family Therapy PSY 632B Couples Therapy Core Requirements III (11 courses; 49.5 quarter units) Course Description PSY 627 Legal & Ethical Issues PSY 611B Counseling Paradigms II PSY 680A Counseling Practicum I – Prerequisite: PSY 611B with a minimum grade of S Group Therapy PSY 628 Group Therapy PSY 637 Cultural Competencies CHD 640 Treatment of Addiction PSY 626 Human Sexuality PSY 679 Psychology of Trauma PSY 680B Counseling Practicum II – Prerequisite: PSY 680A PSY 678 Clinical Biopsychology PSY 638 Well-being & Wellness Optional Sequence IV: PCC Option. (3 courses; 13.5 quarter units) Students interested in becoming a licensed professional clinical counselor will take these courses between Core Sequence I and III. Course Description PSY 653 Research and Evaluation PSY 624A Testing and Assessment CED 612 Career & Academic Counseling Jacob Kaminker, PhD REAT, Program Chair, Counseling Psychology “If you’re the type of student who wants to learn about yourself and your relationships, to be in service to the community, and to begin a career full of meaning and purpose, then we’re the right program for you.” Contact Us. Take the first step by starting your application online today.To speak to an enrollment advisor about this program, please email [email protected]. Request Information FAQs. How long does it take to get a master’s in psychology online? Most online master’s in psychology programs require 36 credits and take about two years to complete. The more specialized or tailored the program, or the more hours for field work or research required, the longer students take to earn their degree. Is a master’s in psychology worth it? If you want to advance in the field of psychology, then yes, a master’s is worth it. However, if you don’t have strong motivation, then the challenge of a graduate degree may not be for you. It helps to talk to others in the field and gauge your level of interest prior to enrolling. Can you earn a master’s in counseling psychology online? Students interested in earning the degree can choose to complete an online master’s in psychology rather than a traditional on-site program. Can you be a psychologist with a master’s degree? Master’s programs in psychology will give you the foundation you need to conduct or apply psychological research that ultimately improves the lives of others. If you’d like to pursue a career as a psychologist, you must start with a graduate degree in psychology before earning your doctorate or sitting for a state licensure exam. What is the difference between a master’s in psychology and counseling? While a Master’s in Psychology is a typical path in obtaining a doctoral level degree in psychology, an MA in Counseling Psychology meets state licensing requirements and is a typical path to licensing. Why Choose National University? We’re proud to be a veteran-founded, San Diego-based nonprofit. Since 1971, our mission has been to provide accessible, achievable higher education to adult learners. Today, we educate students from across the U.S. and around the globe, with over 180,000 alumni worldwide. Calendar Four-WeekClasses Degree with 75+ 75+ DegreePrograms Book Onlineor On-site Graduation Cap Year-RoundEnrollment Military Medal MilitaryFriendly Program Disclosure. Successful completion and attainment of National University degrees do not lead to automatic or immediate licensure, employment, or certification in any state/country. The University cannot guarantee that any professional organization or business will accept a graduate’s application to sit for any certification, licensure, or related exam for the purpose of professional certification. Program availability varies by state. This program is designed specifically for California. Many disciplines, professions, and jobs require disclosure of an individual’s criminal history, and a variety of states require background checks to apply to, or be eligible for, certain certificates, registrations, and licenses. Existence of a criminal history may also subject an individual to denial of an initial application for a certificate, registration, or license and/or result in the revocation or suspension of an existing certificate, registration, or license. Requirements can vary by state, occupation, and/or licensing authority. NU graduates will be subject to additional requirements on a program, certification/licensure, employment, and state-by-state basis that can include one or more of the following items: internships, practicum experience, additional coursework, exams, tests, drug testing, earning an additional degree, and/or other training/education requirements. All prospective students are advised to review employment, certification, and/or licensure requirements in their state, and to contact the certification/licensing body of the state and/or country where they intend to obtain certification/licensure to verify that these courses/programs qualify in that state/country, prior to enrolling. Prospective students are also advised to regularly review the state’s/country’s policies and procedures relating to certification/licensure, as those policies are subject to change. National University degrees do not guarantee employment or salary of any kind. Prospective students are strongly encouraged to review desired job positions to review degrees, education, and/or training required to apply for desired positions. Prospective students should monitor these positions as requirements, salary, and other relevant factors can change over time. Related Downloads. Trainee Letter of Agreement Field Placement Evaluation Careers in Counseling Psychology Psychotherapy Experience Costa Mesa Approved Practicum Sites Redding Approved Practicum Sites Psychotherapy 10 hour form Psychotherapy 25 hour form Psychotherapy Inception form APA Guide Responsibility Statement for Supervisors San Bernardino Internship Off Campus 3 Month Evaluation Form 6 Month Evaluation Form Final Practicum Evaluation Form Stockton Approved Practicum Sites Fresno Approved Practicum Sites Rancho Cordova Practicum Sites Checklist of Practicum Forms San Bernardino Approved Practicum Sites LA Practicum Sites Max/Min BBS Requirement SD-Carlsbad Approved Practicum Sites Useful Links. Theravive MFT Weekly Summary of Hours- Option MFT Experience Verification- Option LPCC Experience Verification- Option Letter of Recommendation Form Regional Lead Faculty Contacts Psychology Career Guide Online Graduate Degree Options for Psychology Online Undergraduate Degree Options for Psychology Request Information. × Search the site. Modal window with site-search and helpful links Featured Programs. Nursing Business and Management Computer Science Teaching and Credentials Helpful Links. Admissions & Application Information Login Scholarships Accredited Online Degrees & Programs Student Services Request Your Transcripts Tuition × Terms & Conditions. By checking this box as my electronic signature and submitting this form by clicking the Request Info button above, I provide my express written consent to representatives of National University and National University System affiliates (City University of Seattle, Northcentral University and National University Virtual High School) to contact me about educational opportunities, and to send phone calls, and/or SMS/Text Messages – using automated technology, including automatic dialing system and pre-recorded and artificial voice messages – to the phone numbers (including cellular) and e-mail address(es) I have provided. I confirm that the information provided on this form is accurate and complete. I also understand that certain degree programs may not be available in all states. Message and data rates may apply. I understand that consent is not a condition to purchase any goods, services or property, and that I may withdraw my consent at any time by sending an email to [email protected]. I understand that if I am submitting my personal data from outside of the United States, I am consenting to the transfer of my personal data to, and its storage in, the United States, and I understand that my personal data will be subject to processing in accordance with U.S. laws, unless stated otherwise in our privacy policy. Please review our privacy policy for more details or contact us at [email protected].
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