Copywriteroffice

Serp data

Request Result

The request result help you to show your API requests results.

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                            [title] => Do insurers have COVID-19 covered? - KPMG Global
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                            [body] => Do insurers have COVID-19 covered? Do insurers have COVID-19 covered? Do insurers have COVID-19 covered? What are the implications of COVID-19 for the insurance industry? And what longer-term trends might the outbreak serve to usher in for the future. What are the implications of COVID-19 for the insurance industry? Share 1000 Save Go to bottom of page Share close Home › Insights › Do insurers have COVID-19 covered? The Covid-19 coronavirus outbreak that began in China towards the end of last year has now become a global pandemic. Although it now appears to be slowing in China, the spread of the disease is accelerating elsewhere, with the World Health Organization recently describing Europe as its current `epicentre'. Governments are reacting in ever more dramatic ways, closing borders, imposing lockdowns and travel restrictions, shutting schools and colleges, and banning mass gatherings such as sporting events. The way the crisis will run from here cannot be known. But alongside the tragic human toll, it is already having considerable economic impacts, posing major challenges to the global supply chain and certain business sectors such as airlines, travel and leisure, and causing significant stock market volatility and some precipitous falls. Central banks including the US Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank (ECB) have responded by cutting interest rates. The ECB has expanded its quantitative easing program to make more liquidity available and the Fed could follow suit after the US joined many other countries in declaring a `national emergency'. A crisis such as Covid-19 affects all business sectors  - but it especially puts a spotlight on insurers who can expect to be inundated with general inquiries and claims across multiple different lines, whether that be for health, life or non-life cover.  Balancing the need for responding to this influx of activity in the contact centres with a quickly shifting remote workforce is an area that insurers are working to address. Of course, countries are at different stages of coronavirus activity.  So, how is the insurance industry likely to shape up to the unfolding crisis? What are the implications across the different segments of the industry? And what longer-term trends might the outbreak serve to usher in for the future? Limited exposure for General Insurers? Starting with non-life or general insurance first, I expect the impact on claims to be relatively manageable. Most insurers learned the lessons from the SARS outbreak of 2003 and introduced exclusion clauses for communicable diseases and epidemics/pandemics into most non-life products such as business interruption and travel insurance.  Business interruption policies usually pay out only if physical damage occurs to an organization's assets or operations  - so coronavirus related claims may not be covered, but there is potential for future disputes on this issue. Travel insurance, meanwhile, may offer cover if a customer is diagnosed with the virus before or during their trip  - but not for travel that is cancelled because of the pandemic, unless a customer has taken out premium `any cause' cover, which very few have.  Of course, interest in `premium' policies could change in a world after COVID-19. Event cancellations may cause greater losses to insurers as some large events (but certainly not all) have policies that may cover them even for epidemics or pandemics. The largest event taking place this year is the Tokyo Olympics where analysts estimate approximately $2bn of coverage.    It is likely that the reinsurance sector will bear some of the brunt here, as insurers claim back the costs of cover from them over a certain threshold. One major global reinsurer, for example, has been quoted as having exposure of over 500 million euros should all events covered for pandemics be cancelled. However, there are two potentially big areas to watch for non-life. Firstly, trade credit insurance, covering businesses against debts that cannot be paid by their customers or suppliers. This is an $11bn global market  - and if increasing numbers of companies go out of business due to coronavirus impacts, insurers could face rapidly spiralling claims. There are particular concerns that, alongside some big corporates in acutely affected sectors, SMEs in many markets could be hit hard due to supply chain disruption and a crunch in business levels. The cost of this may very much depend on just how bad the pandemic becomes, the extent to which containment measures affect different kinds of businesses, and how long it lasts. The second area is workers' compensation claims. We could see spikes in workers claiming they were not adequately protected by their employers against exposure to the virus brought about by their normal working duties. It is impossible to know at this stage how significant such claims could become. But insurers offering this type of cover to employers may need to brace themselves, depending on how things develop. Finally, the volatility and falling interest rates within the financial markets will likely impact general insurers from an earnings and solvency perspective.  The impact is likely to be greater for life insurers and therefore is addressed in more detail below.   A mixed diagnosis for Health Insurers The impact on health insurance is hard to determine at a global level because the impacts will be very different country by country. This is both because the number of actual cases and deaths could vary greatly between countries/regions, and because of the varied make-up of health coverage itself. In some countries, such as the US for example, most healthcare is privately provided (except for the elderly where Medicare plays a big role), while in others, such as Europe and Canada, there is much higher public provision.  In Asia, the national health systems are often immature and there is much private coverage. The key issue currently in most countries is to enable rapid testing of individuals, particularly people in vulnerable populations such as the elderly or those with underlying health conditions, especially compromised immune systems. In most countries, this testing is free (provided by governments) or the costs are being waived by healthcare providers and/or health insurers. Free treatment, however, is not universal and these costs can be substantial.  As yet, we simply do not know what the ongoing treatment requirements and eventual mortality or morbidity rates from the coronavirus will be and therefore what the cost might be for health insurers.  However, I believe that the crisis may have a number of long-term (positive) effects on the sector. Firstly, as the pressure on health services rises due to the sheer number of patients, we are likely to see a rise in telehealth services, offering consultancy to patients via phone or online video services. This could have constructive long-term effects, helping healthcare reach more remote and less affluent populations including the under- or un-insured. Making healthcare more available and accessible means that, in some small way, societies may benefit from learnings and actions taken during COVID-19  Secondly, the very pandemic itself may cause more people to reconsider their individual health insurance needs. In the wake of the SARS epidemic, for example, we saw a temporary spike in critical illness policy sales in Asia. We may see a similar phenomenon post-coronavirus, with rising sales of health insurance, critical illness and even life cover across the world. Market volatility creating more difficulties for Life & Retirement Insurers Of all insurance segments, it is life insurers who are facing the most difficult challenges.   The industry is closely monitoring the potential impacts on mortality rates, however, we expect that life insurers may also feel significant impacts due to what is happening in the financial markets.  Because of the long-term assets and liabilities that life insurers hold, market volatility is always challenging for the sector  - and we have seen extreme volatility in recent weeks. Major exchanges around the world have experienced some of their worst falls in decades, even if ground has later been made up again. Movements in equities, interest rates and credit spreads create tremendous asset liability management risks for life insurers as yield curves flatten. Globally, life insurers manage more than $20 trillion in assets and as much as half of this is estimated to be in government bonds. But the yields from these have fallen dramatically  - US 10 year bond yields have more than halved since the end of 2019 for example.   The crisis also puts pressure on non-Government bonds which may cause credit concerns and may lead to an increase in bond downgrades. In addition to this, as noted earlier, central banks have been slashing interest rates. We were already in a low interest rate environment  - which is always difficult for insurers in general, but especially for life insurers - now rates are heading down even further (possibly below zero in some countries). Legacy businesses or products that are highly sensitive to market variables such as variable and fixed annuities, long-term care insurance and universal life insurance are likely to feel the effects more deeply.  All of these factors can result in solvency ratio challenges. Prior to this COVID-19, much has been said about the industry being well-capitalized and so insurers may be starting from a position of strength as it relates to capital. However, risk-based capital approaches vary widely by country which impacts how reactive the ratios are to current market conditions. For example, the EU's Solvency II regime is very sensitive to financial market volatility and movements in bond yields and credit spreads. Other capital approaches could be sensitive to bond downgrades. As a result, insurers will need to closely monitor solvency ratios in order to meet economic, regulatory and rating agency capital requirements. The sector will be hoping that the pandemic blows itself out before long. Otherwise, if market volatility continues and fluctuations persist, they may need to reassess their investment portfolios and exposures to potentially reduced investment earnings as well as protecting capital/security for policyholders and key stakeholders. Be Cautious about the cost-cutting response Clearly, this year could prove to be a difficult one for many insurers given the predictions of the economists, some of which are saying that a “U” shaped or even a “W” shaped recovery pattern may be more likely now (as opposed to “V” shaped). Early questions are starting to emerge around possible recessions around the world. Why? We've seen such varying virus containment efforts which dramatically impact consumption levels on a local level and therefore impact speed to recovery. Expectations vary on the long-term impacts; no one can be entirely sure.  While it is tempting for insurers to suspend investment and cut costs in such a challenging financial year, I believe the crisis creates an incentive for them to do the reverse  - continue to invest in how they operate and create a more agile, digitally-enabled business. In other words, now more than ever insurers should keep investing forefront in their minds so that they can be prepared for the future. By this I mean firstly embracing the flexible and remote working that will be needed across all sectors due to the virus, insurance included. The crisis provides the opportunity for insurers to test and ensure that their businesses have sufficient connectivity to support more staff working off-site and in flexible ways  - now, and for the future too. What this means today is that management teams should be rapidly assessing operational areas with high concentrations of human capital support  such as call centers, claims, shared service centers, etc. to determine the impact. Business disruption or resiliency plans are being tested, stressed and in some cases derived.  This is especially true in areas where there is a lack of digital workflow tools, limited virtual or mobile work station capabilities or unscaled communication technology.  These traditional methods are often used for completing moderate to more complex processing activities that require a team approach to resolution.  This situation is allowing for a significant shift in the adoption rate of new ways of working, including the supporting technology, which may change the ways organizations are run post crisis. Speaking of technology, the crisis could also be the spur to look at moving more systems and applications to the cloud  - an area that insurers have lagged other sectors in. With more people working remotely, having systems in the cloud offers much greater bandwidth and capacity than if staff are accessing on-premise servers remotely. This is an opportunity for the insurance industry and could be the catalyst for this movement. Actuarial modelling software, for example, often sits on individuals' computers, as there are deemed to be security issues with putting it in the cloud. But with today's cloud services offering enhanced security protocols, perhaps the time has come for more of the industry to make the move.  More broadly, insurance businesses  - as other sectors  - need to embark on the digital transformation of their organizations, to become more agile, responsive and connected enterprises. Perhaps one legacy of the coronavirus crisis could be that it actually propels more insurers to do that. These are extremely challenging times for individuals, families, businesses and indeed whole societies and economies. The insurance industry has a key role to play in supporting customers and societies through the crisis and the recovery. Laura J Hay . Global Head of Insurance KPMG International Email Connect with us . Find office locations kpmg.findOfficeLocations Email us kpmg.emailUs Social media @ KPMG kpmg.socialMedia Stay up to date with what matters to you . Gain access to personalized content based on your interests by signing up today Sign up today Welcome  . Browse articles,  set up your interests, or Learn more. Dashboard Welcome  . You've been a member since Dashboard Implications of COVID-19 for Insurers Implications of COVID-19 for Insurers Responding to challenging times. Responding to challenging times. Insurance Insurance Helping the world’s largest insurers dealing with regulatory changes, operational pressures and demands to digitize, prepare for the future. Helping the world’s largest insurers dealing with regulatory changes, operational... close
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                            [title] => Coronavirus travel insurance: who will cover me? – Which? News
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                            [body] => Coronavirus travel insurance: who has the best ‘Covid cover’? Find out how the Omicron variant could affect your insurance. By Ian Aikman 20 Dec 2021 Share this page . Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share by email Travel plans have been turned upside down as countries continue to tighten border controls in the face of the Omicron variant. The UK government has removed all countries from its travel ‘red list’, meaning trips to the nations that were on it previously are once again allowed. But rules for all travellers arriving in the UK – including residents returning from holidays – remain stricter than they were last month, with pre departure tests and day 2 tests required. On top of this, nations around the world – including some of the UK’s closest neighbours – are changing travel requirements for foreign visitors in a way that could affect your journey. Recently both France and Germany have dramatically restricted travel from the UK. Here, we explore the kind of cover you’ll need for any potential pandemic-era holiday, and the insurers that provide it. Find the answers to your questions by clicking the links below: What does Omicron mean for travel insurance? Will my travel provider refund me first? Who has the best Covid cover? What should I look for when I’m buying travel insurance? How can I make a claim? Can I claim on insurance if I’m offered rebooking vouchers? What does Omicron mean for insurance? You’ll need to check entry requirements for any country you’re planning to visit. Some nations, such as France and Germany, are specifically restricting travellers from the UK due to its high case numbers. So far Israel, Japan and Morocco have closed their borders to tourists entirely. Other countries now have stricter testing rules. If you’re now required to quarantine upon arrival, you likely won’t be able to cancel and claim on your insurance, though you may be able to postpone your trip if your travel provider is flexible (see below). Then there’s the risk you might come into contact with someone who has caught the Omicron variant. At the moment, even if you are vaccinated, you’ll need to isolate for 10 days. With cases on the rise, you might be more likely to catch Covid yourself. This would also require you to self-isolate. In either of these cases, there are some insurers who will consider cancellation claims. But not every insurer will, so check policy details carefully before you buy. Find out more: where can I go on holiday without quarantine? Will my holiday firm refund me? Before you claim on your travel insurance, you’ll first need to check if you can get a refund from your travel provider. Or, if you’ve booked the flights and accommodation yourself, you’ll need to seek refunds from them before contacting your insurer. Sadly, the pandemic has shown that not all holiday firms play by the rules when it comes to refunds. Many firms have rapidly refunded customers for cancelled trips, but others have hung onto cash for months, and in some cases broken the law. Nearly half of firms made our Green category for having rapid refunds and no-quibble cancellation policies. Among these were Which? Recommended Providers (WRPs) Jet2 Holidays, Kuoni and Hays. Only a handful of companies made the Green+ list, including WRPs Explore and Exodus. To make this category, Green-rated firms also need to refund those unable to travel because NHS Test and Trace has told them to isolate. As for the other firms we looked at, one in five were classed as Amber – for following legal obligations but nothing more – and three in ten were Red. Firms with this rating might stall or pass the buck on refunds, while others weren’t transparent about their terms and conditions – a major problem for would-be travellers. Which policies have the best coronavirus cover? From possible winter restrictions to getting sick, there are still dozens of ways the pandemic could wreck your holiday, even if you’ve been vaccinated. Thankfully, there are some insurers who offer protection for all or many of these. We reviewed hundreds of policies earlier this year, sorting them into four categories based on the strength of their Covid cover. From weakest to strongest these are: Basic For policies providing emergency medical cover and repatriation for coronavirus while you’re away. Low Insurance that covers unrecouped costs from cancelling your holiday if you’re diagnosed with Covid-19. Superior Policies that cover cancellation if you’re told to self-isolate without testing positive yourself, for example if you receive a test and trace notification via the NHS app. Complete Our highest rating. Complete policies cover you for cancellation if you can’t travel due to changes in FCDO advice or because of a lockdown. We know of just five policies that meet the criteria for our Complete rating. These are from Barclays, Churchill, Direct Line, HSBC and Nationwide. You can read our Nationwide travel insurance review here. The policy is available as part of its FlexPlus packaged account, which costs £13 a month and comes with other benefits. The Barclays Travel Pack add-on is for current account holders, and HSBC’s Select and Cover is available to current account, savings account, mortgage and credit card customers. You’d be eligible for HSBC’s travel insurance if you opened an Online Bonus Saver account with a minimum of £1. Direct Line Group, which also provides the Churchill and Nationwide policies, told Which? that its recent increase in cover was intended to ‘give customers back their freedom’ and support the travel industry’s recovery. All readers can find a breakdown of different policies’ Covid cover levels on our best and worst travel insurance page. We’ve also given each of them a policy score, based on their wider cover, including for non-Covid related incidents. Which? members can log in to see these on the same page. Find out more: best and worst travel insurance Find out more: best travel insurance if you have a medical condition ‘Covid cover’ confusion. When we surveyed 2,800 travel insurance customers between February and March 2021, there was a gulf between what they thought was covered and the likely reality. Around half of respondents thought they would be covered for cancellation in the case of another lockdown, or if the FCDO changed its advice on travel to their destination. In reality, we only know of five policies that would cover this. On the other hand, only half of respondents thought they were covered for medical treatment if they caught Covid-19 overseas (the equivalent of our Basic rating), when in fact every insurer we analysed offered at least this much protection. To address this disconnect between what customers think is insured and what insurers actually cover, we urged travel insurance providers to be clear about Covid-cover terminology, and to clearly outline what is and isn’t covered on their websites. Our findings inspired the FCA to write to over 1,000 travel firms to remind them of their obligation to ensure customer communications are ‘clear, fair and not misleading’, particularly around ill-defined terms like ‘coronavirus cover’ and ‘enhanced Covid-19 cover’. Find out more: best and worst travel insurance What should I look for when I’m buying travel insurance? When searching for a policy, make sure you look for the following things: Coronavirus medical and repatriation cover To cover you if you’re infected when you’re away. Coronavirus cancellation cover You’ll need this if you want to be able to claim on insurance for refunds if Covid stops you travelling for any reason. Our ratings will tell you how much Covid cover an insurer has. Scheduled airline failure insurance (SAFI) To cover you if your airline goes bust. Excesses This is what you’ll pay towards what your insurer pays out. You’ll need to be able to afford them if you’re claiming. Which? recommends getting the following levels of cover: Emergency medical cover £5m worldwide Cancellation, curtailment and missed departure £2,000 or the value of your holiday Personal belongings and money £1,500 Personal liability £1m Find out more: flight cancellations and compensation How can I make a claim? The pandemic has left thousands of holidaymakers out of pocket. If you had a trip booked that you now can’t take, you might need to make a claim yourself. Insurers will only pay out for costs that can’t be refunded by travel or accommodation providers, so you should get in touch with them first. If you approach insurers with a claim before exploring the refund route, they will want you to do that before you can progress further. Next, make a list of all the non-refundable costs you want to claim for. Not just hotels and flights, but transfers, tours and excursions. After that, you’re ready to contact your insurer. We’ve gathered the claims numbers for more than 40 travel insurance providers in the table below. Click the name of the insurer to see our review of its service and find more details about how to make a claim. If we don’t have a review, contact your insurer directly for more information. Find out more: claiming on your travel insurance Can I claim on insurance if I’m offered rebooking vouchers? If you accept vouchers or refund credit notes (RCNs) as compensation, you can’t claim for cash from your insurer as well, as this would be a double claim. Legally, you should be able to reject vouchers and get cash refunds instead, but many holiday firms have ignored this rule. Your insurer will likely advise you to pursue this legal right if you’re in this situation. The ABI told us: ‘Where travel operators have a legal obligation to refund customers, insurers expect them to honour that legal agreement. Insurance cancellation cover kicks in when no other safety net is available.’ After campaigning from Which?, the government confirmed that RCNs will be covered by the travel industry’s Atol scheme. This means if you accept an RCN and your holiday provider goes bust, your money will be protected. If you’re not offered a cash refund by your travel operator, and you don’t want to accept an RCN, Which? believes banks should refund customers under Section 75 of the Consumer Credit Act 1974, for purchases by credit card of more than £100, or through the chargeback scheme for other purchases. Banks don’t always accept these claims, but card issuer Mastercard has confirmed that chargeback is valid in these cases. Find out more: claiming from your bank for coronavirus holiday and event cancellations This story was originally published on 25 February 2020 and has been updated since then. The latest update was to reflect the Omicron variant and was published on 20 December 2021. Additional reporting by Dean Sobers. Share this page . Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share by email Share this page . Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share by email Back to top Back to top
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                            [title] => COVID-19 and Insurance: What You Should Know | William Russell
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                                    [36] => The Most and Least Stressed Cities in the World
                                    [37] => 5 Safest Countries in the World for Expats in 2022
                                    [38] => Which Countries Have the Best Healthcare in the World?
                                    [39] => Best Countries in the World for Brits after Brexit – Moving Abroad from UK
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                                            [text] => What do you need to know about COVID-19 and insurance?
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                                            [text] => Will your life insurance policy be void if you take a COVID vaccine?
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                                            [text] => Does the COVID-19 vaccine affect my life insurance policy in the UK and globally?
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                                            [text] => Life insurance and the COVID-19 vaccine in the UK
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                                            [text] => Can I get a life insurance cover after a COVID-19 vaccine?
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                                            [text] => Coronavirus – other questions
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                                    [lastUpdate] => 
                                    [dateFormatted] => 29o November 2021
                                    [dateISO] => 2021-11-29T10:04:06+00:00
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                                    [dateFormatted] => 2o December 2021
                                    [dateISO] => 2021-12-02T14:42:29+00:00
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                                (
                                    [0] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 0
                                            [question] => Does my life insurance cover a COVID-19 vaccine?
                                            [answer] => Our Silver and Gold Health plans [https://www.william-russell.com/international-health-insurance/] will cover vaccinations, as long as they are administered in the country in which you are resident and are approved for use by the health authority of that country. However, our Life insurance policies don’t offer reimbursement for COVID-19 vaccines.
                                        )

                                    [1] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 1
                                            [question] => What about international life insurance and COVID vaccine in the UK and Australia? 
                                            [answer] => We have experienced an increase in our life insurance policies for expats over the past 12 months in the UK and Australia. There are no limitations on your plans relating to COVID vaccines.
                                        )

                                    [2] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 2
                                            [question] => Does my international life insurance cover COVID-19 and pandemics?
                                            [answer] => Yes, it does. If you have a life plan from William Russell [https://www.william-russell.com/global-life-insurance/], you’re covered if you die as a result of infection by COVID-19 as you would be for any other viral infection.
                                        )

                                    [3] => stdClass Object
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                                            [index] => 3
                                            [question] => Can I get life insurance if I’ve had coronavirus? 
                                            [answer] => Yes, as long as you are fully recovered with no ongoing symptoms. We may postpone your policy if you have been hospitalised or have symptoms.
                                        )

                                    [4] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 4
                                            [question] => Does income protection insurance cover COVID-19?
                                            [answer] => If you have an income protection plan [https://www.william-russell.com/global-income-protection/] from William Russell, you’re covered if you’re totally unable to work for longer than the deferment period, as a result of an illness or injury. This would include an infection by COVID-19, provided you don’t have applicable personal medical exclusions on your certificate of insurance.
                                        )

                                    [5] => stdClass Object
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                                            [index] => 5
                                            [question] => Will you pay out on a global income protection insurance plan if I am off work as a result of coronavirus/complications? 
                                            [answer] => Yes, as long as you have complied with the terms and conditions of your plan.
                                        )

                                    [6] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 6
                                            [question] => Can I buy a new policy if I have coronavirus?
                                            [answer] => If you are currently experiencing COVID-19 symptoms, then we will not offer terms until at least one month after you have recovered and are back to good health.

If you have been admitted to hospital due to COVID-19 or you have an underlying health condition then we will need to ask further questions regarding your symptoms, treatment, and recovery. Depending on the answers to these questions, there may be a further delay before we can offer terms.
                                        )

                                    [7] => stdClass Object
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                                            [index] => 7
                                            [question] => Am I covered regardless of how/where COVID-19 was caught? 
                                            [answer] => There are geographical restrictions on some plans, you should refer to your plan agreement.
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                                    [8] => stdClass Object
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                                            [index] => 0
                                            [question] => Does my health plan cover COVID-19?
                                            [answer] => If you have a health plan from William Russell, you’re covered for the treatment of COVID-19 as you would be for any other viral infection. This is provided that the plan you have selected covers the treatment and you don’t have personal medical exclusions on your certificate of insurance that would apply.

For example, if you have a personal medical exclusion for ‘respiratory conditions’ or any other condition that might be affected by Coronavirus, you wouldn’t be covered for the diagnosis and treatment of your excluded condition.
                                        )

                                    [9] => stdClass Object
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                                            [index] => 1
                                            [question] => Does health insurance cover COVID vaccine side effects?
                                            [answer] => If you have a Silver or Gold plan with William Russell, you will be covered for vaccinations under your vaccinations for adults or well-child benefit. The vaccine must be administered in your country of residence and must be approved for use by the health authority of that country. You will not be covered for vaccines received outside of your country of residence.
                                        )

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                                            [index] => 2
                                            [question] => Does my health plan cover me while I am travelling? 
                                            [answer] => There are no changes to the cover provided while you are travelling. However, your ability to access services may be impacted by local conditions. Before you travel you should check that the plan you have selected includes cover in the countries you are travelling to. You should also check for limitations on cover and trip duration in case you need to extend your stay due to travel restrictions.
                                        )

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                                            [question] => Can I buy a health insurance policy if I have coronavirus?
                                            [answer] => If you are currently experiencing COVID-19 symptoms, then we will not offer cover until at least a month after you have recovered and are back to good health. If you have been admitted to hospital due to COVID-19, or you have an underlying health condition then we will need to ask further questions regarding your symptoms, treatment and recovery. Depending on the answers to these questions, there may be a further delay before we can offer terms.
                                        )

                                    [12] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 4
                                            [question] => Can I renew my health insurance policy if I have coronavirus?
                                            [answer] => Yes, your right to renew your cover will not be affected if you have coronavirus.
                                        )

                                    [13] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 5
                                            [question] => Does health insurance cover COVID vaccine side effects?
                                            [answer] => If you have a Silver or Gold plan with William Russell, you will be covered for vaccinations under your vaccinations for adults or well-child benefit. The vaccine must be administered in your country of residence and must be approved for use by the health authority of that country. You will not be covered for vaccines received outside of your country of residence.
                                        )

                                    [14] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 6
                                            [question] => Does my health insurance plan cover COVID-19 tests?
                                            [answer] => If you need a private test, you may have cover for the cost of the test. Most testing programmes are run by national governments or local health authorities. To encourage maximum participation, tests are usually free.

If you have a SilverLite, Silver or Gold plan and you have symptoms of COVID-19, you’re covered for out-patient costs related to investigation, testing, and treatment of COVID-19, provided these are prescribed by a doctor. These costs are covered even if the test result is negative. The normal plan terms and conditions on excesses and co-insurances apply.

If you have a Silver or Gold plan and you’re not experiencing COVID-19 symptoms, you’re covered for the costs of a test under your well-being benefit. The normal plan terms and conditions on excesses, waiting periods, and co-insurances apply.

Sometimes a hospital may include a COVID-19 test as part of pre-operation screening. This is also covered under all health plans [https://www.william-russell.com/international-health-insurance/compare-the-personal-plans/].
                                        )

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                                        (
                                            [index] => 7
                                            [question] => Does my private health plan cover COVID-19 vaccination costs?
                                            [answer] => Most COVID-19 vaccination programmes are run by national governments or local health authorities. This encourages maximum participation and ensures that the most vulnerable or at risk are vaccinated first. As a result, most vaccines are free.

If you have a Silver or Gold plan with William Russell, you will be covered for vaccinations under your vaccinations for adults or well-child benefit. The vaccine must be administered in your country of residence and must be approved for use by the health authority of that country. You will not be covered for vaccines received outside of your country of residence.
                                        )

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                                            [index] => 8
                                            [question] => Does my private health plan cover treatment for the side effects of a COVID-19 vaccination?
                                            [answer] => Most COVID-19 vaccination programmes are run by national governments or local health authorities. This encourages maximum participation and ensures that the most vulnerable or at risk are vaccinated first. As a result, most vaccines are free.

If you have a Silver or Gold plan with William Russell, you will be covered for the reasonable and customary costs of vaccinations that you cannot access for free, under your vaccinations for adults or well-child benefit. The vaccine must be administered in your country of residence or country of nationality and must be approved for use by the health authority of that country. You will not be covered for vaccines received outside of your country of residence or nationality, or for any travel costs associated with the vaccine.
                                        )

                                    [17] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 9
                                            [question] => Am I still eligible for the hospital cash benefit if I am admitted to a public or government hospital, with COVID-19?
                                            [answer] => Yes. The hospital cash benefit is designed to reward members with COVID-19 or another condition who receive inpatient medical treatment at a hospital within a country’s public healthcare system.

Usually, treatment at these hospitals is free for patients, or at least heavily subsidised. As no costs are passed on to us, we pass on some of the savings to our members. We’ll pay a cash benefit for each night you stay in a hospital as an inpatient, where no charge is made by the hospital and where the treatment costs would have been covered by your plan.
                                        )

                                    [18] => stdClass Object
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                                            [index] => 10
                                            [question] => Can I still get an emergency medical evacuation if I cannot be treated locally?
                                            [answer] => Our ability to evacuate members is being affected by the pandemic. This is due to international travel restrictions and the limited number of hospitals accepting new patients. We will do our best to get you the care that you need within these limitations.

Whether your case qualifies for evacuation, where you will be evacuated to, and how you will be evacuated are at the discretion of our Assistance Service. You can contact the service on +44 1243 621155.
                                        )

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                                            [index] => 11
                                            [question] => Am I covered for consultations made over the phone or video link during the pandemic?
                                            [answer] => As long as the face-to-face consultation would have been covered under your plan, then we’ll cover the same consultation that is carried out by telephone or video link. This applies for both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 conditions.

Many governments are encouraging people to stay at home to avoid spreading COVID-19 and overwhelming healthcare systems. In response to these guidelines, healthcare providers are giving consultations over telephone or via video link. . It’s best to get in touch with us if you have any questions relating to your plan and whether your consultation would be covered.
                                        )

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                                            [question] => Does my international health insurance policy cover admission to hospital for COVID-19 treatment?
                                            [answer] => If you’re admitted to hospital because you need medical treatment (including for COVID-19), you will be covered for as long as your admission and medical treatment are necessary and there are no personal medical exclusions applied to your policy.

You’re not covered for admissions that are not medically necessary. You should contact us if you need to be admitted to hospital.
                                        )

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                                            [question] => Am I covered if I’m told I have to quarantine?
                                            [answer] => If you’re admitted to hospital with symptoms of COVID-19 that require medically necessary treatment in a hospital which can only be provided as a day-patient or inpatient, we can consider cover, subject to pre-authorisation. Admissions that are solely for quarantine purposes are not covered.
                                        )

                                    [22] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 0
                                            [question] => If I have a travel plan, can I claim for cancellations of travel arrangements?
                                            [answer] => If you have a travel plan that begins or renews on or after 01/06/20, you won’t be covered for COVID-19.

If your plan is still valid before this date, you can claim if you can’t travel for any of these reasons:

 * injury or illness to you, a close relative, close business colleague, or travelling companion
 * compulsory quarantine applying to you or your travelling companion
 * a government regulation as a result of the pandemic that prevents you from travelling

You can claim for the loss of irrecoverable deposits or payments for any unused travel and accommodation you have either paid for or have contracted to pay.
                                        )

                                    [23] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 1
                                            [question] => Will there be COVID vaccine passports in place to travel?
                                            [answer] => There is a lot of conversation and debate around COVID vaccine passports at the moment in different countries. Just like a national passport, a vaccine passport could allow the bearer entrance to a venue, like a crowded concert, or a foreign country that demands proof of vaccination in addition to a visa and valid national passport.
                                        )

                                    [24] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 2
                                            [question] => Which destinations are open to travelers vaccinated against COVID-19?
                                            [answer] => The situation is constantly changing. Doing your own research before a trip is important.

As of 20/07/2021, the following destinations are now allowing vaccinated U.S. travellers to visit:

 * Anguilla
 * Bahamas
 * Barbados
 * Belize
 * British Virgin Islands
 * Croatia
 * Cyprus
 * Ecuador
 * Estonia
 * Republic of Georgia
 * Grenada
 * Guatemala
 * Iceland
 * Israel
 * Montenegro
 * Nepal
 * Seychelles
 * Tahiti

In the UK, there is a ‘travel traffic light system’ in place. Read more about it here [https://www.william-russell.com/blog/expats-covid-passports/].
                                        )

                                    [25] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 3
                                            [question] => Can I travel after being vaccinated against COVID-19?
                                            [answer] => COVID certification – including proof of a negative test – is already part of international travel in certain countries [https://www.william-russell.com/blog/will-expats-need-covid-vaccine-passports-to-move-and-live-abroad/].

The government in the UK now allows you to get an NHS COVID Pass.

European Commission have started issuing a EU-wide Digital COVID Certificate (EUDCC). It allows anyone vaccinated against COVID-19, or who has tested negative, or recently recovered from the virus, to travel within the European Union.
                                        )

                                    [26] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 4
                                            [question] => What are the Covid-19 travel restrictions and quarantine rules?
                                            [answer] => As the situation starts to return to normal and countries begin to open their borders to travel, you may be asking whether you’re allowed to travel to/from other countries and go home to visit your family finally. In the UK, from October the rules on foreign travel to and from England are being simplified. The traffic light system is being scrapped, and fully vaccinated people will need fewer tests after travelling to most countries.
                                        )

                                    [27] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 0
                                            [question] => Is my cover affected because COVID-19 is a pandemic?
                                            [answer] => With the exception of the travel plan, there are no general exclusions for pandemics in our plans. You will be covered for infection by COVID-19 as you would be for any other viral infection, provided you don’t have applicable personal medical exclusions on your certificate of insurance.
                                        )

                                    [28] => stdClass Object
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                                            [index] => 1
                                            [question] => What if I can’t afford my insurance payments due to coronavirus?
                                            [answer] => We understand that times are tough right now. If you’re struggling to keep up with payments for your insurance plan, it’s best to get in touch with us. We’re people too, and our team members can work with you to find a way forward.
                                        )

                                    [29] => stdClass Object
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                                            [index] => 2
                                            [question] => Are William Russell offices open during the pandemic?
                                            [answer] => Where possible, our staff around the world are working from home. This is in line with regulations and guidance issued by governments. This isn’t affecting the services we offer our members and our usual emails and telephone numbers are working as normal.

Of course, all internal and external communications will (continue to) comply with ISO 27001 and our strict data protection policies.
                                        )

                                    [30] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 3
                                            [question] => Is William Russell still issuing new plans?
                                            [answer] => Yes. If you’re not sure what you need, read our glossary of terms [https://www.william-russell.com/international-health-insurance/faq/glossary/].
                                        )

                                    [31] => stdClass Object
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                                            [index] => 4
                                            [question] => Who should I call if I have questions?
                                            [answer] => If you have questions about how we can help, please call or email our claims team on +44 1276 486 460 [tel:01276486460] or [email protected] [[email protected]].
                                        )

                                    [32] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 5
                                            [question] => What is coronavirus?
                                            [answer] => Coronavirus belongs to a family of viruses known to cause illness in animals and humans. In humans, coronaviruses generally cause respiratory illnesses. Previous epidemics such as MERS or SARS were caused by coronaviruses. The coronavirus that’s the subject of the present pandemic causes a respiratory illness called COVID-19.
                                        )

                                    [33] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 6
                                            [question] => What are the symptoms of COVID-19?
                                            [answer] => The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are:

 * fever
 * tiredness
 * a loss of taste or smell
 * and a dry, persistent cough

Less common symptoms include aches and pains, nasal congestion, a sore throat and diarrhoea.

For most people, these symptoms will be mild, and some people may not even be aware they have been infected. But some will become seriously ill and develop breathing difficulties. This is most likely in older people or people with underlying medical conditions.
                                        )

                                    [34] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 7
                                            [question] => How does COVID-19 spread?
                                            [answer] => People contract COVID-19 from other people who have been infected with the virus. The virus spreads through small droplets from the nose or mouth, which are spread when an infected person coughs, sneezes or exhales.
                                        )

                                    [35] => stdClass Object
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                                            [question] => What can I do to protect myself against COVID-19?
                                            [answer] => It’s best to keep up to date with the latest guidance on the World Health Organization website [https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1] or from your national health authority. Most guidelines emphasise the importance of regularly and thoroughly washing your hands, maintaining a distance of at least 1 metre from other people, avoiding touching your face, and avoiding unnecessary travel. Ensuring your insurance is comprehensive and up to date could help by providing access to treatment and income support if COVID-19 causes significant illness.
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                            [body] => COVID-19 & Insurance: What You Need to Know Home›Blog›COVID-19 & Insurance: What You Need to Know Inez Cooper Managing Director & Co-Founder 2 Dec 2021 It has been more than a year since the UK marked the first coronavirus lockdown announcement. To this day, the coronavirus situation is constantly changing around the globe, so many individuals and businesses impacted by COVID-19 are looking to insurance to help them through this difficult period. William Russell has paid out almost US $156,000 on 54 Covid related claims in 26 countries across all continents with the exception of Antarctica. Does health insurance cover COVID vaccine side effects? Is international life insurance void during a pandemic? Can you get life insurance after receiving a COVID vaccine? To answer these and other questions, we take a look at some of the most popular queries related to insurance policies in the UK and around the world. We are here to help by answering questions about the coronavirus pandemic and its impact on our insurance plans. This article will cover COVID-19 and COVID vaccine impact on: 1/ Life and income protection insurance 2/ Health insurance 3/ International travel insurance Coronavirus – other questions   Update 29/11/2021: The coronavirus situation is constantly changing, so please check back for updates to this information. What do you need to know about COVID-19 and insurance? When COVID put our lives on hold, there were many people concerned about what protection they had available for them and their families should the worst happen. The insurance industry itself has been quick to respond: according to Deloitte, private health services in some countries are being used to help with the coronavirus effort. As we continue to adapt to the situation, we’re still committed to giving people access to insurance and to paying all valid claims. If you’re wondering how your policy might be impacted by coronavirus, here are answers to the most commonly asked questions we received up to date. Will your life insurance policy be void if you take a COVID vaccine? The Association of British Insurers (ABI) is warning about false claims that suggest having the Covid-19 vaccine will void life insurance policies. There were a lot of rumours online in May 2021 speculating with a fake document purporting to be from the insurer Allianz in Australia, but it has since made its way to UK policyholders. It has turned out to be a scam. We have seen a surge of scams during the pandemic; sadly, this one relates to a sensitive matter of Covid-19 and vaccines. The scammers might want you to fear the change in your policy, so you would handle them your sensitive personal information. If you come across a scam, you should report it to Action Fraud in the UK. And no, most likely COVID vaccine will not invalidate your life insurance policy. Looking for international life insurance? Get an online quote in under 60 seconds Does the COVID-19 vaccine affect my life insurance policy in the UK and globally? Life insurance can provide a cash lump sum in the event of your death, or if you become diagnosed with a critical illness whether or not you’ve had the coronavirus vaccine. Getting the jab will not have any implications on your level of cover, and your policy usually won’t be affected, however, you need to check with your provider. Life insurance and the COVID-19 vaccine in the UK. We have experienced an increase in our life insurance policies for expats over the past 12 months in the UK. There are no limitations on your plans relating to COVID-19 vaccines. Can I get a life insurance cover after a COVID-19 vaccine? Yes. Our underwriters would need to review the medical information provided on your application and any relevant reports, but having a vaccine would not prevent them from offering terms for a Life insurance policy. Will you pay out on a life insurance policy if I die from coronavirus? Yes, as long as you have complied with the terms and conditions of your plan, such as your premiums being up to date, and the information underwriting your life insurance application being correct. Should I have life insurance during Covid? Life insurance is a contract between you and an insurance company. Basically, you pay your premium payments and in exchange, the insurance company will pay a lump sum known as a death benefit to your beneficiaries after your death. How much life insurance you should carry is an individual choice and depends on a few factors. If you have financial dependents, you should consider how their lifestyles may change without your income. If you are unsure, the main things most people want to cover are: mortgages, loans and debts, critical illnesses, family expenses, income replacement any funeral costs. Other questions about COVID-19 and life and income protection insurance. Does my life insurance cover a COVID-19 vaccine? . Our Silver and Gold Health plans will cover vaccinations, as long as they are administered in the country in which you are resident and are approved for use by the health authority of that country. However, our Life insurance policies don’t offer reimbursement for COVID-19 vaccines. How to get a COVID vaccine as an expat What about international life insurance and COVID vaccine in the UK and Australia? . We have experienced an increase in our life insurance policies for expats over the past 12 months in the UK and Australia. There are no limitations on your plans relating to COVID vaccines. Does my international life insurance cover COVID-19 and pandemics? . Yes, it does. If you have a life plan from William Russell, you’re covered if you die as a result of infection by COVID-19 as you would be for any other viral infection. Most Popular Life Insurance Questions in the World Revealed Can I get life insurance if I’ve had coronavirus? . Yes, as long as you are fully recovered with no ongoing symptoms. We may postpone your policy if you have been hospitalised or have symptoms. Frequently asked questions on life insurance Does income protection insurance cover COVID-19? . If you have an income protection plan from William Russell, you’re covered if you’re totally unable to work for longer than the deferment period, as a result of an illness or injury. This would include an infection by COVID-19, provided you don’t have applicable personal medical exclusions on your certificate of insurance. Will you pay out on a global income protection insurance plan if I am off work as a result of coronavirus/complications? . Yes, as long as you have complied with the terms and conditions of your plan. Can I buy a new policy if I have coronavirus? . If you are currently experiencing COVID-19 symptoms, then we will not offer terms until at least one month after you have recovered and are back to good health. If you have been admitted to hospital due to COVID-19 or you have an underlying health condition then we will need to ask further questions regarding your symptoms, treatment, and recovery. Depending on the answers to these questions, there may be a further delay before we can offer terms. Am I covered regardless of how/where COVID-19 was caught? . There are geographical restrictions on some plans, you should refer to your plan agreement. If you have questions or concerns about your William Russell policy – call our friendly team on +44 1276 486 477 and they will be happy to help you. COVID-19 isn’t the only thing impacting expats Find out how Brexit is affecting expats in the UK and EU Coronavirus and international health insurance. If you have a health insurance policy, you’re probably wondering what cover you have for COVID. Here are the most commonly asked questions we’ve received about our health plans: Does my health plan cover COVID-19? . If you have a health plan from William Russell, you’re covered for the treatment of COVID-19 as you would be for any other viral infection. This is provided that the plan you have selected covers the treatment and you don’t have personal medical exclusions on your certificate of insurance that would apply. For example, if you have a personal medical exclusion for ‘respiratory conditions’ or any other condition that might be affected by Coronavirus, you wouldn’t be covered for the diagnosis and treatment of your excluded condition. Does health insurance cover COVID vaccine side effects? . If you have a Silver or Gold plan with William Russell, you will be covered for vaccinations under your vaccinations for adults or well-child benefit. The vaccine must be administered in your country of residence and must be approved for use by the health authority of that country. You will not be covered for vaccines received outside of your country of residence. Does my health plan cover me while I am travelling? . There are no changes to the cover provided while you are travelling. However, your ability to access services may be impacted by local conditions. Before you travel you should check that the plan you have selected includes cover in the countries you are travelling to. You should also check for limitations on cover and trip duration in case you need to extend your stay due to travel restrictions. Can I buy a health insurance policy if I have coronavirus? . If you are currently experiencing COVID-19 symptoms, then we will not offer cover until at least a month after you have recovered and are back to good health. If you have been admitted to hospital due to COVID-19, or you have an underlying health condition then we will need to ask further questions regarding your symptoms, treatment and recovery. Depending on the answers to these questions, there may be a further delay before we can offer terms. Get a quick quote online Can I renew my health insurance policy if I have coronavirus? . Yes, your right to renew your cover will not be affected if you have coronavirus. Does health insurance cover COVID vaccine side effects? . If you have a Silver or Gold plan with William Russell, you will be covered for vaccinations under your vaccinations for adults or well-child benefit. The vaccine must be administered in your country of residence and must be approved for use by the health authority of that country. You will not be covered for vaccines received outside of your country of residence. Does my health insurance plan cover COVID-19 tests? . If you need a private test, you may have cover for the cost of the test. Most testing programmes are run by national governments or local health authorities. To encourage maximum participation, tests are usually free. If you have a SilverLite, Silver or Gold plan and you have symptoms of COVID-19, you’re covered for out-patient costs related to investigation, testing, and treatment of COVID-19, provided these are prescribed by a doctor. These costs are covered even if the test result is negative. The normal plan terms and conditions on excesses and co-insurances apply. If you have a Silver or Gold plan and you’re not experiencing COVID-19 symptoms, you’re covered for the costs of a test under your well-being benefit. The normal plan terms and conditions on excesses, waiting periods, and co-insurances apply. Sometimes a hospital may include a COVID-19 test as part of pre-operation screening. This is also covered under all health plans. Does my private health plan cover COVID-19 vaccination costs? . Most COVID-19 vaccination programmes are run by national governments or local health authorities. This encourages maximum participation and ensures that the most vulnerable or at risk are vaccinated first. As a result, most vaccines are free. If you have a Silver or Gold plan with William Russell, you will be covered for vaccinations under your vaccinations for adults or well-child benefit. The vaccine must be administered in your country of residence and must be approved for use by the health authority of that country. You will not be covered for vaccines received outside of your country of residence. Does my private health plan cover treatment for the side effects of a COVID-19 vaccination? . Most COVID-19 vaccination programmes are run by national governments or local health authorities. This encourages maximum participation and ensures that the most vulnerable or at risk are vaccinated first. As a result, most vaccines are free. If you have a Silver or Gold plan with William Russell, you will be covered for the reasonable and customary costs of vaccinations that you cannot access for free, under your vaccinations for adults or well-child benefit. The vaccine must be administered in your country of residence or country of nationality and must be approved for use by the health authority of that country. You will not be covered for vaccines received outside of your country of residence or nationality, or for any travel costs associated with the vaccine. Am I still eligible for the hospital cash benefit if I am admitted to a public or government hospital, with COVID-19? . Yes. The hospital cash benefit is designed to reward members with COVID-19 or another condition who receive inpatient medical treatment at a hospital within a country’s public healthcare system. Usually, treatment at these hospitals is free for patients, or at least heavily subsidised. As no costs are passed on to us, we pass on some of the savings to our members. We’ll pay a cash benefit for each night you stay in a hospital as an inpatient, where no charge is made by the hospital and where the treatment costs would have been covered by your plan. Can I still get an emergency medical evacuation if I cannot be treated locally? . Our ability to evacuate members is being affected by the pandemic. This is due to international travel restrictions and the limited number of hospitals accepting new patients. We will do our best to get you the care that you need within these limitations. Whether your case qualifies for evacuation, where you will be evacuated to, and how you will be evacuated are at the discretion of our Assistance Service. You can contact the service on +44 1243 621155. More about emergency medical evacuation Am I covered for consultations made over the phone or video link during the pandemic? . As long as the face-to-face consultation would have been covered under your plan, then we’ll cover the same consultation that is carried out by telephone or video link. This applies for both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 conditions. Many governments are encouraging people to stay at home to avoid spreading COVID-19 and overwhelming healthcare systems. In response to these guidelines, healthcare providers are giving consultations over telephone or via video link. . It’s best to get in touch with us if you have any questions relating to your plan and whether your consultation would be covered. Does my international health insurance policy cover admission to hospital for COVID-19 treatment? . If you’re admitted to hospital because you need medical treatment (including for COVID-19), you will be covered for as long as your admission and medical treatment are necessary and there are no personal medical exclusions applied to your policy. You’re not covered for admissions that are not medically necessary. You should contact us if you need to be admitted to hospital. Am I covered if I’m told I have to quarantine? . If you’re admitted to hospital with symptoms of COVID-19 that require medically necessary treatment in a hospital which can only be provided as a day-patient or inpatient, we can consider cover, subject to pre-authorisation. Admissions that are solely for quarantine purposes are not covered. Looking for health insurance plans? Coronavirus and international travel insurance. Whilst most international travel is restricted and carefully monitored in most countries globally right now, if you do need to travel here are some common questions you may be thinking of: If I have a travel plan, can I claim for cancellations of travel arrangements? . If you have a travel plan that begins or renews on or after 01/06/20, you won’t be covered for COVID-19. If your plan is still valid before this date, you can claim if you can’t travel for any of these reasons: injury or illness to you, a close relative, close business colleague, or travelling companion compulsory quarantine applying to you or your travelling companion a government regulation as a result of the pandemic that prevents you from travelling You can claim for the loss of irrecoverable deposits or payments for any unused travel and accommodation you have either paid for or have contracted to pay. Will there be COVID vaccine passports in place to travel? . There is a lot of conversation and debate around COVID vaccine passports at the moment in different countries. Just like a national passport, a vaccine passport could allow the bearer entrance to a venue, like a crowded concert, or a foreign country that demands proof of vaccination in addition to a visa and valid national passport. Learn more Which destinations are open to travelers vaccinated against COVID-19? . The situation is constantly changing. Doing your own research before a trip is important. As of 20/07/2021, the following destinations are now allowing vaccinated U.S. travellers to visit: Anguilla Bahamas Barbados Belize British Virgin Islands Croatia Cyprus Ecuador Estonia Republic of Georgia Grenada Guatemala Iceland Israel Montenegro Nepal Seychelles Tahiti In the UK, there is a ‘travel traffic light system’ in place. Read more about it here. Can I travel after being vaccinated against COVID-19? . COVID certification – including proof of a negative test – is already part of international travel in certain countries. The government in the UK now allows you to get an NHS COVID Pass. European Commission have started issuing a EU-wide Digital COVID Certificate (EUDCC). It allows anyone vaccinated against COVID-19, or who has tested negative, or recently recovered from the virus, to travel within the European Union. What are the Covid-19 travel restrictions and quarantine rules? . As the situation starts to return to normal and countries begin to open their borders to travel, you may be asking whether you’re allowed to travel to/from other countries and go home to visit your family finally. In the UK, from October the rules on foreign travel to and from England are being simplified. The traffic light system is being scrapped, and fully vaccinated people will need fewer tests after travelling to most countries. Learn more Getting a COVID vaccine as an expat Coronavirus – other questions. Here are some other commonly asked questions we get about COVID-19. Is my cover affected because COVID-19 is a pandemic? . With the exception of the travel plan, there are no general exclusions for pandemics in our plans. You will be covered for infection by COVID-19 as you would be for any other viral infection, provided you don’t have applicable personal medical exclusions on your certificate of insurance. What if I can’t afford my insurance payments due to coronavirus? . We understand that times are tough right now. If you’re struggling to keep up with payments for your insurance plan, it’s best to get in touch with us. We’re people too, and our team members can work with you to find a way forward. Are William Russell offices open during the pandemic? . Where possible, our staff around the world are working from home. This is in line with regulations and guidance issued by governments. This isn’t affecting the services we offer our members and our usual emails and telephone numbers are working as normal. Of course, all internal and external communications will (continue to) comply with ISO 27001 and our strict data protection policies. Is William Russell still issuing new plans? . Yes. If you’re not sure what you need, read our glossary of terms. Who should I call if I have questions? . If you have questions about how we can help, please call or email our claims team on +44 1276 486 460 or [email protected] What is coronavirus? . Coronavirus belongs to a family of viruses known to cause illness in animals and humans. In humans, coronaviruses generally cause respiratory illnesses. Previous epidemics such as MERS or SARS were caused by coronaviruses. The coronavirus that’s the subject of the present pandemic causes a respiratory illness called COVID-19. What are the symptoms of COVID-19? . The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are: fever tiredness a loss of taste or smell and a dry, persistent cough Less common symptoms include aches and pains, nasal congestion, a sore throat and diarrhoea. For most people, these symptoms will be mild, and some people may not even be aware they have been infected. But some will become seriously ill and develop breathing difficulties. This is most likely in older people or people with underlying medical conditions. How does COVID-19 spread? . People contract COVID-19 from other people who have been infected with the virus. The virus spreads through small droplets from the nose or mouth, which are spread when an infected person coughs, sneezes or exhales. What can I do to protect myself against COVID-19? . It’s best to keep up to date with the latest guidance on the World Health Organization website or from your national health authority. Most guidelines emphasise the importance of regularly and thoroughly washing your hands, maintaining a distance of at least 1 metre from other people, avoiding touching your face, and avoiding unnecessary travel. Ensuring your insurance is comprehensive and up to date could help by providing access to treatment and income support if COVID-19 causes significant illness. Peace of mind when you go overseas. No matter where you go, you can take one thing off your mind. William Russell offers international health insurance that covers you for everything from minor injuries to long hospital stays. We can even offer medical evacuation to patients who require treatment in other countries. If you have questions about how we can help, please call or email our claims team on +44 1276 486 460 or [email protected] Related articles. Health News The Most and Least Stressed Cities in the World . If you’re thinking about making the leap and moving overseas, here are the places paying you to move there. Expat life 5 Safest Countries in the World for Expats in 2022 . How safe are different countries for expats? Find the safest countries in each region. COVID-19 Expat life Which Countries Have the Best Healthcare in the World? . We compare the healthcare systems in some of the world’s leading countries for medical care. Brexit Expat life Best Countries in the World for Brits after Brexit – Moving Abroad from UK . 2022 is a great year to move overseas for British citizens after Brexit. Here are the best countries to live in right now. We use cookies to improve your experience on our website. If you continue your visit, we'll assume you're happy to receive our cookies. ContinueRead more Privacy & Cookies Policy Close Privacy Overview. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Necessary Necessary Always Enabled Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information. Non-necessary Non-necessary Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. SAVE & ACCEPT
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                            [title] => Responding to the COVID-19 and pandemic protection gap in insurance
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                            [description] => The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken to limit the spread of the disease have significantly disrupted economic activity in countries around the world, resulting in significant business interruption losses. The vast majority of these losses are likely to be absorbed by policyholders as, unless governments (or courts) intervene, few companies have business interruption coverage that is likely to respond to these types of losses – exposing the existence of an important protection gap for some pandemic-related business interruption losses. This note provides an overview of how business interruption insurance against pandemic risk could be provided with support from governments, and some of the challenges and considerations necessary for establishing such a programme
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                                    [1] => COVID-19 business interruption protection gap
                                    [2] => Responses to the COVID-19 business interruption protection gap
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                                    [4] => Broad coverage, potentially through automatic coverage extensions
                                    [5] => Limit public exposure by leveraging available private sector capacity
                                    [6] => Provide incentives (or requirements) for risk reduction
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                                    [4] => Correlated exposures across countries and markets
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                                    [7] => Europe
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                                    [13] => Overview of catastrophe risk insurance programmes
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                            [body] => Responding to the COVID-19 and pandemic protection gap in insuranceUpdated 16 March 2021Open PDF  ╳DisclaimerResponding to the COVID-19 and pandemic protection gap in insuranceCOVID-19 business interruption protection gapBox 1. Estimates of business revenue lossesFigure 1. Estimates of monthly impact of confinement measures on business revenues (USD billion)Box 2. Insurance coverage developed for pandemic (and non-damage) business interruptionResponses to the COVID-19 business interruption protection gapBox 3. Voluntary payments and coverage extensions for business interruption lossesBox 4. Test cases and legal interpretations on coverage applicabilityLonger-term policy responses to the pandemic business interruption protection gapCharacteristics of pandemic riskKey uninsured (or underinsured) exposure is business interruptionThe cost of coverage may be substantialFigure 2. Pandemic-related business interruption: potential annual premium requirementChallenges in ensuring broad coverageCorrelated exposures across countries and marketsThere may be limited private sector appetite for pandemic riskFew risk reduction options for policyholdersBox 5. Potential design features of a pandemic risk insurance programme Pandemic risk insurance programme proposalsEurope FranceGermanyItalyUnited KingdomUnited StatesBox.6. The scope for international cooperationTable 1. Overview of selected pandemic risk insurance programme proposalsAnnex A. Catastrophe risk insurance programmesOverview of catastrophe risk insurance programmesPerils coveredType of coverage providedTableA.1. Catastrophe risk insurance programmes Achieving broad coverage for targeted peril(s)Figure A A.1. Insured share of losses for perils covered by catastrophe risk insurance programmesImproving the affordability of coverageRisk diversificationReduced cost of reinsurance Lower capital required Limiting public sector exposureCoverage limitsRisk selectionFlexibility to leverage market capacityReturning risk to the marketBox A A.1. Increasing the sharing of terrorism risk with private markets: Australia, United Kingdom and United StatesFigure A A.2. Estimated impact of terrorism (re)insurance programme changes on loss distributionCeiling on government exposureProviding incentives for risk reduction (directly or indirectly)Use of modelling for risk management Pricing that reflects risk reductionRisk reduction pre-requisitesReferencesContactNotesShareAbstract. The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken to limit the spread of the disease have significantly disrupted economic activity in countries around the world, resulting in significant business interruption losses. The vast majority of these losses are likely to be absorbed by policyholders as, unless governments (or courts) intervene, few companies have business interruption coverage that is likely to respond to these types of losses – exposing the existence of an important protection gap for some pandemic-related business interruption losses. This note provides an overview of how business interruption insurance against pandemic risk could be provided with support from governments, and some of the challenges and considerations necessary for establishing such a programme. The closure of manufacturing plants, restaurants, retail establishments and other places of business to limit the spread of COVID-19 has resulted in significant business interruption losses. The vast majority of these losses are likely to be absorbed by the affected businesses as: (i) many businesses have not acquired coverage for business interruption losses; and (ii) unless governments (or courts) intervene, few of the companies that have acquired business interruption coverage have coverage that is likely to respond to these types of losses (see the OECD’s Initial assessment of insurance coverage and gaps for tackling COVID-19 impacts for a more detailed assessment of the insurance coverage available for COVID-19 related losses). In response to the current crisis, policymakers in a number of jurisdictions are examining various ways to support commercial policyholders (particularly small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)) in the context of the uninsured business interruption losses that they have faced as a result of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Policymakers are also beginning to examine longer-term solutions to address the gap in financial protection for pandemic-related business interruption that has come to light as a result of the current crisis. This note provides an overview of the initial responses to the likely business interruption protection gap for COVID-19 and a discussion of how business interruption insurance against pandemic risk could be provided with support from governments based on the experience of other catastrophe risk insurance programmes.COVID-19 business interruption protection gap. Businesses across many sectors of the economy have faced a significant decline in revenue as a result of government directives to close their businesses or curtail their activities in order to slow the spread of the virus among employees and customers. The OECD estimates that one-month of strict confinement measures leads to approximately USD 1.7 trillion in revenue losses (see Box 1). Most governments have implemented programmes to support businesses that have faced significant disruption as a result of COVID-19, focused on ensuring the availability of financing for businesses or income for their employees. Some commercial property insurance policies also include coverage for business interruption losses which provides policyholders with protection against some of the losses that they incur when their business is forced to close, subject to the terms and conditions of the individual policy. Box 1. Estimates of business revenue lossesThe initial set of confinement measures that occurred in March-June 2020 across most OECD countries had different impacts on different businesses sectors. Some types of business activities were able to be maintained at (or near) normal levels, while others had to shut down.1 In Canada, the national statistics office (Statistics Canada) undertook a survey of businesses to determine the change in businesses revenues in April 2020 (during the period of confinement) relative to April 2019 (Statistics Canada, 2020[1]). While the survey only provided ranges for revenue changes, there was sufficient granularity to allow for a rough calculation of the average decline in revenues across sectors (ranging from an 11.7% decline in the agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting sector to a 41.0% decline in the accommodation and food services sector). Figure 1 applies these sector-level average declines in revenue across other OECD countries to provide estimates of the losses that would be incurred in different countries, adjusting for the different composition of business activities in different countries (and assuming that the different confinement measures resulted in similar impacts on revenues).2 For the 27 OECD countries for which the necessary data was available (in addition to Canada, calculated based on (Statistics Canada, 2020[2])), a month of confinement measures could result in total business revenue losses of USD 1.7 trillion. The 28 countries included account for approximately 93% of OECD country GDP. Additional periods of confinement and business closures (as are occurring already in many countries) would of course increase the overall level of losses. Figure 1. Estimates of monthly impact of confinement measures on business revenues (USD billion)Source: Data on output by business sector is taken from (OECD, 2020[3]). The latest available data for many countries was 2017 and so the figures were adjusted upwards to account for GDP growth in 2018 (from (OECD, 2020[4]) and inflated to 2019 USD.1. For example, one survey of US small businesses found that those businesses involved in service-type industries (such as retail or food services) and physical-type industries (such as construction or manufacturing) were much more likely to face severe decreases or even total losses of revenue than businesses operating in knowledge-type industries (SHRM, 2020[5]).2. Confinement measures were of course different across countries and also had different impacts on business revenues. In the United States, one estimate suggests that the overall decline in business revenues among small businesses reached 38.2% as of 30 April 2020 (relative to January 2020) (Chetty et al., 2020[6]) which is higher than the overall estimate for Canadian businesses (25.5%). In Australia, data on the share of businesses that faced decreases in revenue have been published (although not estimates of the amount of decline). In May 2020, it was estimated that 72% of businesses faced a reduction in revenues (Australian Bureau of Statistics, n.d.[7]) which is comparable to the figure for the Canadian sample for April (70.2%).Insurers and their associations around the world have indicated that most policyholders have not acquired insurance coverage that will respond to the business interruption losses that result from COVID-19 business closures. In most countries, business interruption coverage is provided as an optional coverage attached to commercial property insurance that is often (but not always)1 triggered only as a result of damage to physical property. In addition, in a few countries and policies (notably, in the United States), an exclusion was developed (more than 15 years ago) and has been applied with the aim of specifically excluding coverage for losses due to virus (or bacteria) (or specifically losses in the context of a pandemic).2 Some explicit coverage for business interruption losses resulting from a pandemic has been made available as endorsements or specialty coverage although take-up of this explicit coverage has been limited (see Box 2). Box 2. Insurance coverage developed for pandemic (and non-damage) business interruptionSome insurance products have been developed to offer explicit coverage for business interruption losses suffered as a result of an infectious disease outbreak, either as a specialty stand-alone policy or as an endorsement to a policyholder’s existing business interruption coverage. In 2018, for example, a specific coverage for financial losses due to outbreaks, epidemics or pandemics was made available (Marsh, 2020[8]) although there has reportedly been almost no take-up (Collins, 2020[9]). The Insurance Services Office in the United States developed two optional endorsements for commercial property policies applicable to business interruption losses as a result of business closures related to COVID-19 in February 2020 although it is too early to determine whether insurers will seek to offer that coverage (Barlow, 2020[10]). There are also a few commercial insurance policies that specifically include pandemics as a covered peril in some markets (such as a property and liability policy tailored to dentist practices in Canada) (O’Hara, 2020[11]). In addition, some coverage has been developed for non-damage business interruption which is meant to respond to any interruption to business that does not involve physical damage to the insured premises or a building in proximity to the insured premises (which would include pandemics unless specifically excluded under the terms of the coverage). However, non-damage business interruption remains a specialty coverage with limited penetration.Responses to the COVID-19 business interruption protection gap. A number of insurance supervisors have assessed the potential for business interruption coverage to respond to losses incurred as a result of COVID-19 related business closures. In the US state of Washington, for example, the Office of the Insurance Commissioner undertook a review of policy wordings offered by 84 insurance companies and found that only two insurance companies offered coverage for a pandemic in their base policies while 15 others offered limited coverage through endorsements to other policies (Washington state Office of the Insurance Commissioner, 2020[12]). In France, the Autorité de contrôle prudentiel et de résolution (ACPR) requested information from approximately 20 insurers (accounting for a significant portion of business interruption coverage in the French market) and found that only 2.6% of these companies’ policyholders had explicit business interruption for a COVID-19-type event while a further 4.1% had coverage that could potentially respond (i.e. their policy wordings did not provide certainty on coverage) (ACPR, 2020[13]).3 It appears that many policyholder claims for COVID-19-related business interruption losses are being rejected by insurance companies. For example, in the United Kingdom, a survey of hospitality-related businesses found that less than 1% of hospitality businesses, 3% of innkeepers and 4% of beer and pub businesses had received a positive response from their insurer regarding business interruption coverage for COVID-19 related closures (Gould, 2020[14]). In the United States (as of November 2020), less than 2% of closed claims for business interruption losses submitted to insurers were paid4 (NAIC, 2020[15]). Some insurance companies have responded by offering additional coverage or making voluntary payments to support businesses affected by disruptions as a result of COVID-19 (see Box 3).Box 3. Voluntary payments and coverage extensions for business interruption lossesIn a few jurisdictions, insurance companies are offering additional coverage or making voluntary payments to support businesses affected by disruptions as a result of COVID-19. In Switzerland, a number of companies have agreed to voluntarily compensate their policyholders in the restaurant sector for some business interruption losses. In the German state of Bavaria, insurance companies have agreed to provide voluntary compensation for 10%-15% of the normal daily cost of business interruption to policyholders in the hospitality sector (Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Wirtschaft, 2020[16]). At least one German insurer will reportedly provide similar compensation to all of its German policyholders (Huebner, 2020[17]). In France, insurance companies announced that they will collectively contribute EUR 400 million to a solidarity fund for affected businesses (FFA, 2020[18]) and some insurers are reportedly providing small firms with ex-gratia payments (Huebner, 2020[17]). In the United States, a legislative proposal has been introduced that would allow insurers to voluntarily make payments (reimbursed by government) for business interruption losses under policies that provide coverage for losses related to civil authority closures and apply a virus exclusion (Office of Congressman Mike Thompson, 2020[19]).According to the Italian insurance association (Associazione Nazionale fra le Imprese Assicuratrici (ANIA)), insurance coverage for business interruption is not common on the Italian market, particularly among SMEs – and where acquired, it may only be triggered as a result of physical damage to the insured premises. As a result, Italian SMEs subjected to closure orders (e.g. retail shops, bars and restaurants and various types of service providers) were unlikely to receive any insurance payments for the losses incurred as a result of the closures. A group of insurance companies responded by designing a coverage extension to provide affected SMEs with a daily allowance valid for up to 15 days of ordered business closure. In addition, insurance companies in many jurisdictions are providing various forms of support to policyholders, including businesses, such as premium grace periods and refunds and flexibility in terms of coverage interpretation (see the OECD report on Insurance Sector Responses to COVID-19 for an overview of these initiatives).Legislators in some jurisdictions have raised concerns about the lack of coverage for COVID-19-related business interruption losses. For example, the Chair of the UK House of Commons Treasury Select Committee wrote to the Association of British Insurers requesting information on the approach that insurers will take to business interruption claims and the amount of losses that insurers expect to pay (Stride, 2020[20]). In France, a senator representing the district of Ille-et-Vilaine submitted a written question to the Minister of Economy and Finance on 9 April regarding the need to extend retroactive coverage for business interruption losses through the French natural catastrophe insurance programme (Robert, 2020[21]). In a few jurisdictions, governments are also considering ways to ensure that insurance coverage responds to the business interruption losses that have been (and are being incurred) by businesses. In the United States, for example, legislation has been proposed in a number of jurisdictions (including District of Columbia, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Rhode Island and South Carolina (Turner, 2020[22])) that, if adopted, might require insurers to pay certain business interruption claims submitted by businesses that had business interruption insurance at the time COVID-19 measures were implemented – even where insurance policies have exclusions or other policy terms and conditions that ordinarily would preclude coverage for such losses. In the US state of California, a recent legislative proposal reportedly includes a rebuttable presumption that would, for the purposes of claims interpretation, require an assumption that during the state of emergency, COVID-19 was present, caused physical damage and was the direct cause of business interruption to businesses in the state (Insurance Journal, 2020[23]). At the time of writing, many of the state legislative proposals were at an early stage of development and some of the early proposals (including legislative proposals in the District of Columbia and Louisiana) have reportedly been abandoned (Foggan, Sabino and Sutta, 2020[24])). Insurance regulators and supervisors (along with insurance companies) have raised concerns over the implications of retroactively expanding coverage obligations. The International Association of Insurance Supervisors issued a statement in May 2020 that cautioned against “initiatives seeking to require insurers to retroactively cover Covid-19 related losses, such as business interruption, that are specifically excluded in existing insurance contracts”. The IAIS also noted that these “initiatives could ultimately threaten policyholder protection and financial stability, further aggravating the financial and economic impacts of Covid-19” (IAIS, 2020[25]). In the United States, the NAIC issued a statement raising concerns with proposals to require retroactive coverage of business interruption claims and highlighted the significant solvency risks to the sector as well as the macroprudential risks associated with such proposals (NAIC, 2020[26]). The US Department of the Treasury has also noted concerns about potential interference with the contractual arrangements made between insurers and their policyholders and the possibility that such proposals could introduce stability risks (Vaughan, 2020[27]). In France, the ACPR has reminded insurers that they should not make payments for losses that are not included within the scope of coverage that they provided (ACPR, 2020[28]). Proposals which may require insurers to pay claims for losses that they did not intend to cover and for which they have not collected premiums or set aside provisions/reserves could have serious implications. The scale of losses that policyholders are incurring as a result of business disruption are multiples of the amount that insurers will normally payout for business interruption claims and may far exceed the amount of surplus capital (see below). If surplus capital were exhausted as a result of mandated payouts for COVID-19 business interruption, the ability of insurers to respond to losses from future events would be uncertain. The certainty of contractually-agreed insurance coverage would also likely come into question if legislators could intervene to alter outcomes – and there could be cross-border implications if some of the losses covered retroactively in one jurisdiction are reinsured in another.The absence of (or uncertainty regarding) coverage has led (and will continue to lead) to a large number of disputes between insurers and their policyholders which is likely to take months (if not years) to resolve. For example, in the United States, over 1 500 COVID-19-related insurance coverage lawsuits have reportedly been filed (as of February 2020) (Baker, 2021[29]) with early outcomes suggesting different judicial interpretations of key issues and limited potential for any consolidation of proceedings (Covington, 2020[30]) (although with a large number of those cases subjected to a motion to dismiss by the insurer dismissed, particularly in Federal courts (Baker, 2021[29])). Some legislators, insurance regulators (particularly market conduct and consumer protection authorities) and insurance associations are taking steps to support a more efficient resolution of these disputes, including through the submission of test cases meant to provide clarity on the interpretation of commonly-used policy wordings (see Box 4). Box 4. Test cases and legal interpretations on coverage applicabilityInsurance regulators and supervisors, and insurance associations in a number of jurisdictions are submitting or sponsoring cases for legal interpretation to address some of the uncertainties related to business interruption coverage that have arisen based on the policy wordings commonly used by insurance companies in their jurisdictions: In the United Kingdom, the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) took the unprecedented step of seeking clarity from the courts on some specific areas of potential coverage disputes related to non-damage business interruption coverage1 with the aim of expediting a resolution and reducing the need for lengthy litigation between insurers and their policyholders (FCA, 2020[31]). A High Court judgement was made in September 2020 with certain elements of that judgement appealed to the Supreme Court which rendered judgement in January 2021. The courts found that many of 21 policy wordings examined included coverage applicable to business interruption losses through the interpretation of disease clauses (which provide coverage in the event that an outbreak of notifiable disease occurs in proximity to the insured) and coverage for prevention of access and that trends clauses2 cannot (generally) be applied to reduce the amount of claims paid to policyholders (Lewis et al., 2021[33]). The FCA issued a Dear CEO letter after the Supreme Court judgement outlining its expectation that insurers make payment on claims as quickly as possible under impacted policies (FCA, 2021[34]). In Switzerland, the Ombudsman of Private Insurance commissioned a third party legal opinion seeking clarity on the applicability of various pandemic exclusions that are applied as part of the general conditions of some Swiss property and business property insurance policies (Dörig and Bösch, 2020[35]). In South Africa, the Financial Sector Conduct Authority (FSCA) identified the types of business interruption policies that could potentially include coverage and the evidence required to demonstrate coverage which is meant to reduce variation in interpretation by insurance companies using similar wordings (FSCA, 2020[36]). A number of non-life insurers agreed (as part of a discussion with prudential and market conduct regulators) to provide interim payments to some or all policyholders with a potentially relevant coverage for infectious diseases while legal certainty was sought on the applicability of coverage (FSCA, 2020[37]). According to the Financial Sector Conduct Authority (based on discussions with non-life insurers), recent judicial rulings have provided legal certainty on the applicability of contingent business interruption coverage to losses resulting from closure orders related to COVID-19 (FSCA, 2021[38]) and South African insurers have begun making payments to eligible policyholders (Rumney, 2020[39]), (Mukherjee, 2021[40]). The FSCA has responded to the decision on the applicability of contingent business interruption by providing further guidance on the payment of claims under applicable policies (FSCA, 2021[38]). In Ireland, the Central Bank of Ireland has established a COVID-19 and Business Interruption Insurance Supervisory Framework that outlines its expectations of insurers in terms of responding to business interruptions claims, including guidance on the interpretation of some issues, the allocation of litigation costs, particularly for cases deemed to be possible “test cases” and a requirement for insurers to extend the benefits of dispute resolutions to other relevant policyholders (Carrigy and Grogan, 2020[42]), (Moore, 2020[43]). This expectation was recently reiterated by the Central Bank of Ireland Governor following a High Court (“test case”) decision that found that business interruption coverage applied to losses faced by four pub owners as a result of business closure orders (Makhlouf, 2021[44]). In Australia, the Insurance Council of Australia (non-life insurance industry association) has launched two test case to seek clarity on the applicability of business interruption coverage. The first test case was launched in the state of New South Wales based on two small business claims made to the Australian Financial Complaints Authority (AFCA). The policies in question reportedly use exclusionary language for listed human diseases that is common to many insurance policies in Australia (Williams and Cabban, 2020[46]). In November 2020, the New South Wales Court of Appeal ruled that policies that applied exclusions that referenced the repealed Quarantine Act of 19083 were not enforceable and that coverage was therefore applicable (Collins, 2020[47]). Some insurance companies have increased their claims provisions and are considering raising additional capital as a result of the decision (Dowding, 2020[48]) although the Insurance Council of Australia has made an application to appeal the decision (ICA, 2021[49]). The second test case is meant to seek clarity on various policy wording issues included in nine separate small business claims disputes lodged with the AFCA, including the definition of a disease, proximity of an outbreak to a business, and prevention of access to premises due to a government mandate (ICA, 2021[49]), (ICA, 2021[50]).← 1. The FCA sought an urgent declaratory judgement from the courts on the applicability of non-damage business interruption coverage (including coverage for pandemics, denial of access and civil authority closures that do not require physical damage to be triggered) provided in a set of 17 commercial property policies to COVID-19-related losses. The test case did not address the uncertainty related to whether virus contamination could be considered physical damage, which is another significant area of potential disputes (FCA, 2020[51]) (Jones and Cohn, 2020[52]), (Le Marquer, 2020[53]).← 2. In some business interruption coverage, a trends clause may be applied to adjust the calculation of lost revenues to account for factors unrelated to the triggering peril that would have had an impact on the amount of revenues earned had the covered event not occurred. ← 3. A policy exclusion that referenced the Biosecurity Act of 2015, which replaced the Quarantine Act of 1908 and included COVID-19 as a listed disease, was found to be applicable in a separate decision by the Full Federal Court that denied coverage for business interruption losses resulting from lockdown measures (Saville and Burgess, 2020[54]).Longer-term policy responses to the pandemic business interruption protection gap. Policymakers and other stakeholders are beginning to examine longer-term solutions to the business interruption protection gap as many private insurance market participants have expressed concerns about offering comprehensive coverage without some form of loss-sharing programme. A number of insurance and risk management associations have publicly indicated their support for developing a programme to cover pandemic-related business interruption losses, including risk management, broker and insurance associations from across Europe and the United States (Ladbury, 2020[55]), (Collins and Norris, 2020[56]), (Ladbury, 2020[57]). In the United States, a legislative proposal to establish a federal pandemic risk reinsurance programme (“Pandemic Risk Insurance Act of 2020”) has been introduced to Congress. Working groups, in some cases involving both the public and private sectors, have been established in France, Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom (amongst other jurisdictions), as well as by the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) to examine possible solutions for providing insurance for future pandemics (Direction générale du Trésor, 2020[58]), (Insurance Journal, 2020[59]), (EIOPA, 2020[60]). There is significant international experience in establishing catastrophe risk insurance programmes to respond to other catastrophe perils which may provide some lessons for responding to future pandemics (although pandemics may present different risks and challenges, as outlined in the section below). Annex A provides an overview of catastrophe risk programmes and good practices for supporting broad coverage, lowering the aggregate cost of coverage, minimising public financial exposure and encouraging risk reduction through programme design.Characteristics of pandemic risk. A pandemic presents different risks and challenges from many of the other types of perils that have been targeted by catastrophe risk insurance programmes.Key uninsured (or underinsured) exposure is business interruption5. Catastrophe risk insurance programmes are often targeted at property damage, whether to residential or commercial buildings. In mature insurance markets, coverage for property damage is acquired by almost all commercial entities. As a result, coverage for property damage of the peril targeted by the catastrophe risk insurance programme can be attached to the coverage that already exists in the market and achieve broad penetration (although some programmes have established their own coverage terms and conditions). However, the share of businesses that have acquired business interruption coverage is much lower. In the United States, for example, approximately 30% of businesses have acquired coverage for business interruption. In France, the Fédération française de l’assurance estimates that approximately 50% of SMEs have business interruption coverage (relative to 100% that have coverage for property damage) (FFA, 2020[61]). As a result, it would likely be more difficult to achieve broad penetration by attaching pandemic coverage to business interruption policies. In addition, one of the main (disputed) limitations to coverage of business interruption losses resulting from COVID-19 (or other infectious diseases) in many jurisdictions is that coverage may only be triggered as a result of physical damage and contamination may not be considered property damage.6 The challenge will be to add coverage through a pandemic risk insurance programme without altering existing commercial practices related to the coverage of non-damage business interruption. The cost of coverage may be substantial. While it is difficult to assess the frequency of pandemics, the potential severity of losses is immense. The magnitude of business interruption losses that are likely to be incurred as a result of COVID-19 (whether by policyholders or their insurers) is much higher than the losses incurred as a result of any recent single catastrophe event. As noted in Box 1, businesses across OECD countries faced an estimated USD 1.7 trillion in revenue losses for one-month of strict confinement measures. By comparison, the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 (the largest economic loss from a single event since at least 1970) resulted in USD 234 billion in losses (in 2018 USD). Potential losses of this magnitude would far exceed the amount of premiums collected for business interruption coverage. For example, the approximately 20 French insurers surveyed by ACPR reportedly collected a total of EUR 354 million in premiums for business interruption coverage in 2019 (ACPR, 2020[13]). Figure 2 provides broad estimates of the potential amount of premiums that would need to be collected (as a share of gross direct property insurance premium) in order to provide some coverage7 for one month of business interruption losses (for a return period of 100 years and 35 years8). Figure 2. Pandemic-related business interruption: potential annual premium requirementNote: Revenue decline estimates were derived as outlined in Figure 1 above. The premium requirements were calculated for a coverage of 50% of one-month of revenue losses and incorporate a loss ratio of approximately 65%.Source: OECD calculations as outlined in Figure 1. Property premium data is from (OECD, 2020[63]).The cost of capital requirements – which are usually higher for low frequency events, would not benefit from any significant deductions as a result of diversification9 and would need to account for the high-level of uncertainty regarding frequency and severity – would add a substantial amount to the premium requirement. These estimates suggest that providing comprehensive coverage for all business interruption losses for a pandemic of similar magnitude as COVID-19 would entail absorbing losses at much greater levels than any catastrophe event in the past and would require a significant increase in the amount of premiums collected to fund those losses in most countries (although in some countries, the increase in required premiums could be less than 10% of current premium levels).Challenges in ensuring broad coverage. The design of a catastrophe risk insurance programme would need to consider the best way to achieve broad coverage. Where optional coverage for pandemic risk has been available, it has not been frequently acquired.The experience of COVID-19 will certainly lead to an increase in interest for such coverage although it’s not assured that this will lead to a long-term change in voluntary take-up particularly if the cost of coverage is substantial. Experience from other catastrophe risk insurance programmes suggests that merely making coverage available may not be sufficient for achieving broad coverage. Correlated exposures across countries and markets. Given the potential for a pandemic to affect all parts of the world (near) simultaneously, the financial benefits of diversifying exposure geographically will be limited (at least in the context of a global pandemic).10 The ability of reinsurance markets (including alternative risk transfer through capital markets) to provide coverage for risks at a lower cost than primary insurers operating in a single market depends on their ability to pool uncorrelated risks from around the world. The nature of pandemic risk challenges the ability of the private market to diversify the risk and would likely lead to a higher cost for reinsurance or retrocession (including through alternative risk transfer markets) than in the case of other perils whose occurrence would not be correlated across countries or with financial markets. In the case of alternative risk transfer markets, one of the attractive features for investors has been a lack of correlation between the performance of these instruments and financial market performance.11 However, the current crisis has demonstrated that a large-scale pandemic is also likely to have a negative impact on financial markets.There may be limited private sector appetite for pandemic risk. Given the recent experience with COVID-19, it is likely that insurers will be reluctant to provide broad coverage for business interruption in the near future (or at least not at a cost broadly accessible to commercial policyholders). Some reports suggest that insurers are reducing or eliminating any potential coverage for pandemic risk in property damage and business interruption policies (Marsh, 2020[8]) and are considering applying various exclusions in other lines of business where some exposure is likely (e.g. directors and officers liability insurance (Collins, 2020[68])). The potential that confinement measures would be imposed broadly as part of any effective response to an infectious disease outbreak is likely to limit the appetite of private insurance markets to offer significant capacity even in terms of first-loss coverage as such measures would lead to many policyholders being affected simultaneously. In the United States, for example, the insurance associations that have put forward the Business Continuity Protection Program proposal (see below) do not include a risk-taking role for insurers (although (re)insurers in France have indicated that they would be willing to provide EUR 2 billion in (first-loss) coverage capacity with access to reinsurance through CCR (public reinsurer) (FFA, 2020[61])). There is also a high-level of uncertainty related to the frequency and severity of infectious disease outbreaks. While catastrophe models for pandemic risk have existed for a number years, these models are focused on morbidity and mortality, not the business interruption losses that would be addressed by a pandemic risk business interruption insurance programme.Few risk reduction options for policyholders. There would be challenges in terms of designing a programme that encourages risk reduction by policyholders. There may be more limited actions that policyholders can take to reduce their risk than in the case of other types of perils. Box 5. Potential design features of a pandemic risk insurance programme Given the nature of pandemic risk, governments wishing to establish a pandemic risk insurance programme should consider how the following practices could support the design of a programme that achieves broad coverage, limits public sector exposure and encourages risk reduction.Broad coverage, potentially through automatic coverage extensions . Governments may wish to consider approaches that involve an automatic extension of coverage for pandemic risk business interruption in order to ensure broad coverage. An automatic extension to include coverage for pandemic risk business interruption as part of commercial property insurance policies or an approach that involves the voiding of relevant exclusions (on an ex ante, not ex post or retroactive basis) under specific circumstances (e.g. a pandemic that has been formally declared as such by a government authority) would likely be more effective in ensuring broad coverage than simply making coverage available. As outlined in Annex A, programmes that make coverage available on an optional basis have generally had more limited success in reducing the protection gap for targeted perils. Voiding applicable exclusions might help address the challenges of integrating coverage for pandemic-related business interruption into the existing scope of commercial property policies. Limit public exposure by leveraging available private sector capacity . The design of a pandemic risk business interruption insurance programme should involve a careful assessment of the appetite of private (re)insurance markets to provide coverage for different infectious disease outbreak scenarios as well as the cost effectiveness of different approaches to publicly-provided coverage. The limited ability to diversify risk in reinsurance and retrocession markets would likely lead to higher costs for reinsurance coverage which may suggest that government-backing should target higher layers of losses, allowing private insurance (and reinsurance) markets to develop for losses below a threshold for government involvement (as outlined below, many of the proposals put forward to provide coverage for pandemic-related business interruption losses in the longer-term recommend a role for government as reinsurer). Catastrophe risk insurance programmes that provide coverage as direct insurance or for lower loss layers (usually) depend on private reinsurance, retrocession and capital markets for leveraging private market capacity although these markets may not have significant capacity for a peril that is difficult to diversify geographically, may be highly correlated with financial markets and could result in very large losses. However, as it may take some time before private (re)insurance markets will be willing to make available significant capacity, thresholds for government involvement may need to be set at fairly low levels initially. It is unlikely that private (re)insurance markets would ever have the capacity to manage the losses resulting from a pandemic on the scale of COVID-19. However, any risk-absorption by private markets would nonetheless reduce public sector exposure.Some have suggested that any programme established to address pandemic-related business interruption should also provide a solution to other uninsured (or underinsured) non-damage business interruption perils (such as cyber perils or major power disruption) (recommended by the Federation of European Risk Management Associations (FERMA) (FERMA, 2020[69]). Offering coverage for a broader set of perils could offer benefits in terms of the diversification of programme exposure. Provide incentives (or requirements) for risk reduction. One of the challenges that has exacerbated business interruption losses (in some sectors) has been difficulties in transitioning to a work from home approach. Insurers could be required to ensure that policyholders have business continuity plans or other risk mitigation measures in place (or could offer premium discounts) that support the continuity of operations (where possible) and reduce the amount of business interruption losses incurred in the event of widespread business closures. A pandemic risk insurance programme could also integrate requirements for covered businesses to implement measures to limit the spread of the virus (such as a strengthened capacity for remote working) and protect the health and safety of employees and customers. The Business Continuity Protection Program proposal put forward by US insurance association, for example, includes a recommendation that adherence to federal health guidance be a condition for access to compensation (NAMIC, APCIA and Big I, 2020[70]). The insurance sector could also become an advocate for strengthening government preparedness through a pandemic risk insurance programme.1 Consider whether insurance is the most efficient mechanism. Governments are providing various types of financial support to address the financial implications of COVID-19 on individuals and businesses, including a number of programmes that compensate for costs that would normally be covered under business interruption insurance. Ultimately, governments will need to consider whether it is more cost-effective to provide financial support for a catastrophe risk insurance programme for these losses or simply provide this support directly to businesses from the general government budget. Governments could also consider whether it would be more cost-effective to access private insurance markets as a means to protect public finances rather than through a cost-share catastrophe risk insurance programme. An insurance programme would be most beneficial if it increases private market appetite for assuming pandemic-related risks, supports risk understanding and risk reduction and provides certainty to business regarding their coverage for future pandemic-related business interruption losses. ← 1. In the United Kingdom, for example, insurance companies have historically agreed to provide broad coverage for flood damage based on a commitment by government to make sufficient investment in flood risk mitigation.Pandemic risk insurance programme proposals. In many jurisdictions, policymakers, legislators and insurance organisations have established working groups, developed legislation and made various proposals on the establishment of pandemic risk insurance programmes. In some cases, these proposals have been published or reported in the media.Europe . EIOPA has developed an issues paper setting out some of the issues and options for establishing an insurance solution for addressing pandemic-related business interruption losses (“shared resilience solution”), based on discussions with representatives from the insurance industry and commercial insurance buyers. The issues paper outlines potential options for addressing risk assessment challenges (such as the modelling of non-damage business interruption (NDBI) risk) and incentivising risk prevention measures (through pricing and contractual terms) as well as some potential product design features to provide NDBI cover in the short or medium term (such as the choice of payment trigger, the scope or mandatory nature of the cover). The paper also sets out risk transfer approaches based on different mechanisms for risk sharing between insurers, reinsurers and governments at national or European level (EIOPA, 2020[71]). In February 2021, EIOPA issued a staff paper examining possible approaches to improving the insurability of pandemic business interruption risks, including through prevention measures, risk transfer to capital markets and by establishing a multi-peril solution for systemic risks (EIOPA, 2021[72]).The European Parliament, in its Report on a New Industrial Strategy for Europe, has called on the European Commission to “work towards the creation of a framework involving institutional investors, Member States and the EU, to cover the losses due to business interruption in case of a future pandemic” (European Parliament: Committee on Industry, 2020[73]). France. As noted above, the French Minister of Economy and Finances established a working group in April comprised of representatives from business and insurance associations, CCR and members of Parliament mandated to develop a framework for providing insurance for exceptional events, such as a global pandemic. The Fédération française de l’assurance, a member of the working group, has published its proposal for a CATEX (catastrophes exceptionnelles) programme to provide coverage for business interruption losses that result from a reduction in economic activity following an extraordinary event (pandemics, terrorist attack, natural catastrophe, etc.). Under the proposal, the coverage could be triggered by a state administrative action that resulted in the closure of businesses in a given geographic region for a specified amount of time and would apply to businesses directly affected by the administrative order as well as those indirectly affected as a result of reduced economic activity outside the specified region. The coverage would be attached to either commercial property or business interruption coverage and would be available to SMEs (TPE and PME in French). The coverage would provide lump-sum payments (i.e. without loss adjustment) and would be calibrated to replace gross business disruption costs net of salaries and profits. The coverage would be funded by a premium paid by SMEs and backed by the government based on the existing regimes for natural catastrophes and terrorism risk. As noted above, French insurers and reinsurers have indicated that they would provide EUR 2 billion in capacity based on an expectation that CCR would provide reinsurance for additional amounts (FFA, 2020[61]). It should be noted that, at the time of writing, the formal proposal of the working group has not been published and that other members of the group are reportedly developing alternative proposals (Ladbury, 2020[74]).Germany. The German Insurance Association (GDV) established an expert group from the insurance industry to develop potential models to address the economic impacts of pandemics. The GDV published a Green Paper in June 2020 proposing the establishment of a legal entity that would collect funds from policyholders (either directly as risk-based premiums or through a compulsory flat-rate levy attached to certain policies) and would make payments to policyholders in the event of a WHO-declared pandemic and/or the declaration of regional epidemic by the relevant German public authorities. Payments would be made to all businesses (flat-rate levy model) or those that paid premiums for coverage based on the amount of capital accumulated by the legal entity (including as a result of any reinsurance coverage acquired by the entity) – with the government providing a backstop for losses above the capacity of the legal entity (GDV, 2020[75]). According to the GDV, representatives of the business community have initially indicated that they would prefer a voluntary solution. Italy. Generali Group published a perspective on pandemic risk pooling in September 2020 that recommends the establishment of a public-private partnership to provide insurance protection against pandemic-related business interruption losses for SMEs, harmonised at the European-level. The mechanism would include an initial coverage that would potentially be funded by the insurance sector and could potentially be based on a mix of parametric triggers (Generali Group, 2020[76]). United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, industry representatives have formed working groups to develop solutions to the business interruption protection gap for pandemic risk. A set of working groups have been established to develop a proposal to establish Pandemic Re which would create a government-backed reinsurance pool. The initiative includes broad participation from across the UK insurance sector and intended to submit a proposal to the UK government in late 2020. In addition, the Lloyd’s market has developed and published details on three proposed solutions to address various elements of the pandemic-related business interruption protection gap (Lloyd’s, 2020[77]). The proposals have been published as open-source frameworks for the design of programmes to deal with non-damage business interruption (including pandemics) in the short and longer-term:For the short-term, Lloyd’s has proposed the establishment of a ReStart programme that would pool capacity within the Lloyd’s market to provide business interruption coverage for small companies for future potential waves of COVID-19 (with the possibility to extend the scope of the programme to include SMEs more generally). For the medium and longer-term, Lloyd’s has proposed the establishment of Recover Re which would collect premiums (under a policy that lasts multiple years) to be used to make payments to policyholders for non-damage business interruption after an event, including the current COVID-19 pandemic as well future pandemics or other perils that lead to business interruption (without the physical damage that triggers such coverage in many commercial property policies). Policyholders would make continuous premium payments over many years to fund a pool that would provide this coverage. The role of government would be to provide a guarantee against policyholder premium payment defaults and, potentially, to fund payouts in the initial years before Recover Re accumulates sufficient capital.For the longer-term, Lloyd’s has proposed the establishment of Black Swan Re, a reinsurance pool backstopped by a government guarantee that would provide coverage for systemic non-damage business interruption losses. Under this proposal, the insurance industry layer would be relatively small at first but would increase over time (subject to loss experience). United States. In the United States, a legislative proposal to establish a federal pandemic risk reinsurance programme – the “Pandemic Risk Insurance Act of 2020” (PRIA) – has been introduced in Congress. The programme would operate in a similar way as the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program by providing a federal backstop for business interruption and event cancellation losses incurred by participating insurers as a result of a “covered public health emergency” (i.e. an event certified as such by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, such as a pandemic or infectious disease outbreak). Under the draft PRIA legislation, the private sector would take on some portion of the future pandemic risk. The federal reinsurance would cover 95% of losses above an individual participating insurers’ deductible once an industry loss threshold of USD 250 million was achieved – with an overall annual limit of USD 750 billion in annual payouts. The purchase and offering of the federally-reinsured coverage would be voluntary (Dawson and McCarty, 2020[78]), (Sclafane, 2020[79]). The legislation has been endorsed by a number of business and insurance associations, including Non-profit New York, the U.S. Travel Association, The National Retail Federation, the American Society of Association Executives, and the Council of Insurance Agents and Brokers (amongst others) (Office of Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney, 2020[80]). A group of US insurance associations (American Property Casualty Insurance Association (APCIA), the National Association of Mutual Insurance Companies (NAMIC) and the Independent Insurance Agents and Brokers of America (Big I)) have proposed the establishment of a Business Continuity Protection Program that would provide federal compensation for up to 80% of specific types of operating expenses (including payroll, employee benefits and other operating expenses) for up to three months following the declaration of an emergency. Businesses would need to purchase this protection in advance and would need to certify that: (a) the proceeds of the compensation will be used to retain employees and pay necessary operating expenses; and (b) that the business will implement all applicable federal guidance on health and safety measures during the health emergency. The protection could be acquired by any business incorporated in the United States on a voluntary basis. The private sector would not take on any of the future pandemic risk, and it would be completely backstopped by the U.S. federal government (NAMIC, APCIA and Big I, 2020[70]), (Hatler, Mihocik and Roman, 2020[81]). A “Pandemic Reinsurance Corporation” proposal has also been reported in the media although it does not appear to have been formally proposed as legislation. Under this proposal, reinsurance coverage would be made available for both small and large businesses although with small businesses receiving payouts based on a standard formula and large businesses receiving payouts calculated on an indemnity basis. The coverage would automatically be included in small business insurance policies (business owner policies or workers compensation policies) although large businesses would need to specifically acquire the coverage. The insurance industry would be responsible for approximately USD 15 billion of losses faced by small businesses and a similar amount for large businesses after a few years (Sclafane, 2020[82]).In early July, a large US property and casualty insurer (Chubb) released a proposal for establishing a Pandemic Business Interruption Program involving facilities for small companies and for medium and large companies. For small businesses, the programme would provide a fixed payment based on a multiple of payroll costs in the event of a government-declared pandemic and lockdown with a first layer of losses (beyond a deductible and up to USD 250 billion) co-insured by insurance companies and government (with the industry share increasing over time) and an excess layer of USD 500 billion funded by government. Policyholders would only be required to pay premium to cover the industry share of losses which would reduce the cost of this insurance. Companies would be required to opt-out of purchasing this coverage and, in doing so, would confirm that they will not have access to business interruption coverage or federal assistance programmes in the event of a pandemic. For medium and large companies, business interruption coverage could be acquired on a voluntary basis from private insurers who would cede a proportion of the risk (and premium) to a government reinsurer (Pandemic Re). Coverage would be limited to USD 50 million per policy and the industry retention would be limited to USD 15 billion initially and increasing over time (Chubb, 2020[83]). In December 2020, Zurich North America released a draft concept for providing financial protection against future pandemics. The proposed approach would provide business interruption coverage to businesses for essential expenses (up to 80% of expenses for three months, capped at USD 20 million per month) with a deductible (waiting period) chosen by the policyholder and reduced premium rates for smaller businesses. Insurers would be required to offer this coverage but can choose to cede 90%, 95% or 100% of the risk to government-backed reinsurance pools. The coverage would be triggered in the event of federal emergency disaster declaration, federal disaster declaration for the relevant state and a business shut down declaration made at the state level (Zurich (North America), 2020[84]). A coalition of US businesses (Business Continuity Coalition (BCC)) has also been established to advocate for an insurance coverage for future pandemic-related losses. The BCC is recommending the establishment of a pandemic risk insurance programme that would support the availability of affordable non-damage business interruption coverage as well as respond to emerging insurance coverage gaps in other lines of business such as event cancellation, workers compensation and general and employment practices liability. The coverage would be distributed by the insurance sector and available to businesses of all sizes with subsidised premium rates. Payments would be made on a parametric basis triggered by national health declaration and business closure orders made at the state-level. The programme would encourage insurers to assume some portion of the risk and make use of international reinsurance and capital markets to assume some of the risk taken by government (Business Continuity Coalition, 2020[85]). Table 1 provides a comparison of some of the common design features across the various proposals.Box.6. The scope for international cooperationCOVID-19 has become a truly global event that has created similar challenges for the insurance and reinsurance sector (and for policyholders) in almost every country around the world. Responding to these challenges will require a global response. There is a significant opportunity for countries to share lessons and experience from both existing catastrophe risk insurance programmes as well as from the analyses and examinations that are being invested in developing a response to COVID-19. There may also be opportunities to examine the potential benefits of risk-sharing arrangements across countries for the extreme events. For example, in the case of nuclear insurance, a number of national nuclear insurance pools have entered into reinsurance arrangements with other national nuclear insurance pools with the aim of ensuring sufficient overall capacity to address the losses from a major event (Nuclear Pools, n.d.[86]). Ultimately, international cooperation can support a response that meets the policy objectives of governments and the financial needs of businesses and their insurers.Table 1. Overview of selected pandemic risk insurance programme proposalsProposalDistributionType of coveragePerilsEligible policyholdersCoverage triggerGovernment involvementEIOPA (Europe)Insurance sector (bundled with other coverage)Non-damage business interruption (potentially parametric)PandemicSMEs (potentially)Not specifiedNational government (third risk layer)Europe (fourth risk layer)CATEX (Federation française des assureurs)Insurance sector (attached to commercial property or business interruption policies) Business interruption (resilience capital)Extraordinary events (cyber, terrorism, pandemic, etc.)No restrictionHealth emergency declaration and closure orderReinsurance provided by public reinsurer (CCR)GDV (Germany)Insurance sector (levy or policy extension) Business interruptionPandemic (or epidemic)No restrictionWHO/German authority declaration Government retrocession/guarantee (highest layer)ReStart (Lloyd’s)Insurance sectorBusiness interruptionCOVID-19Small companies (potentially all SMEs)Evidence of health emergency and revenue declineNo requirement for government backstopRecover Re (Lloyd’s)Insurance sector (stand-alone, multi-year policy)Non-damage business interruptionPandemic and other perilsNo restrictionEvidence of health emergency and revenue declineGovernment guarantee against default on future premium paymentsBlack Swan Re (Lloyd’s)Insurance sectorNon-damage business interruption (systemic event)Systemic risk perilsNo restrictionNot specifiedGovernment backstop for reinsurance poolPandemic Risk Insurance Act (United States)Insurance sector Business interruption and event cancellationPandemic and infectious disease outbreaksNo restrictionCertification by Secretary of Health and Human Services5% industry retention and 5% industry co-insurance above retentionBusiness Continuity Protection Program (APCIA, NAMIC, Big I – United States))Insurance sector (stand-alone policy)Business interruption PandemicNo restriction (although coverage amounts are smaller for larger companies)Health emergency declaration and closure orderGovernment would pay all claimsPandemic Business Interruption Program (Chubb – United States)Insurance sectorBusiness interruption PandemicSME programme and larger company programmePandemic declaration and closure order6% retention up to USD 15 billion (SME programme)5% retention up to USD 15 billion (larger companies)Industry share to increase over timeDraft concept for facilitating pandemic protection (Zurich North America – United States)Insurance sectorBusiness interruptionPandemicNo restrictionHealth emergency declaration and closure orderGovernment reinsurance pools that would assume 90%, 95% or 100% of risk (cedant chooses cession level)Business Continuity Coalition (United States)Insurance sectorBusiness interruption and event cancellationPandemicNo restrictionHealth emergency declaration and closure orderGovernment reinsurance for 95% of losses (first event) and 90% of losses (second event)Annex A. Catastrophe risk insurance programmes. In a number of countries, insurance programmes or pools have been established, usually with the support of the public sector, to provide insurance coverage for certain risks and/or for certain segments of the population.12 In many cases, these programmes have been established to provide affordable insurance coverage for risks that have been deemed uninsurable through private insurance markets – although in others, the programmes have been established in order to promote solidarity in terms of loss-sharing across regions. Since 2000, approximately 40% of all economic losses due to flood, storms and earthquakes in OECD countries have been incurred in countries (or regions) covered by catastrophe risk insurance programmes.13 Overview of catastrophe risk insurance programmes. Perils covered. Some of these programmes have a broad scope, covering multiple perils and lines of insurance. For example, the Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros (CCS) in Spain provides insurance coverage for residential and commercial property, motor vehicles as well accident and sickness against a broad range of both natural and man-made perils. Others are focused on specific (high-risk) perils (e.g. earthquake in Japan or wind in the US state of Florida), specific lines of business (e.g. residential property for natural hazards or commercial property in the case of terrorism) or even a particular exposed segment (e.g. residential property at high-risk of flooding in the United Kingdom). Type of coverage provided. There is a broad range of approaches to providing programme coverage. Some programmes offer direct (primary) insurance while others provide a reinsurance coverage. Many of the terrorism insurance programmes (and some natural catastrophe insurance programmes) are organised as co-insurance pools that collectively access reinsurance and (in some cases) a government backstop. The US Terrorism Risk Insurance Program is a federal backstop administered as a co-insurance arrangement that shares losses between the government and insurance companies at a defined ratio once losses exceed a specific threshold. Table A.1 provides an overview of the types of insurance programmes for catastrophe risk that have been established in OECD and a few non-OECD countries and territories. TableA.1. Catastrophe risk insurance programmes ProgrammeRisks coveredType of insurance Public sector involvementAustraliaAustralian Reinsurance Pool Corporation (ARPC)TerrorismReinsuranceARPC is a government enterpriseBackstop for losses above ARPC capacity and up to AUD 10 billionAustriaÖsterreichischer Versicherungspool zur Deckung von Terrorrisiken (OVDT)TerrorismCo-insurance/ ReinsuranceNoneBelgiumTerrorism Reinsurance and Insurance PoolTerrorismCo-insurance/ ReinsuranceBackstop for losses above TRIP capacity and up to EUR 300 millionDenmarkDanish Storm CouncilStorm surge and inland floodDirect insurance The Storm Council is a public entity that provides compensation for damages funded by a tax on fire insurance policies.Danish Terrorism Insurance Pool for Non-Life Insurance (TIPNLI)Terrorism (NBCR)Direct insuranceCoverage provided for up to DKK 15 billion FranceCaisse centrale de réassurance (CCR)Flood, earthquake, tsunami, landslide, mudslide, avalanche, subsidence and cyclonic winds; terrorism ReinsuranceCCR is a government entity backed by an unlimited government guaranteeGestion de l'Assurance et de la Réassurance des risques Attentats et actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT)TerrorismCo-insurance/ ReinsuranceGAREAT’s reinsurance coverage is provided by private reinsurers and CCR (government entity)GermanyExtremusTerrorismDirect insuranceBackstop for losses above Extremus capacity and up to EUR 6.48 billionIcelandNatural Catastrophe Insurance of Iceland (NTI)Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, avalanches, floodDirect insuranceNTI is a government entity backed by an unlimited government guaranteeJapanJapan Earthquake Reinsurance (JER)Earthquake, volcanic eruptions, tsunamiReinsuranceLosses above a certain threshold are shared by the government and industryNetherlands Nederlandse Herverzekeringsmaatschappij voor Terrorismeschaden (NHT)TerrorismReinsuranceBackstop for losses above NHT capacity and up to EUR 50 millionNew ZealandEarthquake Commission (EQC)Earthquake, volcanic eruptions, tsunami, landslides, storm/flood (for land only)Direct insuranceEQC is a government entity backed by an unlimited government guaranteeNorwayNorsk NaturskadepoolFlood, storm, landslide, avalanche, volcanic eruption, earthquakeCo-insuranceEstablished by legislationSpainConsorcio de Compensación de SegurosFlood, earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption, windstorm, terrorism Direct insuranceCCS is a government entity backed by an unlimited government guarantee (although self-financed with its own capital and reserves)SwitzerlandKantonalen Gebäudeversicherungen (19 cantons) (e.g. Neuchâtel)1Flood, cyclone, hail, avalanche, landslide (as well as fire)Direct insuranceEstablished by legislationInterkantonale Rückversicherungsverband (IRV)Flood, cyclone, hail, avalanche, landslide (as well as fire)Reinsurance for cantonal insurersEstablished by legislationSchweizerische Pool für ErdbebendeckungEarthquakeDirect insurance (compensation)NoneSchweizerischer Elementarschadenpool of the private insurance sectorFlood, cyclone, hail, avalanche, landslideCo-insuranceNoneTurkeyTurkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool (TCIP)Earthquake, tsunami, landslide (and other perils triggered by earthquake)Direct insuranceTCIP has access to EUR 250 million in reinsurance provided by the government.United KingdomFlood ReFloodReinsuranceEstablished by legislationPool ReTerrorismReinsuranceBackstop for losses above Pool Re capacity (not sure if maximum)United StatesNational Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)FloodDirect insurance and risk management programNFIP is administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (a government agency)The NFIP collects premiums and has the authority to borrow from the US Treasury. NFIP has transferred part of its risk to private reinsurance companies and capital market investors Terrorism Risk Insurance ProgramTerrorismCo-insuranceFederal government backstop through co-insurance for losses above industry loss of USD 200 million with cap on overall losses of USD 100 billion annuallyCalifornia Earthquake AuthorityEarthquakeDirect insuranceEstablished by legislationCitizens Property Insurance Corporation (Florida)2Storm (wind)Direct insuranceCitizens is a state government entityFlorida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund (FHCF)Storm (wind)Reinsurance (reimbursement)Established by legislation and administered by a government agencyChinaChina Residential Earthquake Insurance Pool (CREIP)EarthquakeDirect insurance (co-insurance pool)The co-insurance pool is reinsured by a state-owned reinsurerIndiaIndian Market Terrorism Risk Insurance PoolTerrorismCo-insurance/ ReinsuranceThe co-insurance pool is reinsured by a state-owned reinsurerRomaniaPool-ul de Asigurare împotriva Dezastrelor Naturale (PAID)Earthquake, flood, landslide Direct insuranceGovernment is lender of last resort for losses beyond PAID’s financial capacityRussian FederationRussian Anti-Terrorism Insurance PoolTerrorism (and SRCC)Co-insurance/ ReinsuranceNoneAssistance for damaged and lost dwellings with priority of insurance indemnityFire, flood and other natural disastersCo-insurance/ReinsuranceLosses are shared by the government and industrySouth AfricaSasriaTerrorism (and SRCC) Direct insuranceSASRIA is a government entity although is not backstopped by an explicit guaranteeChinese TaipeiTaiwan Residential Earthquake Insurance Fund (TREIF)Earthquake, tsunami, landslide (and other perils triggered by earthquake)ReinsuranceTREIF may seek access to government collateral to support funding for losses beyond TREIF’s financial capacity Note: 1 As noted, there are public cantonal insurers in 19 Swiss cantons. The information provided in the table is for the Établissement cantonal d'assurance et de prevention in the canton of Neuchâtel (as an illustrative example). 2There are a number of other pooled and/or residual insurance arrangements for wind risk in other states, including Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina (the North Carolina Coastal Property Insurance Pool, formerly known as the Beach Plan), South Carolina and Texas (the Texas Windstorm Insurance Association).. Similar to Citizens in Florida, these programmes are aimed at making insurance coverage available to households that are unable to secure coverage in the private market.Source: (OECD, 2020[87]), (OECD, 2018[88]), (OECD, 2016[89]), (IFTRIP, 2017[90]), (World Forum of Catastrophe Programmes, n.d.[91])The different approaches lead to different outcomes in terms of: (i) achieving a broad level of coverage for catastrophe perils (or the specific peril targeted); (ii) improving the affordability of coverage for targeted perils; (iii) maximising the role of private markets; and (iv) providing incentives for risk reduction. The following section provides a brief discussion of good practices for achieving these outcomes.Achieving broad coverage for targeted peril(s). An obvious indicator of a catastrophe risk insurance programme’s success is the extent to which the intervention achieves broad coverage for the targeted peril(s), whether through the programme directly or in combination with coverage provided by the private insurance market. To achieve this, a number of countries impose requirements such as:Policyholders are required to purchase coverage for the targeted perils (e.g. Iceland, some Swiss cantons, Belgium for terrorism in some lines of business); Insurance companies are required to include coverage automatically (e.g. France, Spain, Australia for terrorism14) or make coverage available (e.g. Japan and California for earthquake, United States for terrorism); or Lenders are required to ensure that their borrowers are properly insured (e.g. United States for flood in designated high-risk flood zones). In general, the share of losses insured tends to be higher where the purchase of insurance is mandatory or where standard property policies are automatically extended to include coverage for the targeted peril(s) (New Zealand and Chinese Taipei in the case of earthquakes, France, Norway, Spain and Switzerland for the broader set of perils)15 (see Figure A A.1).Figure A A.1. Insured share of losses for perils covered by catastrophe risk insurance programmesNote: For the purposes of this calculation, catastrophe risk insurance programmes include Denmark (storm), France (storm, flood, earthquake), Iceland (storm, flood, earthquake), Japan (earthquake), New Zealand (earthquake), Norway (storm, flood, earthquake), Romania (storm, flood, earthquake), Spain (storm, flood, earthquake), Chinese Taipei (earthquake) and Turkey (earthquake) as well as Switzerland (flood and storm, depending on the canton that was mainly impacted) and the United States (flood, earthquake (California), and storm (if the main impacts occurred in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina or Texas)). It should be noted that in France and Spain, only some storm events are covered by the catastrophe risk insurance programme as these programmes include a wind speed threshold.Source: OECD calculations based on (Swiss Re sigma, 2019[92]).Improving the affordability of coverage. By pooling a large share of a country’s exposure to a given peril (or set of perils), a catastrophe risk insurance programme might be able to achieve a lower aggregate cost of coverage than individual insurers could achieve on their own. Risk diversification. A single pool providing coverage for all of a country’s building stock, for example, would create a more diversified portfolio of risks than any insurance company could achieve on its own (without a 100% market share).16 An insurance company (or pool) with a higher level of risk diversification will have lower economic and (often regulatory) capital needs (other things equal) and can therefore offer lower pricing. Reduced cost of reinsurance . Also, the cost of reinsurance tends to decline as the level of diversification increases so the cost to reinsure a single (diversified) pool of risks should be lower than the aggregate cost of reinsuring multiple (less diversified) pools of risks – which also should contribute to lower pricing for the policyholder. Lower capital required . An assessment of the amount of capital required to protect against a 1-in-100 hurricane affecting eight US states was found to be 45% less (USD 71 billion instead of USD 130 billion) if the states pooled their risks rather than covering the risk independently (Dumm, Johnson and Watson, 2015[93]). The impact of a catastrophe risk insurance programme on improving affordability will be greatest where the programme is able to establish a highly diversified pool of risks. Limiting public sector exposure. An important objective of catastrophe risk insurance programmes should be to limit the exposure of the public sector to losses from the targeted peril – potentially by maximising the contribution of private markets to providing coverage. The catastrophe risk insurance programmes that have been established for various perils aim to achieve this objective through a variety of approaches.Coverage limits. Some programmes that provide government-backed direct insurance limit public sector exposure by placing ceilings on the amount of coverage available (New Zealand, Romania, Chinese Taipei, Turkey, United States (flood) – Japan’s Basic Earthquake Insurance policy is also limited although the government-backed coverage is provided through reinsurance). In some of these cases, coverage is limited to an amount that is significantly below the sum insured under the standard property insurance policy which limits the government’s potential exposure. In a few countries (e.g. New Zealand), the private market has developed coverage for amounts above the limits imposed by the catastrophe risk insurance programme although in most countries, losses above the basic coverage are often uninsured (see Figure A A.1). Risk selection. Programmes can also be made available only to policyholders who are not adequately served by the private market. The insurance coverage for terrorism provided by Extremus in Germany (which benefits from a government backstop) is only available as an endorsement for policies with sums insured above EUR 25 million as the market is able to provide coverage against terrorism for smaller coverage levels. Some US states have residual market mechanisms that act as insurers of last resort and will only accept policyholders that can demonstrate that they could not access coverage at a reasonable cost in the private market. Flexibility to leverage market capacity. Many programmes provide government-backed coverage as reinsurance (or as a backstop through co-insurance in the United States for terrorism) which usually means that, through the use of retention requirements, direct insurers will absorb most or all losses for smaller-scale events and only high loss events above the threshold would be covered by the programme. Some countries adjust the level of direct insurer retention over time, either based on specific measures of the capacity of the private market (e.g. Japan for earthquake) or with the aim of increasing the private market’s share of risk over time (Australia, United Kingdom, United States for terrorism, see Box A A.1). In the United States, the trigger for Terrorism Risk Insurance Act backstop is set at a level where direct insurers will often seek private reinsurance to cover losses below the programme trigger. Many of the catastrophe risk reinsurance programmes make reinsurance available but do not require direct insurers to make use of that reinsurance capacity (Australia, United States for terrorism, United Kingdom for terrorism and flood, France for natural catastrophe risk and for terrorism risk coverage for smaller companies) which allows direct insurers to retain the risk if they have sufficient capacity or transfer the risk to private market reinsurers. Returning risk to the market. Most catastrophe risk insurance programmes make use of private market reinsurance (for programmes that provide direct insurance coverage) or retrocession (for programmes that provide reinsurance coverage). Many of the terrorism (re)insurance programmes operate as co-insurance pools that jointly access reinsurance coverage from private reinsurance markets (Austria, Belgium, France, India, Russian Federation) while programmes providing reinsurance tend to access private retrocession markets to increase their claims-paying capacity for large (infrequent) events (Australia and United Kingdom for terrorism, Turkey for earthquake). Japan Earthquake Reinsurance retrocedes a part of its exposure back to direct insurers. As noted above, the pooling of risk prior to transferring that risk to the market can have cost-saving benefits.Box A A.1. Increasing the sharing of terrorism risk with private markets: Australia, United Kingdom and United StatesIn Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States, a number of changes have been made to terrorism (re)insurance programmes in order to increase the share of risk retained by (or transferred to) private (re)insurance markets:In Australia, deductibles (retentions) are established (per event) as a share of fire insurance premiums and subject to both a company minimum and maximum deductible and an industry-wide maximum deductible. Since 2007, the company-specific deductible has been increased to 5% of the company’s fire insurance premium (from 4%) and a minimum deductible of AUD 100 000 has been implemented. Maximum company and industry-wide deductibles have been increased from AUD 10 million to AUD 12.5 million and from AUD 100 million to AUD 200 million, respectively. ARPC has also developed a retrocession programme to increase its capacity to absorb losses before calling on the government guarantee. In the United Kingdom, a per event industry deductible is applied and has been increased from GBP 100 million to GBP 150 million. Pool Re has also transferred a significant amount of risk to retrocession markets in recent years.In the United States, the co-insurance provided under the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act is only available for events that lead to industry losses above USD 200 million (an increase from USD 100 million in 2015). Individual company deductibles have increased from 15% of TRIA-eligible premiums to 20% (i.e. premiums written in lines of business that are eligible for coverage under the Act) while the industry share of losses once the programme is triggered has increased from 15% to 20%.These changes have led to a significant increase in the share of losses that would be covered by private insurance companies and a corresponding reduction in government exposure. For example, based on an estimate of the losses incurred after the September 11th terrorist attacks and a simplified application of the programme triggers and thresholds in place in 2017, the amount of losses that would not be covered by the programmes (and left to be absorbed by policyholders or the state) would decline by approximately USD 4 billion in Australia, USD 2.7 billion in the United Kingdom and USD 800 million in the United States (see Figure A A.2).Figure A A.2. Estimated impact of terrorism (re)insurance programme changes on loss distributionNote: The distribution of losses was estimated based on insured loss estimates provided in (Swiss Re sigma, 2019[92]) and the terms of coverage of each terrorism insurance programme in 2017 and 2007 (or 2014 in the case of the United Kingdom). A number of simplifying assumptions were made, including: (i) that all reported losses fell within the scope of coverage of the programmes; and (ii) related to the market share of different primary insurers (required for the calculation of applicable deductibles in Australia, United Kingdom and United States – simplified with the assumption that only the 6 largest providers of commercial insurance faced losses). Source: OECD calculationsCeiling on government exposure. Another way to limit government exposure to losses for perils targeted by catastrophe risk insurance programmes is to establish a ceiling on the amount of losses that the government will absorb. Most programmes that apply a ceiling will force losses above the ceiling to be absorbed by policyholders on a pro rata basis (Australia, Netherlands and United States for terrorism). Some programmes also reduce the ultimate public exposure by allowing or requiring insurance companies to repay the government for any amounts paid.Providing incentives for risk reduction (directly or indirectly). Insurance will make a greater contribution to managing catastrophe risks if the process of transferring these risks supports risk management. Insurance can play an important role in improving risk management by supporting risk assessment/understanding and encouraging risk reduction.Use of modelling for risk management . The (re)insurance sector has developed a strong capacity for modelling the financial consequences of catastrophe risks, whether natural or man-made. This modelling capacity has broader (if underutilised) applications to other aspects of risk management, including for informing land-use planning and building code development as well as in decisions on investing in structural mitigation infrastructure. The need for private sector (re)insurers to accurately price and provision for the occurrence of catastrophe events has driven the development of the modelling industry which means that model availability and sophistication is generally highest where private (re)insurers play a large role in providing coverage for catastrophe perils. Programmes that maximise the role of private insurance markets are therefore more likely to support the development of a modelling industry and its derivative benefits.17 Pricing that reflects risk reduction. Pricing for insurance (or reinsurance) coverage that varies by level of risk should provide an incentive for policyholders (or insurers) to invest in risk reduction (or ensure underwriting discipline) in order to lower the cost of that coverage. While a number of catastrophe risk insurance programmes have implemented pricing that varies by risk zone or building type – none have implemented an approach to pricing their insurance, reinsurance or co-insurance coverage that provide significant incentives for reducing risk. Implementing variable pricing (and particularly, premium reductions for risk mitigation measures) is a challenge for many types of perils (and potentially impossible for some) although advances in modelling will continue to support the ability of these programmes to price their coverage based on more granular assessments of risk. Risk reduction pre-requisites. Some programmes include specific risk reduction requirements as part of programme design – which is particularly relevant in countries where important risk management decisions are made at different levels of government. For example, the US National Flood Insurance Programme is only made available in communities that have agreed to implement certain floodplain management techniques. In France, deductibles are increased for properties that face repetitive losses if the municipality has not implemented a risk reduction plan. In the United Kingdom, the reinsurance coverage made available through Flood Re is only available for properties constructed after 2009 which is meant to ensure that new developments only occur in areas where insurers are willing to provide coverage without Flood Re backing.References. 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Mamiko YOKOI-ARAI (✉ [email protected])Leigh WOLFROM (✉ [email protected])Notes. ← 1. In some countries (e.g. Germany), business interruption coverage may not require physical damage although pandemic-related exclusions may apply. ← 2. In Switzerland, for example, some policies were found to provide coverage for business interruption resulting from the presence of a virus or infectious disease but not in the context of a pandemic.← 3. The ACPR found that, in the case of the 93% of policyholders whose coverage would not respond to COVID-19-related business interruption losses, the vast majority had business interruption coverage that would only be triggered by physical damage to the insured’s property while only a few had policy wordings that excluded pandemic as a peril for the purposes of administrative business closures (ACPR, 2020[13]).← 4. Just under 13% of the 210 454 claims submitted remained open as of November 2020 (NAIC, 2020[15]).← 5. Gaps in coverage may exist (or may emerge as a result of COVID-19) across other lines of business (e.g. event cancellation, health or various liability coverages) which may also need to be addressed through through some form of catastrophe risk insurance programme. ← 6. Although, as noted above, insurers in a number of jurisdictions offer business interruption coverage that can be triggered without property damage and therefore any disputes are focused on other elements of the terms and conditions. For example, in Switzerland, many of the disputes are centred around whether a pandemic (rather than an epidemic or other infectious disease outbreak) precludes coverage in some policies.← 7. For the purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that insurance would cover 50% of estimated business revenue losses insured for one month and that insurers would achieve a 65% loss ratio (based on the average non-life loss ratio achieved by insurers in OECD countries). ← 8. The estimates are provided for a 1-in-100 year return period (as the last global respiratory disease pandemic occurred approximately 100 years ago) and a 1-in-35 year return period based on the potential for increased frequency (and consistent with estimates published by The Geneva Association of a 1-in-30 to 1-in-40 year return period (Schanz, 2020[104])).← 9. In many solvency requirement frameworks, insurers can reduce the amount of capital that they hold for a given level of liabilities to account for the level of diversification in their portfolio (as, for most perils, not all policyholders will be affected simultaneously). It would be difficult to demonstrate that liabilities for business interruption losses from an infectious disease outbreak with potentially global implications are diversified and should benefit from a capital requirement deduction. This lack of diversification applies especially for monoline insurers. For insurers with multiple lines of business, there is risk diversification between pandemic losses and losses from other lines such as earthquake, fire or motor.← 10. Not all infectious disease outbreaks will necessarily result in a global pandemic and therefore some diversification benefits may be possible to achieve.← 11. There has been very limited use of alternative risk transfer markets for the coverage of pandemic risks (and no experience focused on business interruption) which would likely lead to a higher cost for such coverage in the short-term. That said, Lloyd’s has recently indicated an interest in examining the potential for capital markets to provide capacity for pandemic-related business interruption coverage (Lloyd’s, 2020[77]).← 12. There are also a number of catastrophe risk insurance programmes that provide governments with a source of funding for emergency response and recovery, usually established on a regional basis in order to benefit from geographic diversification (e.g. CCRIF in the Caribbean and Central America, PCRIC in the Pacific Islands and SEADRIF in South East Asia). ← 13. OECD calculations based on (Swiss Re sigma, 2019[92]). For the purposes of this calculation, catastrophe risk insurance programmes include Denmark (storm), France (storm, flood, earthquake), Iceland (storm, flood, earthquake), Japan (earthquake), New Zealand (earthquake), Norway ((storm, flood, earthquake), Spain (storm, flood, earthquake) and Turkey (earthquake) as well as Switzerland (flood and storm, depending on the canton that was mainly impacted) and the United States (flood, earthquake (California), and storm (if the main impacts occurred in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina or Texas)). It should be noted that in France and Spain, only some storm events are covered by the catastrophe risk insurance programme as these programmes include a wind speed threshold.← 14. In Australia, this is achieved by the voiding of terrorism exclusions in the event that a terrorist incident is declared.← 15. In Romania and Turkey, there are requirements to purchase insurance coverage for earthquakes (as well as floods and landslides in Romania) although there are challenges in both countries in enforcing these requirements. ← 16. However, it should be noted that the establishment of a single pool for all risk also creates an accumulated exposure which would likely increase the need for public-sector backing.← 17. Catastrophe risk insurance programmes in some countries have also played a large role in supporting the development of catastrophe models for the perils that they cover, particularly where the peril is not widely covered by private insurance markets (e.g. terrorism). 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(2020), COVID-19 Business Interruption Update: Further details of FCA Test Case, Fenchurch Law, https://www.fenchurchlaw.co.uk/covid-19-business-interruption-update-further-details-of-fca-test-case/ (accessed on 3 July 2020).  Open URLReferences[54] Saville, M. and L. Burgess (2020), Full Federal Court confirms broad operation of insurer’s pandemic exclusion clause, King & Wood Mallesons, https://www.kwm.com/en/au/knowledge/insights/full-federal-court-confirms-broad-operation-of-insurers-pandemic-exclusion-clause-20201221 (accessed on 10 March 2021).  Open URLReferences[55] Ladbury, A. (2020), “Risk managers will support creation of state-backed pandemic pools to plug coverage gap”, Commercial Risk, https://www.commercialriskonline.com/risk-managers-will-support-creation-of-state-backed-pandemic-pools-to-plug-coverage-gap/ (accessed on 21 April 2020).  Open URLReferences[56] Collins, S. and B. Norris (2020), “Rims supports moves to create pandemic insurance pools”, Commercial Risk, https://www.commercialriskonline.com/rims-supports-moves-create-pandemic-insurance-pools/ (accessed on 21 April 2020).  Open URLReferences[57] Ladbury, A. 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(2020), “Exclusions loom as D&O renewals impacted by pandemic”, Commercial Risk, https://www.commercialriskonline.com/exclusions-loom-as-do-renewals-impacted-by-covid-19/ (accessed on 21 April 2020).  Open URLReferences[61] FFA (2020), La Fédération Française de l’Assurance présente sa contribution au débat sur la création d’un régime de catastrophes exceptionnelles : le dispositif CATEX, Fédération Française de l’Assurance, https://www.ffa-assurance.fr/actualites/la-federation-francaise-de-assurance-presente-sa-contribution-au-debat-sur-la-creation-un (accessed on 8 July 2020).  Open URLReferences[69] FERMA (2020), FERMA calls for EU Resilience Framework for Catastrophic Risks, Federation of European Risk Management Associations, https://www.ferma.eu/ferma-calls-for-eu-resilience-framework-for-catastrophic-risks/ (accessed on 8 June 2020).  Open URLReferences[70] NAMIC, APCIA and Big I (2020), Insurance Trades Unveil Federal Pandemic Solution, American Property Casualty Insurance Association, http://www.pciaa.net/pciwebsite/Cms/Content/ViewPage?sitepageid=60933 (accessed on 7 June 2020).  Open URLReferences[71] EIOPA (2020), Issues Paper on resilience solutions for pandemics, European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority, https://www.eiopa.europa.eu/content/issues-paper-resilience-solutions-pandemics_en (accessed on 2 September 2020).  Open URLReferences[72] EIOPA (2021), EIOPA staff paper on measures to improve the insurability of business interruption risk in light of pandemics, European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority, https://www.eiopa.europa.eu/content/eiopa-staff-paper-measures-improve-insurability-of-business-interruption-risk-light-of_en (accessed on 10 March 2021).  Open URLReferences[73] European Parliament: Committee on Industry, R. 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(2020), “French pandemic insurance scheme plans near completion: AMRAE”, Commercial Risk, https://www.commercialriskonline.com/french-state-and-insurers-moving-close-to-creation-of-pandemic-scheme/ (accessed on 3 July 2020).  Open URLReferences[75] GDV (2020), Green paper: Supporting the economy to better cope with the consequences of future pandemic events, Gesamtverband der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaf, https://www.en.gdv.de/resource/blob/59854/079826b589006ed3bd4fc7a09e64cf1a/pandemiefonds-vorschlag-download-green-paper-data.pdf.  Open URLReferences[76] Generali Group (2020), Pandemic Risk Pooling: Generali’s perspective. 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References[93] Dumm, R., M. Johnson and C. Watson (2015), “An examination of the geographic aggregation of catastrophic risk”, Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance: Issues and Practice, Vol. 40/1, pp. 159-177, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/gpp.2014.20.  Open DOIReferences[92] Swiss Re sigma (2019), Natural catastrophes and man-made disasters: 1990-2018 (dataset), Swiss Re. References[13] ACPR (2020), Garantie « pertes d’exploitation » : l’état des lieux de l’ACPR, Autorité de contrôle prudentiel et de résolution, https://acpr.banque-france.fr/communications-de-lacpr-dans-le-contexte-de-la-pandemie-covid-19 (accessed on 3 July 2020).  Open URLReferences[15] NAIC (2020), COVID-19 Property & Casualty Insurance Business Interruption Data Call: Part 2 - Claim and Loss Information (November 2020), National Association of Insurance Commissioners. References[104] Schanz, K. (2020), An Investigation into the Insurability of Pandemic Risk, The Geneva Association, https://www.genevaassociation.org/research-topics/socio-economic-resilience/investigation-insurability-pandemic-risk-research-report (accessed on 14 November 2020).  Open URLReferences[77] Lloyd’s (2020), Supporting global recovery and resilience for customers and economies: the insurance response to COVID-19, Lloyd’s, https://www.lloyds.com/news-and-risk-insight/media-centre/coronavirus-updates-hub/supporting-global-recovery-and-resilience-for-customers-and-economies (accessed on 8 July 2020).  Open URLReferences[92] Swiss Re sigma (2019), Natural catastrophes and man-made disasters: 1990-2018 (dataset), Swiss Re. ╳DisclaimerThis paper is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and the arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of OECD member countries.This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area.© OECD 2021The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at http://www.oecd.org/termsandconditions.Tackling coronavirus (COVID-19) - Browse OECD contributions
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                            [title] => Coronavirus And Travel Insurance | MoneySuperMarket
                            [url] => https://www.moneysupermarket.com/travel-insurance/coronavirus/
                            [destination] => https://www.moneysupermarket.com › travel-insurance
                            [description] => Travel insurance providers offering COVID-19 cover. You can compare travel insurance policies with COVID cover included from the following providers: company ...
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                            [serp_title] => Coronavirus And Travel Insurance | MoneySuperMarket
                            [serp_description] => Travel insurance providers offering COVID-19 cover. You can compare travel insurance policies with COVID cover included from the following providers: company ...
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                            [title] => Best Covid Travel Insurance 2022 – Forbes Advisor UK
                            [url] => https://www.forbes.com/uk/advisor/travel-insurance/best-covid-19-travel-insurance-policies/
                            [destination] => https://www.forbes.com › advisor › best-covid-19-trave...
                            [description] => Use our research at Forbes Advisor UK of over 30 insurers and 80 individual policies to find the best cover for you. Get travel insurance that covers you for coronavirus
                            [isAmp] => 
                            [date] => 3 days ago
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                            [serp_type] => page
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                            [isOrganic] => 1
                            [serp_title] => Best Covid-19 Travel Insurance Policies Of January 2022
                            [serp_description] => To help you find the best cover we've analysed 80 policies from 30 insurers and scored them based on how they will keep you protected should a ...
                            [hostname] => forbes.com
                            [canonical] => https://www.forbes.com/uk/advisor/travel-insurance/best-covid-19-travel-insurance-policies/
                            [h1] => Best Covid-19 Travel Insurance Policies Of January 2022
                            [h2] => Array
                                (
                                    [0] => Travel Update
                                    [1] => What are the rules governing international travel into the UK?
                                    [2] => Which countries can I visit?
                                    [3] => Do any insurers provide cover for red countries?
                                    [4] => Tips for a pandemic-proof holiday
                                    [5] => What else can your insurance cover?
                                    [6] => Methodology
                                    [7] => Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
                                )

                            [h3] => Array
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                                    [1] => Southdowns
                                    [2] => CoverForYou
                                    [3] => Able2Travel
                                    [4] => Coverwise
                                    [5] => Esure
                                    [6] => RAC
                                    [7] => Sainsbury’s Bank
                                    [8] => Southdowns
                                    [9] => Take out travel insurance when you book
                                    [10] => What to look for when buying travel insurance
                                    [11] => Check the FCDO’s travel guidelines
                                    [12] => Check if your destination has Covid-19 restrictions in place
                                    [13] => What protection does cover for Covid-19-related risks offer?
                                    [14] => Does my existing travel insurance policy cover Covid-19-related risks?
                                    [15] => Is there curtailment cover for Covid-19-related risks?
                                    [16] => What happens if I contract coronavirus overseas?
                                    [17] => Can I get cover for my pre-existing medical conditions?
                                    [18] => Will my insurer cover me if my airline goes out of business?
                                    [19] => How do I claim on my travel insurance?
                                )

                            [h2WithAnchors] => Array
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                                        (
                                            [text] => Travel Update
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                                    [1] => stdClass Object
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                                            [text] => What are the rules governing international travel into the UK?
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                                    [2] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [text] => Which countries can I visit?
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                                    [3] => stdClass Object
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                                            [text] => Do any insurers provide cover for red countries?
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                                    [4] => stdClass Object
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                                            [text] => Tips for a pandemic-proof holiday
                                        )

                                    [5] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [text] => What else can your insurance cover?
                                        )

                                    [6] => stdClass Object
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                                        )

                                    [7] => stdClass Object
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                                            [text] => Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
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                                )

                            [published_time] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [lastUpdate] => 
                                    [dateFormatted] => 6o January 2022
                                    [dateISO] => 2022-01-06T17:01:43+00:00
                                )

                            [modified_time] => stdClass Object
                                (
                                    [lastUpdate] => 
                                    [dateFormatted] => 6o January 2022
                                    [dateISO] => 2022-01-06T17:01:43+00:00
                                )

                            [type] => article
                            [wordCount] => 8885
                            [imgCount] => 44
                            [lang] => stdClass Object
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                                    [langLinks] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [lang] => en-us
                                                    [url] => https://www.forbes.com/advisor/travel-insurance/best-pandemic-travel-insurance/
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [lang] => en-gb
                                                    [url] => https://www.forbes.com/uk/advisor/travel-insurance/best-covid-19-travel-insurance-policies/
                                                )

                                        )

                                    [size] => 2
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                                (
                                    [0] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 0
                                            [question] => What protection does cover for Covid-19-related risks offer?
                                            [answer] => Protection for Covid-19-related risks covers the cost of  your medical treatment and repatriation as a minimum. Some policies will additionally costs incurred if you needed to cancel your holiday due to Covid. The specific reasons insurers will accept for a Covid-related claim do vary, so be sure to check your policy for the details.
                                        )

                                    [1] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 1
                                            [question] => Does my existing travel insurance policy cover Covid-19-related risks?
                                            [answer] => There are no guarantees that your existing insurance policy will cover Covid-19-related risks. Check the details of your policy or contact your insurer for confirmation of the extent of cover provided.
                                        )

                                    [2] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 2
                                            [question] => Is there curtailment cover for Covid-19-related risks?
                                            [answer] => Certain policies have cover if a traveller needs to cut their trip short. The type of curtailment cover available varies depending on provider so be sure to check the details of your policy.
                                        )

                                    [3] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 3
                                            [question] => What happens if I contract coronavirus overseas?
                                            [answer] => Many insurance policies include medical cover should you fall ill with Covid-19 while abroad. 

All the insurers available through our travel insurance comparison tool offer emergency medical and repatriation cover for Covid-19-related claims as standard. Check your policy.
                                        )

                                    [4] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 4
                                            [question] => Can I get cover for my pre-existing medical conditions?
                                            [answer] => Yes, certain policies will cover claims related to pre-existing medical conditions, but they tend to have higher premiums because of the greater risk of a claim being made.

You will be expected to declare all your pre-existing medical conditions to your insurer so it can assess the potential risks associated with your condition. It’s imperative that you do not withhold any information from your insurer as doing so could invalidate any claim you make.
                                        )

                                    [5] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 5
                                            [question] => Will my insurer cover me if my airline goes out of business?
                                            [answer] => Only certain policies will cover you if your airline goes bust. The Air Travel Organiser’s Licencing (ATOL) which protects most air package holidays sold by travel businesses in the UK, also protects some flight bookings, typically when someone books flights (including UK domestic flights) but does not receive their tickets immediately.

The Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA) also provides protection for package holidays to destinations in the European Economic Area (EEA) and cover for linked travel arrangements – the purchase of two or more travel services for one trip.

There are exceptions to what ATOL and ABTA cover so do check their websites before travelling.
                                        )

                                    [6] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [index] => 6
                                            [question] => How do I claim on my travel insurance?
                                            [answer] => You should first bear in mind that insurers will only consider your claim after you have checked whether your holiday provider will offer a refund. If you accept a refund, vouchers or a credit note from your holiday provider you will not be able to claim from your insurer. Doing so is known as a ‘double claim’.

If a refund from the holiday provider is out of the question you should contact your insurer to claim for all non-refundable costs. This may include flights and accommodation but also transfer and excursion costs, for example.

Deadlines for claims should be stated in your policy. It may still be worth trying to claim even if the deadline has passed as some insurers have been more flexible with their deadlines during the pandemic.
                                        )

                                )

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                                (
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                                    [outboundSize] => 2
                                    [list] => Array
                                        (
                                            [0] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [text] => travel advice and rules here
                                                    [href] => https://www.gov.uk/guidance/travel-advice-novel-coronavirus
                                                    [hrefDomain] => www.gov.uk
                                                    [isOutbound] => 1
                                                )

                                            [1] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [text] => Foreign & Commonwealth Development Office
                                                    [href] => https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/foreign-commonwealth-development-office
                                                    [hrefDomain] => www.gov.uk
                                                    [isOutbound] => 1
                                                )

                                        )

                                )

                            [toc] => Array
                                (
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                                        (
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                                            [name] => 
                                            [tag] => h2
                                            [children] => Array
                                                (
                                                    [0] => stdClass Object
                                                        (
                                                            [level] => 3
                                                            [name] => Coverwise. 
                                                            [tag] => h3
                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                (
                                                                    [0] => stdClass Object
                                                                        (
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                                                                            [name] => Plan. 
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                                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                                (
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                                                                        )

                                                                    [1] => stdClass Object
                                                                        (
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                                                                        )

                                                                    [2] => stdClass Object
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                                                                            [children] => Array
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                                                                        )

                                                                    [3] => stdClass Object
                                                                        (
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                                                                        )

                                                                    [4] => stdClass Object
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                                                                            [tag] => h4
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                                                                        )

                                                                    [5] => stdClass Object
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                                                                            [level] => 4
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                                                                            [tag] => h4
                                                                            [children] => Array
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                                                                        )

                                                                )

                                                        )

                                                    [1] => stdClass Object
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                                                            [tag] => h3
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                                                                        )

                                                                    [1] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [2] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [3] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [4] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [5] => stdClass Object
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                                                    [2] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [2] => stdClass Object
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                                                                        )

                                                                    [3] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [4] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [5] => stdClass Object
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                                                                        )

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                                                        )

                                                    [3] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [1] => stdClass Object
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                                                                        )

                                                                    [2] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [3] => stdClass Object
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                                                                        )

                                                                    [4] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [5] => stdClass Object
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                                                                        )

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                                                    [4] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [3] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [4] => stdClass Object
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                                                    [5] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [1] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [2] => stdClass Object
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                                                                        )

                                                                    [3] => stdClass Object
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                                                                    [4] => stdClass Object
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                                                                        )

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                                                    [6] => stdClass Object
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                                                    [7] => stdClass Object
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                                                            [name] => Sainsbury’s Bank. 
                                                            [tag] => h3
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                                                                        )

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                                                                                (
                                                                                )

                                                                        )

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                                                        )

                                                    [8] => stdClass Object
                                                        (
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                                                            [tag] => h3
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                                                                    [0] => stdClass Object
                                                                        (
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                                                                                (
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                                                                        )

                                                                    [1] => stdClass Object
                                                                        (
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                                                                            [name] => Medical Cover. 
                                                                            [tag] => h4
                                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                                (
                                                                                )

                                                                        )

                                                                    [2] => stdClass Object
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                                                                            [name] => Cancellation Cover. 
                                                                            [tag] => h4
                                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                                (
                                                                                )

                                                                        )

                                                                    [3] => stdClass Object
                                                                        (
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                                                                                (
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                                                                        )

                                                                    [4] => stdClass Object
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                                                                            [tag] => h4
                                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                                (
                                                                                )

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                                                                            [tag] => h4
                                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                                (
                                                                                )

                                                                        )

                                                                )

                                                        )

                                                )

                                        )

                                    [1] => stdClass Object
                                        (
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                                            [name] => Travel Update. 
                                            [tag] => h2
                                            [children] => Array
                                                (
                                                )

                                        )

                                    [2] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [level] => 2
                                            [name] => What are the rules governing international travel into the UK?
                                            [tag] => h2
                                            [children] => Array
                                                (
                                                )

                                        )

                                    [3] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [level] => 2
                                            [name] => Which countries can I visit?
                                            [tag] => h2
                                            [children] => Array
                                                (
                                                )

                                        )

                                    [4] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [level] => 2
                                            [name] => Do any insurers provide cover for red countries?
                                            [tag] => h2
                                            [children] => Array
                                                (
                                                )

                                        )

                                    [5] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [level] => 2
                                            [name] => Tips for a pandemic-proof holiday. 
                                            [tag] => h2
                                            [children] => Array
                                                (
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                                                        (
                                                            [level] => 3
                                                            [name] => Take out travel insurance when you book. 
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                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                (
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                                                        )

                                                    [1] => stdClass Object
                                                        (
                                                            [level] => 3
                                                            [name] => What to look for when buying travel insurance. 
                                                            [tag] => h3
                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                (
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                                                        )

                                                    [2] => stdClass Object
                                                        (
                                                            [level] => 3
                                                            [name] => Check the FCDO’s travel guidelines. 
                                                            [tag] => h3
                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                (
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                                                    [3] => stdClass Object
                                                        (
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                                                            [tag] => h3
                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                (
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                                                        )

                                                )

                                        )

                                    [6] => stdClass Object
                                        (
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                                            [tag] => h2
                                            [children] => Array
                                                (
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                                        )

                                    [7] => stdClass Object
                                        (
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                                                (
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                                            [name] => Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). 
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                                                (
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                                                        (
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                                                            [name] => What protection does cover for Covid-19-related risks offer?
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                                                                (
                                                                )

                                                        )

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                                                        (
                                                            [level] => 3
                                                            [name] => Does my existing travel insurance policy cover Covid-19-related risks?
                                                            [tag] => h3
                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                (
                                                                )

                                                        )

                                                    [2] => stdClass Object
                                                        (
                                                            [level] => 3
                                                            [name] => Is there curtailment cover for Covid-19-related risks?
                                                            [tag] => h3
                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                (
                                                                )

                                                        )

                                                    [3] => stdClass Object
                                                        (
                                                            [level] => 3
                                                            [name] => What happens if I contract coronavirus overseas?
                                                            [tag] => h3
                                                            [children] => Array
                                                                (
                                                                )

                                                        )

                                                    [4] => stdClass Object
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                            [body] => Best Covid-19 Travel Insurance Policies Of January 2022 Candiece Cyrus Forbes Staff Published: Jan 6, 2022, 5:00pm Editorial Note: Forbes Advisor may earn a commission on sales made from partner links on this page, but that doesn't affect our editors' opinions or evaluations. Find out the latest news and views on the travel sector, including what’s happening with regard to rules, restrictions and the Covid-19 testing regime, by visiting our regular travel update Thinking about a Christmas trip or a skiing holiday? Maybe you’re already hatching ideas for travel in 2022… Whether you’re staying in the UK or heading overseas, the best travel insurance with cover for Covid-related risks included can provide peace of mind that you’ll have financial protection in the event of something going wrong. To help you find the best cover we’ve analysed 80 policies from 30 insurers and scored them based on how they will keep you protected should a Covid-19-related issue arise. Treatment abroad can be extremely expensive and costs would mount further if illness or injury meant it would be necessary to repatriate you to the UK. All the policies we reviewed have medical cover including repatriation costs. {{ showMobileIntroSection ? 'Read Less': 'Read More' }} {{ showSummarySection ? hideSummaryText : showSummaryText }} Coverwise Southdowns CoverForYou Able2Travel Coverwise Esure RAC Sainsbury’s Bank Southdowns Travel Update Tips for a pandemic-proof holiday What else can your insurance cover? Methodology Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) FEATURED PARTNER OFFER Coverwise. 5.0 Our star ratings are based on a range of criteria and are determined solely by our editorial team. See our methodology for more information. Plan. Select Platinum Medical Cover. £20 million Cancellation Cover. £6,000 Compare Quotes Plan. Select Platinum Medical Cover. £20 million Cancellation Cover. £6,000 Why We Picked It Coverwise’s Select Platinum plan provides the top medical, cancellation and curtailment cover we found. Extra Details Cancellation Cover for Covid-related risks: Yes Pros & Cons Offers some of the highest levels of cover across the board including cancellation cover (£6,000) and curtailment cover (£6,000) and medical cover of £20 million. £2,000 provided in hospital benefit. A higher level of hospital benefit is available elsewhere but this plan is still generous in all areas. £50 excess levied on claims. Cancellation Policy Details Accepted Cancellation Scenarios Fall ill with COVID-19 Are subject to compulsory quarantine before departing from the UK Are required to self-isolate, preventing you from leaving your home in your country of residence due to COVID-19 Suffer bodily injury, illness, or an unexpected complication of pregnancy Any other reason listed under ‘What is covered’ in ‘Section A – Cancellation’ of your policy wording Rejected Cancellation Scenarios You cannot travel or you choose not to travel because the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) advises against travel to your destination due to a pandemic The cancellation claim is because you will have to quarantine upon return to the United Kingdom (or your country of residence) Your claim is caused by a reason not listed under ‘What is covered’ in ‘Section A – Cancellation of your policy wording Your claim is caused by another reason listed under ‘What is not covered’ in ‘Section A – Cancellation’ of your policy wording Medical Policy Details Accepted Medical Scenarios Emergency medical treatment due to injury, illness, disease (including COVID-19), or unexpected complication of pregnancy Compulsory quarantine due to COVID-19 or other infectious disease Additional accommodation and repatriation expenses should you be unable to travel home as planned, due to an illness, injury, or unexpected complication of pregnancy (whilst abroad or on a valid UK trip) Any other reason listed under ‘What is covered’ in ‘Section B – Emergency medical and other expenses’ of your policy wording Rejected Medical Scenarios The Travel Advice Unit of the FCDO (or other regulatory authority) are advising against all or all but essential travel to your destination when you depart on your trip and your claim is related to the specific reasons for the travel advice/restrictions For example, if the FCDO advice was issued: due to COVID-19 and you contract COVID-19 due to civil unrest and you are injured because of the civil unrest Your claim is caused by another reason listed under ‘What is not covered’ in ‘Section B Emergency medical and other expenses’ of your policy wording FEATURED PARTNER OFFER Southdowns. 5.0 Our star ratings are based on a range of criteria and are determined solely by our editorial team. See our methodology for more information. Plan. Select Platinum Medical Cover. £20 million Cancellation Cover. £6,000 Compare Quotes Plan. Select Platinum Medical Cover. £20 million Cancellation Cover. £6,000 Why We Picked It The plan ranked well for medical, cancellation and curtailment cover. Extra Details Cancellation Cover for Covid-related risks: Yes Pros & Cons Offers some of the highest levels of cover across the board including cancellation cover (£6,000) and curtailment cover (£6,000) and medical cover of £20 million. £2,000 provided in hospital benefit. A higher level of hospital benefit is available elsewhere but this plan is still generous in all areas. £50 excess levied on claims. Cancellation Policy Details Accepted Cancellation Scenarios Fall ill with COVID-19 Are subject to compulsory quarantine before departing from the UK Are required to self-isolate, preventing you from leaving your home in your country of residence due to COVID-19 Suffer bodily injury, illness, or an unexpected complication of pregnancy Any other reason listed under ‘What is covered’ in ‘Section A –Cancellation’ of your policy wording Rejected Cancellation Scenarios You cannot travel, or you choose not to travel because the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) advises against travel to your destination due to a pandemic The cancellation claim is because you will have to quarantine upon return to the United Kingdom (or your country of residence) Your claim is caused by a reason not listed under ‘What is covered’ in ‘Section A – Cancellation of your policy wording Your claim is caused by another reason listed under What is not covered’ in ‘Section A – Cancellation’ of your policy wording Medical Policy Details Accepted Medical Scenarios Emergency medical treatment due to injury, illness, disease (including COVID-19), or unexpected complication of pregnancy Compulsory quarantine due to COVID-19 or other infectious disease Additional accommodation and repatriation expenses should you be unable to travel home as planned, due to an illness, injury, or unexpected complication of pregnancy (whilst abroad or on a valid UK trip) Any other reason listed under ‘What is covered’ in ‘Section B – Emergency medical and other expenses’ of your policy wording Rejected Medical Scenarios The Travel Advice Unit of the FCDO (or other regulatory authority) are advising against all or all but essential travel to your destination when you depart on your trip and your claim is related to the specific reasons for the travel advice/restrictions. For example, if the FCDO advice was issued: due to COVID-19 and you contract COVID-19 due to civil unrest and you are injured because of the civil unrest Your claim is caused by another reason listed under ‘What is not covered’ in ‘Section B – Emergency medical and other expenses’ of your policy wording” FEATURED PARTNER OFFER CoverForYou. 4.0 Our star ratings are based on a range of criteria and are determined solely by our editorial team. See our methodology for more information. Plan. Premier Medical Cover. £15 million Cancellation Cover. £6,000 Compare Quotes Plan. Premier Medical Cover. £15 million Cancellation Cover. £6,000 Why We Picked It CoverForYou’s Premier plan ranked well for cancellation cover and curtailment cover. Extra Details Cancellation Cover for Covid-related risks: Yes Pros & Cons High levels of cancellation and curtailment cover (£6,000 each). Although this plan does not provide as much medical cover as its competitors above, it is still generous (£15 million). Medical excess (£50) and cancellation excess (£50) is payable on claims. A higher level of hospital benefit is available elsewhere but this plan is still generous in all areas. Cancellation Policy Details Accepted Cancellation Scenarios You fall ill with COVID-19 (or other Pandemic illness) at home and cannot travel. Covered as standard. Subject to medical certification / test result. No cover if symptoms or diagnosis occurred prior to your policy purchase You or a household member has to self isolate at home and cannot travel. Covered as standard. Subject to medical certification / test result. No cover if you were requested to isolate prior to your policy purchase New Government or other regulatory authority restrictions that did not exist at time of purchasing insurance/booking holiday are later introduced due to a non-pandemic illness and preventing you from travelling. Covered as standard New travel restrictions which did not exist at time of purchasing insurance/booking holiday are introduced by the Government in relation to a non-pandemic illness requiring you to quarantine upon arrival and you are no longer able to travel. Covered as standard You are due to stay with family. A family member who you are due to stay with has to self isolate due to pandemic illness You wish to cancel trip as you no longer have anywhere to stay. Covered as standard. Subject to medical certification / test result You have been made redundant and cannot afford to travel anymore. Covered as standard. There is no cover under your policy for circumstances known to you at the point of purchase Your airline goes into administration due to the pandemic. Covered as standard. Subject to your chosen level of cover including Scheduled Airline Failure Your travel provider (other than an airline) goes into administration due to the pandemic Covered as standard. Subject to your chosen level of cover including End Supplier Failure Rejected Cancellation Scenarios You are due to travel but the country to which you are travelling have since introduced a quarantine period upon your arrival. You no longer wish to travel and want to cancel your holiday. No cover. Your policy does not cover any claim due to quarantine requirements at your destination Government or other regulatory authority restrictions due to a pandemic were already in place at time of purchasing insurance / booking holiday and restrictions remain in place at time of departure preventing you from travelling. No Cover. There is no cover under yourpolicy for circumstances known to you at the point of purchase or to cancel the trip due to apandemic Current government restrictions are removed but are later reinstated due to COVID-19 pandemic (or other Pandemic illness) and prevent you from travelling. No Cover. Your policy does not cover cancellation due to a pandemic No government restrictions are in place at time of purchasing insurance/booking holiday. A new pandemic is declared and government restrictions are put in place and prevent you from travelling. No Cover. Your policy does not cover cancellation due to a pandemic Government restrictions are introduced due to a pandemic that do not restrict you from travelling to your destination but require you to be quarantined on return from your trip. You no longer wish to travel and want to cancel your holiday. No Cover. Your policy does not cover cancellation due to a pandemic or disinclination to travel You are due to travel but hear that there are a number of cases of a pandemic illness near where you are staying. You no longer wish to travel and want to cancel your holiday. No Cover. Your policy does not cover disinclination to travel You are or have recently been furloughed and no longer wish to travel. No Cover. Your policy does not cover disinclination to travel You booked your trip to attend a specific event (i.e. Wedding, Sporting Event, Trade Show) which has been cancelled. You no longer wish to travel and want to cancel your trip.No Cover. Your policy does not cover disinclination to travel for any reason (including due to event cancellation) You booked your flight and hotel separately. Your flight is proceeding as planned but your hotel has cancelled your booking, there are other hotels available but you do not wish to travel if you cannot stay at your originally planned hotel. No Cover Your policy does not cover disinclination to travel for any reason (including due to a change of venue) You are due to travel and your hotel advises that certain facilities may now be restricted or closed during your stay. You no longer wish to travel and want to cancel your holiday. No Cover. Your policy does not cover disinclination to travel for any reason (including lack of advertised facilities at your hotel or venue) Your holiday has been cancelled due to a pandemic and your provider is only offering you a voucher rather than a refund. No Cover. Your policy only covers irrecoverable  losses. Please note that in most cases you will have a legal right to a refund and should take the matter further with your provider You are due to travel to pre-booked accommodation as a group of households however local restrictions have limited the number of households that may stay in the same accommodation. You are unable to travel and want to cancel your holiday. (i.e. Three households have booked a cottage and government restrictions limit to two households in one accommodation). No Cover This is not an insured peril under your policy Medical Policy Details Accepted Medical Scenarios You fall ill with COVID-19 (or other Pandemic illness) abroad and need to be repatriated to the UK Covered as standard. No cover if travelling against government or other regulatory authority (i.e. FCDO) or medical advice You fall ill with COVID-19 (or other Pandemic illness) abroad and you need to extend your stay as a result of Coronavirus incurring additional costs. Covered as standard. No cover if travelling against government or other regulatory authority (i.e. FCDO) or medical advice FEATURED PARTNER OFFER Able2Travel. 4.0 Our star ratings are based on a range of criteria and are determined solely by our editorial team. See our methodology for more information. Plan. A2T Platinum CYTI Medical Cover. £10 million Cancellation Cover. £5,000 Compare Quotes Plan. A2T Platinum CYTI Medical Cover. £10 million Cancellation Cover. £5,000 Why We Picked It This plan offers generous cancellation and curtailment cover. Extra Details Cancellation Cover for Covid-Related Risks: Yes Pros & Cons Generous level of cancellation and curtailment cover (£5,000 each). Good amount of hospital benefit (£2,000) Lower level of medical cover (£10 million). Medical excess (£50) and cancellation excess (£50) is payable on claims. Cancellation Policy Details Accepted Cancellation Scenarios Pro-rata costs of the unused travel and accommodation costs (including unused pre-booked excursions up to a value of £100) that have been paid or where there is a contract to pay that cannot be recovered from anywhere else if the cancellation or curtailment of your trip is necessary and unavoidable as a result of you dying or you suffering accidental bodily injury, or you testing positive for Coronavirus (Covid-19) within 14 days of your trip departure date, or you being admitted to hospital due to testing positive for Coronavirus (Covid-19) since you purchased your policy or you suffering an unexpected Illness. Rejected Cancellation Scenarios Any claim if, at the time your policy starts or booking a trip, whichever was the later, any person on whom the trip depends including the person with whom you are travelling or have arranged to travel, a person with whom You have arranged to reside with temporarily, a relative, friend or business colleague had a medical condition for which he or she:• was receiving treatment at hospital (other than where they go to hospital for check-ups for a stable condition, at regular intervals which have been arranged beforehand);• was waiting for a hospital consultation, investigations or treatment (other than where they go to hospital for check-ups for a stable condition, at regular intervals which have been arranged beforehand);• had been given a terminal prognosis, or been told that their condition is likely to get worse in the next 12 months.• any claims arising directly or indirectly from Coronavirus (Covid-19):• if you do not have an official positive test result confirming your diagnosis within 14 days of your trip departure date, or you have not been admitted to hospital due to testing positive for Coronavirus (Covid-19) since you purchased your policy;• if you are advised to quarantine or you choose to self- isolate due to a person you have come into contact with having Coronavirus (Covid-19);• under ‘you are covered’ points b., c., d. or e.; if a medical professional advises you not to travel as you have underlying health conditions that place you ’at a higher risk’ from Coronavirus (Covid-19);• as a result of Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) advice against all (or all but essential) travel to your intended destination;• as a result of local government restrictions or directives prohibiting or restricting entry (for example, self isolation, quarantine or lockdown measures) to your intended destination or on your return home;• any costs of Coronavirus (Covid-19) testing, unless you are admitted to hospital as an in-patient outside of your home country, as a result of an accident or illness that is covered under section 2 – emergency medical expenses and repatriation.• any claim directly or indirectly related to the fear or threat of a pandemic and/or epidemic, including but not limited to Coronavirus (Covid-19). Medical Policy Details Accepted Medical Scenarios Reasonable costs necessarily incurred as a result of you sustaining accidental bodily injury, unexpected illness (including with symptoms of or testing positive for Coronavirus (Covid-19)), or death during your trip in respect of;a. emergency medical, surgical and hospital treatment and transportation. At the sole discretion of our nominated emergency service, who reserve the right to make the final decision as to whether or not it is medically necessary, this also includes the cost of repatriation to your home country, by whatever means deemed medically necessary;b. additional travel and accommodation expenses (on a bed & breakfast basis) to enable you to return home if you are unable to travel as originally planned. A maximum amount of £2,000 per insured person applies if you have to extend your trip because you have tested positive for Coronavirus (Covid-19).c. additional travel and accommodation expenses (on a bed & breakfast basis) for a travelling companion to stay with you and accompany you home, or a relative or friend to travel from your home country to stay with you and accompany you home subject to you obtaining approval from our nominated emergency service prior to incurring any cost. This is extended for up to two people if you are under 18 years of age.d. returning your remains to your home or of a funeral in the country where you died, up to the equivalent cost of returning your remains to your home country.e. with the prior agreement of our nominated emergency service, your necessary additional travel expenses to return home following the death, injury or illness of a travelling companion insured by us or of your (or your travelling companion’s) relative or business colleague in your home country. Rejected Medical Scenarios Any directly or indirectly related claims if you or your travelling companions have any condition (including Coronavirus (Covid-19)) that has been suffered or for which medical advice (including routine check-ups), investigation, treatment or medication has been received within the 24 months prior to the date that this insurance was arranged or the date that you subsequently made arrangements for a trip (on an annual multi-trip policy) or you extended the original period of your insurance. We may agree not to apply the above or to accept this insurance at special terms but only if you supply us with details of your condition. Please contact Able2Travel on 01483 806825. Any costs of Coronavirus (Covid-19) testing, unless you are admitted to hospital as an in-patient outside of your home country, as a result of an accident or illness that is covered under section 2 – Emergency Medical Expenses and Repatriation. FEATURED PARTNER OFFER Coverwise. 4.0 Our star ratings are based on a range of criteria and are determined solely by our editorial team. See our methodology for more information. Plan. Select Gold Medical Cover. £20 million Cancellation Cover. £3,000 Compare Quotes Plan. Select Gold Medical Cover. £20 million Cancellation Cover. £3,000 Why We Picked It The plan offers generous medical cover and hospital benefit. Extra Details Cancellation Cover for Covid-Related Risks: Yes Pros & Cons Generous level of medical cover (£20 million) £2,000 provided in hospital benefit Lower levels of cancellation and curtailment cover (£3,000 each) Medical excess (£50) and cancellation excess (£50) payable on claims Cancellation Policy Details Accepted Cancellation Scenarios Fall ill with COVID-19Are subject to compulsory quarantine before departing from the UK Are required to self-isolate, preventing you from leaving your home in your country of residence due to COVID-19 Suffer bodily injury, illness, or an unexpected complication of pregnancy Any other reason listed under ‘What is covered’ in ‘Section A – Cancellation’ of your policy wording Rejected Cancellation Scenarios You cannot travel or you choose not to travel because the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) advises against travel to your destination due to a pandemic The cancellation claim is because you will have to quarantine upon return to the United Kingdom (or your country of residence) Your claim is caused by a reason not listed under ‘What is covered’ in ‘Section A – Cancellation of your policy wording Your claim is caused by another reason listed under ‘What is not covered’ in ‘Section A – Cancellation’ of your policy wording Medical Policy Details Accepted Medical Scenarios Emergency medical treatment due to injury, illness, disease (including COVID-19), or unexpected complication of pregnancy Compulsory quarantine due to COVID-19 or other infectious disease Additional accommodation and repatriation expenses should you be unable to travel home as planned, due to an illness, injury, or unexpected complication of pregnancy (whilst abroad or on a valid UK trip) Any other reason listed under ‘What is covered’ in ‘Section B – Emergency medical and other expenses’ of your policy wording Rejected Medical Scenarios The Travel Advice Unit of the FCDO (or other regulatory authority) are advising against all or all but essential travel to your destination when you depart on your trip and your claim is related to the specific reasons for the travel advice/restrictions. For example, if the FCDO advice was issued: due to COVID-19 and you contract COVID-19 due to civil unrest and you are injured because of the civil unrest Your claim is caused by another reason listed under ‘What is not covered’ in ‘Section B – Emergency medical and other expenses’ of your policy wording” FEATURED PARTNER OFFER Esure. 4.0 Our star ratings are based on a range of criteria and are determined solely by our editorial team. See our methodology for more information. Plan. Extra Med Medical Cover. £15 million Cancellation Cover. £5,000 Compare Quotes Plan. Extra Med Medical Cover. £15 million Cancellation Cover. £5,000 Why We Picked It The plan provides generous levels of cover. Extra Details Cancellation Cover for Covid-Related Risks: Yes, but only valid if you have had the recommended Covid vaccinations Pros & Cons Generous level of medical cover (£15 million). Generous level of cancellation and curtailment cover (£5,000 each). Medical excess (£70) and cancellation excess (£70) is payable on claims. Lower level of hospital benefit (£1,500). Cancellation Policy Details Accepted Cancellation Scenarios We provide to each Insured Person in total per insured journey, up to the sum insured shown in the Table of Benefits, following necessary and unavoidable cancellation of a insured journey as a result of:1. You, Your Relative, a member of Your household or travelling companion or a friend with whom You had arranged to stay has a diagnosis of COVID-19 within 14 days of Your booked departure date, as certified by a Medical Practitioner following a medically approved test showing a positive result for COVID-19.2. You being denied boarding on Your pre-booked outbound travel due to You contracting COVID-19, as certified by a Medical Practitioner following a medically approved test showing a positive result for COVID-19 or having a confirmed temperature above 38 degrees Celsius. Rejected Cancellation Scenarios There is no cover under cancellation if You contract COVID-19 and You have not had the recommended vaccination(s)when offered to You. (Consideration will given where You were medically unable to have the vaccination, and this is shown on your medical records. Medical Policy Details Accepted Medical Scenarios Trips outside the United KingdomWe provide to each insured person in total, up to the sums insured shown in the Table of Benefits, in the event of an unforeseen medical emergency during a trip inside the United Kingdom as a result of You contracting COVID-19, as certified by a medical practitioner following a medically approved test showing a positive result for COVID-19.What is Covered1. Emergency medical and repatriation expenses:a. Reasonable and necessary medical and hospital expenses, including the cost of ambulance transport where medically necessary to take you to hospital; andb. Returning you to the United Kingdom provided this is medically safe and authorised by us or our assistance company; andc. The cost of a medical escort where this is deemed necessary by us or our assistance company, in the event of your emergency repatriation to the United Kingdom; and2. Reasonable additional travel and accommodation expenses (room only) for you to extend your stay until you are medically fit to returnto the United Kingdom; and3. Reasonable additional travelling and accommodation expenses to repatriate you to the United Kingdom when you are denied boarding on Your pre-booked return travel due to you contracting COVID-19.4. Confinement benefit: a benefit payment of £30 for each complete 24 hour period up to £300 where you are ordered into self-isolation in your holiday accommodation by a relevant Government authority, as a result of you contracting COVID-19. Trips inside the United KingdomWe provide to each insured person in total, up to the sums insured shown in the Table of Benefits, in the event of an unforeseen medical emergency during a trip inside the United Kingdom of 2 or more consecutive nights in pre-booked accommodation as a result of You contracting COVID-19, as certified by a medical practitioner following a medically approved test showing a positive result for COVID-19.What is covered1. Extra transport and accommodation for you and one other person who stays with you, or who has to travel to you from within your home country and/or travel back with you, if this is necessary due to medical advice.2. your body or ashes to be transported home. Rejected Medical Scenarios There is no cover under Emergency medical & repatriation expenses if You contract COVID-19 and You have not had the recommended vaccination(s) when offered to You. (Consideration will given where You were medically unable to have the vaccination, and this is shown on your medical records. FEATURED PARTNER OFFER RAC. 4.0 Our star ratings are based on a range of criteria and are determined solely by our editorial team. See our methodology for more information. Plan. Black Travel Plus Medical Cover. £15 million Cancellation Cover. £5,000 Compare Quotes Plan. Black Travel Plus Medical Cover. £15 million Cancellation Cover. £5,000 Why We Picked It The plan provides generous medical, cancellation and curtailment cover. Extra Details Cancellation Cover for Covid-Related Risks: Yes Pros & Cons Generous level of medical cover (£15 million). Generous level of cancellation and curtailment cover (£5,000 each) . Good amount of hospital benefit (£1,500). Medical excess (£70) and cancellation excess (£70) payable on claims. Cancellation Policy Details Accepted Cancellation Scenarios The necessary and unavoidable cancellation as a result of you, your relative, a member of your household, travelling companion or a friend with whom you had arranged to stay has a diagnosis of COVID-19 within 14 days of your booked departure date, as certified by a medical practitioner following a medically approved test showing a positive result for COVID-19 You are denied boarding on your pre-booked outbound travel due to you contracting COVID-19, as certified by a medical practitioner following a medically approved test showing a positive result for COVID-19 Rejected Cancellation Scenarios Travel or accommodation costs where a credit or voucher has been provided in lieu of a cash refund Claims arising directly or indirectly from an outbreak of COVID-19 resulting in a national or local lockdown or any restrictions of movement affecting the area where your home is located, the country or specific area or event to which you were travelling to or through, existing or being publicly announced by the date you purchased, renewed or extended this insurance or at the time of booking any trip, whichever is later, or in the case of claims under subsection A, started your trip whichever was later Any claim where you are experiencing symptoms of COVID-19, or have been told to self-isolate at the time you purchased, renewed or extended this insurance, or at the time of booking any trip, whichever is later, or in the case of claims under sub-section A, started your trip whichever was later Your quarantine when it has been imposed on a community, geographic location or vessel imposed by a government or public authority Any claim made under the COVID-19 cover section in addition to a claim under either Section 1: Medical emergency and repatriationexpenses or Section 2: Cancellation and cutting short your trip of this policy Medical Policy Details Rejected Medical Scenarios Travel or accommodation costs where a credit or voucher has been provided in lieu of a cash refund Claims arising directly or indirectly from an outbreak of COVID-19 resulting in a national or local lockdown or any restrictions of movement affecting the area where your home is located, the country or specific area or event to which you were travelling to or through, existing or being publicly announced by the date you purchased, renewed or extended this insurance or at the time of booking any trip, whichever is later, or in the case of claims under subsection A, started your trip whichever was later Any claim where you are experiencing symptoms of COVID-19, or have been told to self-isolate at the time you purchased, renewed or extended this insurance, or at the time of booking any trip, whichever is later, or in the case of claims under sub-section A, started your trip whichever was later Your quarantine when it has been imposed on a community, geographic location or vessel imposed by a government or public authority Any claim made under the COVID-19 cover section in addition to a claim under either Section 1: Medical emergency and repatriation expenses or Section 2: Cancellation and cutting short your trip of this policy FEATURED PARTNER OFFER Sainsbury’s Bank. 4.0 Our star ratings are based on a range of criteria and are determined solely by our editorial team. See our methodology for more information. Plan. Premier Travel Plus Medical Cover. £15 million Cancellation Cover. £5,000 Compare Quotes Plan. Premier Travel Plus Medical Cover. £15 million Cancellation Cover. £5,000 Why We Picked It The plan provides generous cover across all areas. Extra Details Cancellation Cover for Covid-Related Risks: Yes, but only valid if you have had the recommended Covid vaccinations Pros & Cons Generous level of medical cover (£15 million). Generous level of cancellation and curtailment cover (£5,000 each). Medical excess (£70) and cancellation excess (£70) is payable on claims. Lower level of hospital benefit (£1,500). Cancellation Policy Details Accepted Cancellation Scenarios The necessary and unavoidable cancellation as a result of you, your relative, a member of your household, travelling companion or a friend with whom you had arranged to stay has a diagnosis of COVID-19 within 14 days of your booked departure date, as certified by a medical practitioner following a medically approved test showing a positive result for COVID-19 You are denied boarding on your pre-booked outbound travel due to you contracting COVID-19, as certified by a medical practitioner following a medically approved test showing a positive result for COVID-19 Rejected Cancellation Scenarios Travel or accommodation costs where a credit or voucher has been provided in lieu of a cash refund – Claims arising directly or indirectly from an outbreak of COVID-19 resulting in a national or local lockdown or any restrictions of movement affecting the area where your home is located, the country or specific area or event to which you were travelling to or through, existing or being publicly announced by the date you purchased, renewed or extended this insurance or at the time of booking any trip, whichever is later, or in the case of claims under sub-section A, started your trip whichever was later – Any claim where you are experiencing symptoms of COVID-19, or have been told to self-isolate at the time you purchased, renewed or extended this insurance, or at the time of booking any trip, whichever is later, or in the case of claims under sub-section A, started your trip whichever was later Your quarantine when it has been imposed on a community, geographic location or vessel imposed by a government or public authority Medical Policy Details Accepted Medical Scenarios Reasonable and necessary medical and hospital expenses, including the cost of the rescue service to take you to hospital; and Returning you to the UK provided this is authorised by us or the Medical Assistance Helpline; and The cost of a medical escort where this is deemed necessary by us or the Medical Assistance Helpline, in the event of your emergency repatriation to the UK; and Reasonable additional travel and accommodation expenses (room only) for you to extend your stay until you are medically fit to return to the UK; and Reasonable additional travelling and accommodation expenses to repatriate you to the UK when you are denied boarding on your pre-booked return travel due to you contracting COVID-19, as certified by a medical practitioner following a medically approved test showing a positive result for COVID-19; and Confinement benefit: a benefit payment of £30 for each complete 24 hour period up to £300 where you are ordered into self-isolation in your holiday accommodation by a relevant Government authority, as a result of you contracting COVID-19, as certified by a medical practitioner following a medically approved test showing a positive result for COVID-19 Confinement benefit: a benefit payment of £30 for each complete 24 hour period up to £300 where you are ordered into self-isolation in your holiday accommodation by a relevant Government authority, as a result of you contracting COVID-19, as certified by a medical practitioner following a medically approved test showing a positive result for COVID-19 Rejected Medical Scenarios Travel or accommodation costs where a credit or voucher has been provided in lieu of a cash refund Claims arising directly or indirectly from an outbreak of COVID-19 resulting in a national or local lockdown or any restrictions of movement affecting the area where your home is located, the country or specific area or event to which you were travelling to or through, existing or being publicly announced by the date you purchased, renewed or extended this insurance or at the time of booking any trip, whichever is later, or in the case of claims under sub-section A, started your trip whichever was later Any claim where you are experiencing symptoms of COVID-19, or have been told to self-isolate at the time you purchased, renewed or extended this insurance, or at the time of booking any trip, whichever is later, or in the case of claims under sub-section A, started your trip whichever was later Your quarantine when it has been imposed on a community, geographic location or vessel imposed by a government or public authority Any claim made under the COVID-19 cover section in addition to a claim under either Section 1: Medical emergency and repatriation expenses or Section 2: Cancellation and cutting short your trip of this policy FEATURED PARTNER OFFER Southdowns. 4.0 Our star ratings are based on a range of criteria and are determined solely by our editorial team. See our methodology for more information. Plan. Select Gold Medical Cover. £20 million Cancellation Cover. £3,000 Compare Quotes Plan. Select Gold Medical Cover. £20 million Cancellation Cover. £3,000 Why We Picked It The plan provides best-in-class medical cover with generous hospital benefit. Extra Details Cancellation Cover for Covid-Related Risks: Yes Pros & Cons Generous level of medical cover (£20 million). £2,000 provided in hospital benefit. Average level of cancellation and curtailment cover (£3,000). Medical excess (£50) and cancellation excess (£50) is payable on claims. Cancellation Policy Details Accepted Cancellation Scenarios Fall ill with COVID-19 Are subject to compulsory quarantine before departing from the UK Are required to self-isolate, preventing you from leaving your home in your country of residence due to COVID-19 Suffer bodily injury, illness, or an unexpected complication of pregnancy Any other reason listed under ‘What is covered’ in ‘Section A – Cancellation’ of your policy wording Rejected Cancellation Scenarios You cannot travel, or you choose not to travel because the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) advises against travel to your destination due to a pandemic The cancellation claim is because you will have to quarantine upon return to the United Kingdom (or your country of residence) Your claim is caused by a reason not listed under ‘What is covered’ in ‘Section A – Cancellation of your policy wording Your claim is caused by another reason listed under ‘What is not covered’ in ‘Section A – Cancellation’ of your policy wording” Medical Policy Details Accepted Medical Scenarios Emergency medical treatment due to injury, illness, disease (including COVID-19), or unexpected complication of pregnancy Compulsory quarantine due to COVID-19 or other infectious disease Additional accommodation and repatriation expenses should you be unable to travel home as planned, due to an illness, injury, or unexpected complication of pregnancy (whilst abroad or on a valid UK trip) Any other reason listed under ‘What is covered’ in ‘Section B – Emergency medical and other expenses’ of your policy wording Rejected Medical Scenarios The Travel Advice Unit of the FCDO (or other regulatory authority) are advising against all or all but essential travel to your destination when you depart on your trip and your claim is related to the specific reasons for the travel advice/restrictions. For example, if the FCDO advice was issued: due to COVID-19 and you contract COVID-19 due to civil unrest and you are injured because of the civil unrest Your claim is caused by another reason listed under ‘What is not covered’ in ‘Section B – Emergency medical and other expenses’ of your policy wording Travel Update. What are the rules governing international travel into the UK? The rules and restrictions on international travel have changed frequently, often at short notice, over the course of the pandemic. Travellers to and from the UK, including those returning to the UK from overseas, are often subject to different requirements according to their vaccination status, age, and which nation within the UK they are bound for. Visit this page for the latest information. You can find the latest government travel advice and rules here. Note also that countries you are planning to visit may have their own entry requirements and restrictions, so check before making arrangements and again before travelling. Which countries can I visit? The Foreign & Commonwealth Development Office (FCDO) issues advice on which destinations are safe to visit based on a range of factors, including those related to Covid-19.  It is important to check the FCDO’s advice for changes  before purchasing your holiday and travel insurance, and again before departing. If you travel against FCDO advice, your travel insurance is likely to be rendered invalid unless you bought it from a specialist insurer which specified that cover would be provided in your chosen destination. Note also that countries you are planning to visit may have their own entry requirements and restrictions, so check before making arrangements and again before travelling. Do any insurers provide cover for red countries? CoverForYou, Cedar Tree and Outbacker are among the insurers who provide cover for travel to Red list countries. The change to their existing and new single-trip and annual multi-trip policies came into effect 20 May. Cover varies as follows: FCDO advises against all travel  No cover FCDO advises against all but essential travel, and your travel is deemed essential Full cover FCDO advises against all but essential travel, and your travel is not essential Cover is provided, but excludes any claim arising, either directly or indirectly, from the reason the FCDO advice against travel is in place. Reasons for essential travel can include:  work charity work education elite sport legal proceedings property medical providing care, end of life and funerals weddings children elections or referendums Visiting friends or family, going on a personal holiday and going on a working/volunteering holiday are not deemed essential reasons for travel. Policyholders travelling to countries where the FCDO has advised against all but essential travel will be covered for claims not relating to Covid-19, such as tripping and breaking an ankle. Covid-19-related claims such as contracting the virus or accommodation becoming unavailable due to the pandemic will not be covered. Tips for a pandemic-proof holiday. Take out travel insurance when you book. It’s best to buy travel insurance at the same time as you book your holiday. This will ensure that you have cancellation cover straight away. What to look for when buying travel insurance. Travel insurance that reflects the realities of Covid-19 will provide extra cover such as: cancellation cover if you or someone in your party tests positive within 14 days of your departure date cancellation cover if a loved one dies of Covid-19 ahead of your departure date cancellation cover if you miss your flight because the results of a required Covid-19 test are not returned in time curtailment cover if you are not allowed entry into your destination country because of a failed test curtailment cover if you are required to enter quarantine while you are away. When reviewing what is on offer from various policies, look for sections of the policy documents or ‘key features’ literature that set out the extent of cover for Covid-19-related risks and choose accordingly. It’s worth paying attention to an exclusions that might apply, so you know what to expect. Many insurers have, say, three levels of cover, which might be presented as Bronze, Silver and Gold, and priced accordingly. A Bronze policy might, for example, provide cancellation cover up to £2,000, while the Gold version might go up to £5,000. You’ll then need to balance the required premium against the amount of cover that would give you adequate protection. Check the FCDO’s travel guidelines. It’s unlikely you will be covered for cancellation if the FCDO changes its advice on travel to your holiday destination, if an airline or travel company postpones your trip without offering a refund, or if a local or national lockdown prevents you from travelling. You won’t be able to claim for cancellation if you simply don’t want to travel (called ‘disinclination to travel’). If your flight is cancelled your airline should offer you a full refund or an alternative departure date. Check if your destination has Covid-19 restrictions in place. Bear in mind that some destinations insist on coronavirus testing before you leave the UK, or upon arrival, so check the rules of the country to which you’re going. If you need to quarantine while on holiday, you may be covered if it delays your return to the UK – again, check with your insurance provider. What else can your insurance cover? In addition to cover for medical treatment/ Covid-related risks, travel insurance will also cover: Baggage and possessions: You will be able to claim on your insurance if your baggage or any other possessions are lost, stolen or damaged. Scheduled airline failure insurance (SAFI): You will be reimbursed the cost of your flight if the airline should go bust. Personal liability: You will be covered for compensation claims made against you if you’re found responsible for causing injury, death or damage. Personal accident: If you are permanently disabled or killed in an accident, your policy will make a payment to you or to your estate. Legal expenses: Your insurer will help cover legal costs to pursue compensation or damages following personal injury or other disputed loss while you’re abroad. Excess: Most insurance policies require you to contribute a certain amount towards any claim you make, known as the excess. This sum will be deducted from your claim pay-out. Methodology. We used data from our travel insurance partner CYTI to score the following: Cover for cancellation due to Covid-19-related risks: We scored insurers five points if they offer some form of cancellation cover for Covid-19-related risks in addition to medical and curtailment cover Covid-19-related risks. Level of cancellation cover: We reviewed the level of cancellation cover provided under each policy. Insurers were awarded points on a scale of one to five with those offering the most generous pay-out for needing to cancel a holiday earning the maximum of five points. Level of cancellation excess: Policies were scored points on a scale of one to five. Those with less excess to pay earned more points. Level of curtailment cover: Policies were scored points on a scale of one to five. Those with a higher level of pay-out for needing to return home earlier than planned earned more points. Level of medical cover: Policies were scored points on a scale of one to five. Those with a higher level of pay-out for medical costs earned more points. Medical excess Policies were scored points on a scale of one to five. Those with less excess to pay earned more points. Hospital benefit: Policies were scored points on a scale of one to five. Those with higher levels of hospital benefit earned more points. The scores for each company were totalled, with special weighting given to cover for cancellation due to Covid-related risks. Companies with matching scores were ranked in alphabetical order. Each company has been awarded a Forbes Advisor star rating out of a total five stars. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). What protection does cover for Covid-19-related risks offer? Protection for Covid-19-related risks covers the cost of  your medical treatment and repatriation as a minimum. Some policies will additionally costs incurred if you needed to cancel your holiday due to Covid. The specific reasons insurers will accept for a Covid-related claim do vary, so be sure to check your policy for the details. Does my existing travel insurance policy cover Covid-19-related risks? There are no guarantees that your existing insurance policy will cover Covid-19-related risks. Check the details of your policy or contact your insurer for confirmation of the extent of cover provided. Is there curtailment cover for Covid-19-related risks? Certain policies have cover if a traveller needs to cut their trip short. The type of curtailment cover available varies depending on provider so be sure to check the details of your policy. What happens if I contract coronavirus overseas? Many insurance policies include medical cover should you fall ill with Covid-19 while abroad.  All the insurers available through our travel insurance comparison tool offer emergency medical and repatriation cover for Covid-19-related claims as standard. Check your policy. Can I get cover for my pre-existing medical conditions? Yes, certain policies will cover claims related to pre-existing medical conditions, but they tend to have higher premiums because of the greater risk of a claim being made. You will be expected to declare all your pre-existing medical conditions to your insurer so it can assess the potential risks associated with your condition. It’s imperative that you do not withhold any information from your insurer as doing so could invalidate any claim you make. Will my insurer cover me if my airline goes out of business? Only certain policies will cover you if your airline goes bust. The Air Travel Organiser’s Licencing (ATOL) which protects most air package holidays sold by travel businesses in the UK, also protects some flight bookings, typically when someone books flights (including UK domestic flights) but does not receive their tickets immediately. The Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA) also provides protection for package holidays to destinations in the European Economic Area (EEA) and cover for linked travel arrangements – the purchase of two or more travel services for one trip. There are exceptions to what ATOL and ABTA cover so do check their websites before travelling. How do I claim on my travel insurance? You should first bear in mind that insurers will only consider your claim after you have checked whether your holiday provider will offer a refund. If you accept a refund, vouchers or a credit note from your holiday provider you will not be able to claim from your insurer. Doing so is known as a ‘double claim’. If a refund from the holiday provider is out of the question you should contact your insurer to claim for all non-refundable costs. This may include flights and accommodation but also transfer and excursion costs, for example. Deadlines for claims should be stated in your policy. It may still be worth trying to claim even if the deadline has passed as some insurers have been more flexible with their deadlines during the pandemic. Information provided on Forbes Advisor is for educational purposes only. Your financial situation is unique and the products and services we review may not be right for your circumstances. We do not offer financial advice, advisory or brokerage services, nor do we recommend or advise individuals or to buy or sell particular stocks or securities. Performance information may have changed since the time of publication. Past performance is not indicative of future results.Forbes adheres to strict editorial integrity standards. To the best of our knowledge, all content is accurate as of the date posted, though offers contained herein may no longer be available. The opinions expressed are the author’s alone and have not been provided, approved, or otherwise endorsed by our partners. Candiece Cyrus Forbes Staff I have been writing for newspapers, magazines and online publications for over 10 years. My passion is providing, in a way that is easily accessible and digestible to all, the knowledge needed for readers to not only manage their finances, but financially flourish.
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                            [body] => Coronavirus and travel insurance What does the COVID-19 pandemic mean to holidaymakers and how is the outbreak affecting insurance policies? Read on to find out more. Start a quote What does the COVID-19 pandemic mean to holidaymakers and how is the outbreak affecting insurance policies? Read on to find out more. Josh Daniels Head of Travel Insurance 9 minute read Do you know someone who could benefit from this article? Posted 3 NOVEMBER 2021 Does travel insurance cover pandemics? Some providers have restricted cancellation and travel disruption cover in policies bought after coronavirus was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020. At Compare the Market, the policies we show you may cover claims related to COVID-19 for emergency medical and repatriation costs in line with your chosen policy. However, other types of claims related to COVID-19, such as cancellation, vary by provider, so we encourage you to check your policy before purchasing. When you compare with Compare the Market, you’ll see policies labelled as providing additional protection due to COVID-19 in the list of quotes. For a summary of what that includes, click on "More details". Related articles. Travel insurance Compare travel insurance for China Compare travel insurance for Asia Compare travel insurance for Hong Kong Compare travel insurance for Singapore Compare travel insurance for Italy Can I get a travel insurance policy that covers COVID-19? Yes, you can now get insurance that offers cover for disruption related to COVID-19, whether you’re holidaying in the UK or abroad. Such policies could include cover for: cancellation if you or anyone covered by the policy gets a positive coronavirus test in the two weeks before you travel medical costs if you get coronavirus while you are away additional transport and/or accommodation expenses if you fall ill with coronavirus while you are away Not all policies offer this kind of cover – not necessarily even from the same provider. So, if you’re looking for COVID-19 cover, you should: select the “More details” option within the yellow covid-19 information box on the quote results page  read the policy document carefully before you buy, so you can see exactly what is and isn’t covered. Once you have your comparison results, you can check the policy documents to see what COVID-19 cover is offered. Just select the “More details” button and then scroll down for “Full Policy Details” and select “Full Policy Wording”. Take a close look at the policy to make sure it offers you the cover you want, not just for coronavirus but for the usual things like baggage cover, flight delays or other issues. Please be aware that some policies now state that if you’ve chosen not to have the recommended vaccinations, then you won’t be covered for any COVID-19 related claims. This includes cancellation, curtailment, or emergency medical and repatriation expenses. The policy will also set out what evidence you’ll need to support any COVID-19 claim, to make sure your claim will be dealt with as quickly as possible. Coronavirus (COVID-19) – Important Information. Please check the UK red list for the latest red list travel information. The red list and quarantine hotel policy remains in place and the red list will be reviewed every three weeks, with restrictions being imposed if needed to protect public health. You still need to check the latest travel advice and entry requirements for each country you visit or transit through. This is to ensure you are aware of any specific requirements relating to entry and ensure travellers from the UK are permitted. Travel rules can potentially change at short notice, so it’s important to check the Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) for the latest information. Travel within England, Scotland and Wales is permitted under the current guidelines, however public health rules and lockdown restrictions continue to vary, including entry restrictions for Northern Ireland. You can find the latest guidance here from the official tourism boards for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland respectively. Customers with more serious pre-existing medical conditions. When you declare medical conditions on our website, we’ll only show quotes from insurance providers who will cover all declared medical conditions, with no exclusions.  MoneyHelper has launched a directory of insurance providers who may be able to provide quotes over the phone if you have more serious medical conditions. Find more information at MoneyHelper or by calling them on 0800 138 7777. Will my travel insurance cover me if I go to an affected region? If you buy your insurance policy to cover a trip to a destination where the FCDO is advising against travel for your planned dates, then it’s likely that you won’t be covered. If you’ve already bought insurance and the FCDO subsequently changes its advice for your destination, then you might have some cover, but you’ll need to check with your insurance provider and possibly make a claim if you have to cancel. For those living in the UK, you must follow the FCDO advice for your destination, as well as any restrictions imposed by your local authority. It’s also unlikely that even policies including additional COVID-19 cover will cover you for the costs of a 10-day stay in a Government-mandated hotel if you have to quarantine on your return to the UK. Check with your insurance provider. Get country-specific travel advice from the FCDO. If I cancel my trip, will a travel insurance claim cover my costs? If you bought travel insurance with additional cover for COVID-19, and there are no Government or other regulatory authority restrictions on travel in place to your chosen destination, you may have some coverage for some costs if your trip has been affected due to the outbreak. For example, if you subsequently tested positive for COVID-19 and could no longer travel. It would be a different matter if the FCDO later changes it stance and no longer advises against travel to your destination on the date of your departure. In that situation, if you decided not to go, your decision would likely be classed as “disinclination to travel”. Then, it’s likely that you wouldn’t be covered by your travel insurance provider. Similarly, if you decided not to travel because of the risk of self-isolation rules coming into effect, it may also be regarded as “disinclination to travel”. If you have any concerns, then you should contact your insurance provider to understand your cover. Can I add disruption cover to my existing policy? This will depend on the individual travel insurance provider. You’ll need to contact them to ask. Will the airline refund me if my flight is cancelled? Yes, they should offer you a full refund or the chance to arrange an alternative flight to the same destination, but you may not be entitled to any other compensation. Of course, you may have paid out for other things, like hotels, which you might be able to claim for on your travel insurance. What if my airline cancels a flight to an area which doesn’t have ‘no travel’ advice? In this case, you should still be entitled to a refund or an alternative flight to the same destination. I have travel booked. What do I need to check? You’ll need to keep checking the FCDO advice for that destination to see what restrictions are in place. You can sign up for FCDO updates on specific destinations. Also keep checking with your travel provider. Entry restrictions for travellers . Many countries have introduced entry restrictions, barring entry for travellers from countries with high transmission rates, or travellers who haven’t been fully vaccinated. Foreign visitors may have to prove their vaccination status, or go into quarantine, with periods of self-isolation varying between destinations. Some countries have introduced screening and temperature checks at airports.  As different countries take different approaches, and with the situation changing rapidly, if you intend to travel, check the restrictions and quarantine/vaccination rules of your destination country, as well as any that would apply once you’ve returned to the UK.  What if I want to go on holiday within the UK? Travel within the UK is now allowed, which means you can go on holiday in the UK. However, each of the UK home nations makes their own rules about travel during the pandemic. Most restrictions have been lifted in England, Scotland and Wales. In Northern Ireland, up to 15 people from four households can stay together. Children aged 12 and under don’t count towards the total. However, the situation can change so we advise you to check the restrictions for where you want to travel before you leave. You can get travel insurance for holidaying in the UK with COVID-19 cover: for example, if you had to cancel because you tested positive in the two weeks before your holiday. But any insurance policy purchased to cover a trip while the local authority has instructed citizens not to travel will not be valid. You can find the latest guidance here from the official tourism boards for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. What should I do if I’m already on holiday in an affected region? If no travel restrictions existed at the time of travel, you may be required to return to the UK or you may be allowed to continue your holiday and return as planned. Some providers will cover you as standard for both of these occurrences, so it’s important to read the details of any COVID-19 related cover before you buy a policy. Will I be covered if I’m put in quarantine while abroad? This varies by insurance provider. Some policies will automatically extend if your travel home is delayed for reasons out of your control, while others might not cover additional costs. Check with your insurance provider about your policy’s disruption cover for a clearer picture. What can I do to protect myself when booking future holidays? Comprehensive travel insurance should be a key consideration when planning a future holiday. Look for a policy that offers cover for COVID-19-related disruption to reimburse costs associated with cancellations, and protect you if you become unwell and need medical treatment for coronavirus while you’re away. Can I buy travel insurance if I’m already on holiday? Although you should arrange cover before you set off, you may be able to buy specialist travel insurance after you’ve departed. Your circumstances and whether you intend to make a claim will be taken into account and there may be a waiting period to prevent you from making an immediate claim. Compare the Market does not offer comparison for this type of insurance cover. Looking for a quote? Get a new travel insurance quote in minutes and you could start saving Get a quote Find this helpful? Then you'll like these... Coronavirus & Energy: A Guide to Covid-19 and Energy Bills Coronavirus and medical insurance Loans and coronavirus Compare travel insurance Get a quote
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                            [body] => Coronavirus: Business interruption insurance Research Briefing Published Friday, 19 November, 2021 Research Briefing Business Consumers Diseases Finance Covid-19 Steve Browning An overview of how business interruption insurance policies have been interpreted in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Documents to download. Coronavirus: business interruption insurance (463 KB , PDF) Download full report Download ‘Coronavirus: business interruption insurance’ report (463 KB , PDF) Business interruption insurance compensates policy-holders for costs arising from events that close or severely disrupt operations. The coronavirus pandemic has led to many claims, as well as disputes about whether and how far policies do (or should) provide cover for losses.Demands for government action. Many businesses wanted the Government to declare the novel coronavirus a notifiable illness and to order businesses to close. They expected that this would allow them to claim under business interruption policies. The UK Government made Covid-19 a notifiable disease on 5 March 2020 and advised many businesses to close on 16 March.The importance of policy wording. But the insurance industry warned that few policies were likely to provide cover, even if the Government forced businesses to close. Over the past decade or so, insurers had redrafted policy wording to exclude diseases not explicitly named. The Government and the industry advised businesses to refer to the specific wording of their policies. Businesses could also consider the other forms of support available.Disputes and legal action. Many policy-holders argue that the wording in their policies is not clear or seems to permit claims, although their insurers have argued the opposite. Small businesses can complain to the Financial Ombudsman Service (FOS) about this. The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) has noted that few policy-holders are likely to be covered. It sought a judgment on a set of specific policy wording from the High Court. The court delivered its judgment in September 2020, largely ruling in favour of policy-holders. In January 2021, after an appeal, the Supreme Court also found in favour of policy-holders. There are however continuing disputes about calculating payouts, notably on how to take account of government support offered during the pandemic.The future. Some commentators noted that the scale of the disruption is such that the industry would not in any event be able to cover the losses. This might, they argue, be a case where the State should take charge, or at least seek a public-private partnership. Share this Share this with FacebookShare this with Facebook TwitterShare this with Twitter LinkedInShare this with LinkedIn EmailShare this with Email Close share panel × Documents to download. Coronavirus: business interruption insurance (463 KB , PDF) Download full report Download ‘Coronavirus: business interruption insurance’ report (463 KB , PDF) Related posts. Eye health and macular disease. A debate has been scheduled in Westminster Hall on Tuesday 11 January at 9.30am on eye health and macular disease. The debate will be opened by Jim Shannon MP. Diseases NHS charges. House of Commons Library briefing on NHS charges. DiseasesHealth servicesMedicine Timeshares: common problems faced by UK owners. This briefing paper provides an overview of EU and UK regulation of timeshares and other long-term holiday products. Consumers
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                            [body] => Business Insurance The spread of COVID-19 is unprecedented in modern times, and insurers understand this is an incredibly difficult time for families and businesses. No country in the world is able to provide widespread pandemic insurance, and the UK is no exception. For this type of cover to be available and affordable, would require a very significant subsidy from the government - given the scale of business disruption we have seen with the COVID-19 pandemic. Instead, standard commercial insurance policies – the type the vast majority of businesses purchase – provide cover against a wide range of day to day risks including damage caused by fire, flood, theft and accidents involving employees. Every day, insurers action claims of £22m to firms through business insurance policies, supporting millions of firms across the UK each year and ABI members expect to pay up to £2.5 billion for COVID-19 insurance claims incurred in 2020 according to the latest estimates. Where there are valid claims, ABI members are working tirelessly to support their customers, through the swift payment of valid claims, interim payments to their customers, and providing clear and quick answers to their questions.  Following the publication of the Supreme Court judgment in the business interruption insurance test case, the ABI has received questions about what the verdict means for businesses around the UK. Find out what the verdict means for your business. ABI Principles for Handling Business Interruption Claims related to COVID-19 While the majority of customers will not have purchased cover for the effects of COVID-19 on their business, where cover does apply, ABI members have a clear set of principles for the handling of these claims to reassure customers at this uncertain time, clarifying and reinforcing existing best practice in claims handling. Business interruption claims can, in general, be complex to assess and determine quantification.  They often require a clear understanding of the business and how it was operating before the interruption, however, insurers are experienced in dealing with these issues and in supporting their customers through this process. Business interruption claims can require specialist expertise, so insurers will ensure clear, accurate and timely communication with customers when dealing with these claims. Insurers will support their customers throughout the claims process, with dedicated teams of experts and appropriate resources to manage the volume and complexity of COVID-19 business interruption claims. Insurers will clearly explain to their customers what information is needed to enable the swift assessment and quantification of their business interruption claim. Insurers recognise that cash flow is critical for the survival of businesses at this time. Where a customer’s policy covers certain losses for business interruption as a result of COVID-19, insurers will pay the claim as soon as they receive evidence to support this. Insurers will seek, where possible, to make interim or part payments where claims are ongoing. These interim or part payments will flow from the claim and evidence presented, helping to relieve some of the more immediate pressures that customers are facing Where an insurer receives evidence in support of a valid claim for business interruption that clearly shows that the policy limit for the claim will be exceeded, they will make payment to the customer up to the maximum policy limit for that claim without undue delay. Insurers will promote a culture of providing timely support to their customers, with the involvement and oversight of senior or executive level representatives where appropriate, enabling business customers with cover to put plans in place to deal as best they can with the most pressing issues. Where an insurer reaches a decision not to pay a claim, they will notify their customer promptly and set out their reasons in full in plain English. This should include details of the insurer’s complaints procedure. Where customers are not satisfied, their complaints will be dealt with by insurers promptly and be considered by a person or persons with expertise in the subject matter who was not involved in the original decision. Where a firm is unable to resolve a complaint, customers will be given clear information about their option to take their complaint to the Financial Ombudsman Service and/or seek independent legal advice. Business Insurance Q&A How does business insurance work? Commercial insurance is generally an advised sale where businesses make informed choices about the type of cover they need. An adviser or broker will work with the business and advise on the appropriate insurance to suit its needs. A very small number of businesses may have a policy in place that specifically provides cover for contingency business interruption arising from notifiable diseases, such as Coronavirus, where its premises have been contaminated. However, as set out by the FCA, this cover is unlikely to cover pandemics, and insurers, therefore, have no obligation to payout. Insurance policies are tailored to the needs of the individual business. It is not a one size fits all approach, as the insurance needs of no two businesses are the same. Standard commercial insurance policies provide cover against a wide range of risks. This can include damage caused by fire, flood, losses by theft, accidents involving employees and the need for temporary trading premises in certain circumstances (following damage that makes it impossible to continue trading at the existing premises, e.g. due to a severe flood or fire). Insurers are supporting their policyholders through this difficult time, and significant effort is being made to pay valid claims as quickly as possible, deal with customers' queries and insurers are working to be as flexible as possible. What is business interruption insurance? Business interruption insurance covers a business for loss of income during periods when they cannot carry out business as usual due to damage caused by a specific set of perils that will be specified in the policy. It aims to replace certain losses sustained by the business during the period of the disruption. These perils can include damage to the premises caused by incidents such as a fire, flooding or other physical damage.  The insurance may compensate the business for any increased running costs and/or shortfall in profits as the result of the event, up to a certain limit that is set out in the policy. How do businesses purchase business interruption cover? Business interruption insurance is usually offered as an optional extra to business insurance packages, which combine a number of different policies under one premium. It can also be offered as an optional extra to buildings and contents insurance policies in some cases. Most businesses purchase a package of insurance from a broker who will work with them to ensure that they have the appropriate cover for their needs. What do business interruption policies generally cover? Most policies will provide cover if the premises or equipment are damaged by a named peril, such as a fire, flood or storm, and also often for the breakdown of essential equipment.  Some policies may also cover business interruption as a result of people not being able to access the business due to specific circumstances (such as the police cordoning off an area due to an event such as terrorism, a fire, or the risk of a collapsing building etc.). In many cases, this is known as 'restricted access' cover or 'non-damage business interruption' cover and is usually an add on to a standard policy that can cost more. Does standard business interruption insurance provide cover for businesses who are not able to operate due to the effects of COVID-19? Standard business insurance policies are designed and priced to cover standard risks. They are therefore very unlikely to provide cover for the effects of global pandemics, and insurers would have no obligation to pay out claims in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes forced closure by the authorities. Businesses may have chosen to purchase cover that will specifically provide for business interruption arising from notifiable or infectious diseases. For specific notifiable disease extensions, cover may apply if other policy conditions are met. However, this type of extension is not commonly included as standard. Furthermore, the likely costs to businesses of cover that would consist of more unusual risks – such as those posed by new diseases – would be prohibitive. Does a 'notifiable disease' extension to business interruption cover my business for COVID-19? Most notifiable disease extensions cover specific diseases that will be named in the cover. These are diseases that are well known and understood. If the policy does not allow for all human infectious diseases, then cover is unlikely to apply. Some notifiable disease extensions are more general and do not specify certain diseases. In these cases, business interruption cover for COVID-19 may apply if COVID-19 is present at the premises and all policy conditions are met. If you are unsure about what your policy covers your business for, check with the broker you purchased the policy from or your insurer if you purchased it directly. Are there any other extensions to business interruption that may provide cover? Some coverage may exist if the business has purchased a 'non-damage, denial of access' extension to a business interruption policy. Again, purchase of these extensions tends to be rare, and this is not generally covered under standard business interruption policies. Generally, 'denial of access' cover applies to cordoned off areas and the loss of trade resulting from a denial of access to the premises (e.g. as a result of a police cordon). If a business is forced to close or is told to shut by an appropriate authority or is cordoned off, this could trigger a claim under a 'non-damage, denial of access' business interruption extension if the infectious disease cover is unspecified or if it includes COVID-19. How are insurers supporting businesses that can now reopen? As Government restrictions begin to be lifted, certain businesses are able to open again. Alongside complying with government guidance regarding safety measures and social distancing, your insurer may be able to provide you with sector-specific guidance to help you reopen safely. If your business is able to open, but you have chosen not to reopen, you should contact your insurer to advise them that your premises remains unoccupied. If a business is still required to temporarily close due to government COVID-19 restrictions, insurers will be flexible around the period of unoccupancy specified in the policy document. However, the lifting of travel restrictions will mean that in most cases you are able to resume checking on your unoccupied premises regularly and carrying out normal risk management processes and you should do so unless prevented by any government or local restrictions. If you are unable to visit your premises, or there are any specific requirements as part of your insurance contract that you are unable or unlikely to be able to comply with (such as on-site security), speak to your insurer or insurance advisor/broker. Restrictions will differ between England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland and you should check you are adhering to the law and guidance of the relevant administration. I have already received central Government support, how will this impact any insurance claim? The ABI members listed below have made it clear that they will not be deducting the Local Authority Grant, the Small Business Grant and the Leisure/Retail/Hospitality grants, Local Restrictions Support Grant (closed), Local Restrictions Support Grant (open), Additional Restrictions Grant (ARG) and the Local Restrictions Support Grant (LRSG (Closed) Addendum),or their equivalents in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, from any Covid-19 claims payments. In the minority of cases where this has already happened, each firm concerned will review these claims and reach out to claimants in relation to adjusting the settlement accordingly. The firms are:  Ageas, Allianz, Aviva, Axa XL Axa, Chubb, Covea, Direct Line Group, Ecclesiastical, Hiscox, NFU Mutual, QBE, RSA, Zurich, The FCA has given clear guidance to firms on how they should approach any decisions on a case by case basis. Anyone concerned should contact their broker or insurer in the first instance. As a general principle when assessing claims, insurers would not expect customers to claim for losses to income that have already been compensated from elsewhere. If my business isn't able to operate because of COVID-19, should I just cancel my insurance policy? Business insurance helps to protect business owners and independent professionals against everyday risks, such as accidents in the workplace and associated public liability, stock or premises damage, legal costs and cyber-attacks. There are also some types of insurance that a business is legally obliged to have, such as employer's liability and commercial motor insurance. Even in a time when a business may be unable to operate as usual due to the impacts of COVID-19, it's important that businesses remain covered for standard risks, many of which may be more likely when the property is unoccupied, such as vandalism of the property, theft of stock or equipment, or even loss of information or damage to IT systems and networks.  Every day insurers pay out £22 million to help firms cope with these unwelcome events. It would be a terrible outcome for a business without adequate insurance cover to experience significant damage while temporarily closed, which would delay their ability to get back up and running once permitted to do so.  Do cyber insurance policies cover working from home/remote working and any particular cyber incidents which may arise from this situation either through the actions of individuals, e.g. phishing emails, inadvertent data leak? In general, the cover provided by cyber insurance policies will be unaffected, and policies will cover working from home/remote working. Cyber incidents such as phishing emails or inadvertent data leak will continue to be covered as normal. Some insurers may require their policyholders to notify them, so it is prudent to contact your insurance provider directly to check your cyber insurance cover is still adequate. Businesses should continue to follow the advice produced by the National Cyber Security Centre on secure home working to ensure cybersecurity remains at a high level and IT systems are protected during these difficult times.
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                            [title] => Coronavirus, life insurance and Critical Illness cover: what will and won’t pay out? | Odyssey
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                            [description] => With more than 1.8 million confirmed cases of coronavirus worldwide and fears that up 80% of the UK population will fall ill as a result of the global pandemic, many people are looking to their insurance providers to clarify what will and won’t be covered. If you have not received any clarification directly from your insurer, then here are a few facts that may help you
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                            [body] => Coronavirus, life insurance and Critical Illness cover: what will and won’t pay out? With more than 1.8 million confirmed cases of coronavirus worldwide and fears that up 80% of the UK population will fall ill as a result of the global pandemic, many people are looking to their insurance providers to clarify what will and won’t be covered. If you have not received any clarification directly from your insurer, then here are a few facts that may help you understand your current position. What does life insurance cover? Whilst there are many different types of life insurance, strictly speaking, they should all do one important job – pay out if you die during the term of the policy. This relies on you having kept up to date with your premiums, answered all the application questions honestly, and, if you have a term life insurance policy, that you are within the covered period.  All life insurance policies will contain some special circumstances under which they will not pay. These, however, will vary from policy to policy. To be sure exactly which exemptions apply to your policy, you must take a detailed read through your policy documents or contact your provider for clarification. Some, for example, will not pay out if you are deemed culpable for your own death in some way. However, the life insurance companies who have so far issued statements have all made it clear that they will be honouring all policies where death occurs due to the coronavirus pandemic. What do the life insurance companies say about coronavirus? In common with other major insurance providers, Zurich say that if a customer holding a Zurich life insurance policy dies of coronavirus, they will pay out following their “normal claims process and assessment”. Aviva are also clear they will be paying out. “With the news that Covid-19, more commonly known as coronavirus, is spreading across the UK we want to give you clarification around our claims and underwriting position. “We're continuing to pay all valid claims and committed to giving you access to valuable protection insurance. We remain a market-leading protection insurer for claim paid amounts.” Vitality state that “Covid-19 or any other infectious disease which results in the plan holder dying, will be covered.” Beagle Street have stated the same. While some insurers have not yet issued any statement regarding the Covid-19 outbreak, those who have make it clear that there is no pandemic or epidemic exclusion for life insurance. This means if you have a current life insurance policy and you have continued to pay your premiums, your beneficiaries should receive a pay out if you die from Covid-19 or related complications. What about Critical Illness cover? When it comes to Critical Illness cover, however, things become a bit less straightforward. Generally, insurers have been saying that they will not pay out on Critical Illness cover as a result of coronavirus because it is not a specified illness under the terms of their policy. They also state that most people who contract it go on to make a full recovery which is, thankfully, true. However, around 5% of those infected face critical illness as a result of contracting the virus, including respiratory failure, septic shock and multiple organ failure. Additionally, medical professionals are now saying that some of those who are infected with Covid-19 and who do not die from it, do suffer from what are most likely to be lasting lung conditions. Under these circumstances, you may be able to make a claim, but this will depend on the exact wording of your policy. Zurich, in answer to enquiries on this question, have stated that: “Coronavirus is not a specified ‘Critical Illness’ on Zurich’s policy. “Under our ‘Respiratory Failure – Of Specified Severity’ definition, it is possible a claim might be presented but the opinion of our Claims and Medical Officer is that the coronavirus is unlikely to produce the permanent symptoms or impairment to lung function required to meet this definition. “We will consider any such claims presented on the basis of the individual circumstances.” In response to enquiries from members of the public who are understandably confused and worried, the Association of British Insurers (ABI) have attempted to bring some clarity. Their advice is that customers should expect insurers to treat any claim for coronavirus in the same way they would treat other claims for Critical Illness cover. They also advise customers to note that Critical Illness cover is only paid out where it falls under the specific set of criteria laid down in the ABI Guide to Minimum Standards for Critical Illness Cover. All Critical Illness policies are required under these minimum requirements to cover heart attack, stroke and cancer, but beyond that, policies can and do vary. It may be that one policy covers for coma, respiratory failure and kidney failure – which may come about in the most serious Covid-19 cases – while others will not. In other words, the only way to be sure what your Critical Illness policy will cover you or your loved ones for is to read your policy terms and conditions, or check directly with your insurer. It may be that while coronavirus infection itself is not a covered condition on any Critical Illness policy, the complications that can arise from it, are.  Contacting your insurer If you have any further questions about your policy cover, then you should in the first instance consult your insurer. Be warned, however, that their phone lines may be very busy at the moment, so it may be better to check their website for information. Most providers have updated their websites to include answers to specific questions about Covid-19 for worried customers. The ABI provides some reassurance that while this is a particularly difficult time for claimants and insurers alike, they are doing everything in their power to keep their operations running as efficiently as possible and to offer clear and up-to-date information to their customers. If you have any questions about the life or Critical Illness cover you have in place, please get in touch with us. Please note: All details are correct as of 24th March 2020 and are taken from each insurance company’s website. Testimonials. I am very comfortable with the service and the way my finances have been set up. Richard of Hemel Hempstead Has always provided clear, understandable and timely advice on pensions. David from London   CALL US NOW   T: 03452 411102 T: 01908 380505 Alternatively send an email enquiry Request a Call Back Data protection You voluntarily choose to provide personal details to us via this website. Personal information will be treated as confidential by us and held in accordance with the Data Protection Act 2018. For more information on how we protect and deal with your personal information, please refer to our Privacy Notice. You agree that such personal information may be used to provide you with details of services and products in writing, by email or by telephone.   The information contained within the website is subject to the UK regulatory regime and is therefore primarily targeted at customers based in the UK. Odyssey Wealth Management Ltd, Registered Office: Home Ground Barn, Pury Hill Business Park, Alderton Road, Towcester, NN12 7LS. Registered in England number; 08756989    
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                            [description] => Following claims on social media around whether the Covid-19 vaccine affects life insurance policies, we explore the facts. Find out more
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                            [body] => The facts about the Covid-19 vaccine and life insurance By gabriellag updated October 18, 2021 Share:. TwitterFacebookLinkedInEmail Life insurance This article contains affiliate links that can earn us revenue* Life insurance is taken out by people who want to financially protect their loved ones should they die sooner than expected. Recently a bogus message caused alarm, claiming that people who’d had the Covid-19 vaccination would be invalidating their life insurance. But this is not the case, as we explain below. This article covers: When life insurance pays out in relation to the Covid-19 vaccineWhether you are eligible for life insurance if you’ve had Covid-19 Insurance scams to watch out for Is my life insurance void if I haven’t had the Covid-19 vaccine? The Covid vaccine is recommended but not compulsory With the government and the World Health Organisation advising people to take an approved vaccine as soon as it is offered, what will happen to your insurance if you don’t take the vaccine? It is a legitimate question but the answer is fairly standard: the vaccine, whether you take it or not, will not have an impact on your level of cover. In other words, the vaccine is recommended but is not compulsory. And so life insurance can provide a cash lump sum in the event of your death or becoming diagnosed with a critical illness – irrespective of your Covid-19 vaccine status. For any queries about the vaccine, the NHS Covid-19 vaccine page is a good starting place. What if I have a bad reaction to the Covid-19 vaccine? So much hope hangs on the success of the vaccine programme and our ability to return to normal if the jabs manage to bring an end to the pandemic. But the long-anticipated rollout has not been without its concerns. From mild flu symptoms and sore arms to dangerous blood clots, the vaccine does come with the potential for adverse effects in individuals.  The more dramatic potential side-effects are very rare. But if you are unlucky and suffer a bad reaction, will your insurance pay out? There isn’t a simple answer to this. It will depend on the terms of your insurance policy. Everyone is different and all providers base their approach to claims on individual circumstances. No insurer has come out and said they won’t cover this eventuality. So it will all come down to what you have agreed and the individual company’s guidelines. According to the consumer group Which?, none of the leading insurers it contacted said having the jab would have an impact on people’s life cover. Find out more: Do I really need life insurance? and if you are looking for a life insurance policy, let our online tool below help you. Life Insurance, sorted. Get free, independent advice online Suitable quotes from the whole market of insurers And help applying for cover, when you’re ready Get started here Advice is provided by online broker for life insurance, Anorak, which is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (843798), and its registered address is 24 Old Queen Street, London, SW1H 9HA. The advice is free to you. Anorak and Times Money Mentor will each earn commission from the insurer if you go on to buy a policy. Times Money Mentor operates as an Introducer Appointed Representative for Anorak. Times Money Mentor and Anorak are independent and unaffiliated companies. Am I eligible for life insurance if I have had the coronavirus? Despite initial fears about the impact of the pandemic on insurance, life insurance companies have still offered policies during the Covid-19 outbreak.  But will they accept you if you have had the virus? Yes – simply having had the coronavirus, and recovered, isn’t enough to affect your risk profile or have an impact on your ability to get life insurance. If it has been in the past 30 days, however – and the same caveat applies if you have self-isolated, had coronavirus symptoms or been in contact with someone who has tested positive – your application will be paused. Then you can reapply when you have fully recovered or after the insurer’s postponement period. This can be up to three months.  If you have an existing life insurance policy and die from Covid, in most cases this is covered If you are applying for life insurance, you should expect to be asked a number of questions about the coronavirus. This includes whether you: Have tested positiveAre currently in self-isolationHave had any long-term health conditions as a result of contracting the coronavirus. If you are suffering from “long Covid” – with any continuing respiratory or other problems – this will be taken into account. It will be treated like any pre-existing condition.  Another point to consider is lead times. Many insurance companies are running with reduced staff or staff working from home, which can hinder response times. Find out more: How does mortgage life insurance work? Will my life insurance pay out if I die from Covid-19? Insurers are keen to publicise the figures when it comes to coronavirus-related payouts. Around £202m was paid out in 2020 to families who lost someone to Covid, according to the Association of British Insurers. That’s £553,000 a day. The general consensus is that if you have an existing life insurance policy and die from Covid, in most cases this is covered and payments are made. Of course, there are always exceptions and some specialist policies may be different. It is always worth a conversation with your insurer to confirm what is covered. Most big insurers have released statements confirming their willingness to pay. Aviva, for example, says death claims arising from Covid-19 would be paid. Can I claim on critical illness cover for Covid-19 hospitalisation? Covid-19 is not specified as a critical illness by most insurers. But many say that if complications arise as a result of the virus and they lead to conditions that are listed in a policy – kidney, liver or heart failure, for example – then a claim could be made (subject as always to terms and conditions). As with many situations, all claims will be considered based on individual circumstances. There are also certain policies that cover stays in intensive care. So if a Covid hospitalisation were to lead to ICU, the person may be covered.  While critical illness cover may not come into play for some people, income protection insurance could help you to meet costs and mitigate loss of earnings if you are unable to work due to incapacity. Most policies have a deferred period of 30 days after you have stopped work. As many people recover from Covid relatively quickly, this won’t apply. But for anyone suffering from long Covid, this could help. Find out more: Guide to joint policy life insurance Covid-19 insurance scams to be aware of. Scammers often take advantage of crises. And with an issue as fast-moving as the pandemic, they have been able to capitalise on the widespread uncertainty. According to a recent Fraud Report from insurer Aviva, suspicious emails, texts and phone calls related to health insurance have risen by 16% since before the pandemic. Meanwhile life insurance scams are up 10%. A typical approach involves a cold call telling customers that it is time to review their policy. Often they will offer lower premiums but leave people with a worthless policy because the cover is so limited. If they aren’t offering a review, scammers are calling people and simply offering Covid life insurance. The insinuation is that existing life insurance won’t cover them. The advice from insurers and the Financial Conduct Authority is to never accept the offer of a product on the basis of an unexpected phone call, email or text message –  even if it might appear to be from a genuine source such as a company with which you already have insurance. Never feel pressured into a quick purchase and don’t give personal details to someone you don’t know. If you want to review your policy, speak to your own insurance provider and do your own research into the market.  If something sounds too good to be true, it probably is. *All products, brands or properties mentioned in this article are selected by our writers and editors based on first-hand experience or customer feedback, and are of a standard that we believe our readers expect. This article contains links from which we can earn revenue. This revenue helps us to support the content of this website and to continue to invest in our award-winning journalism. For more, see How we make our money and Editorial promise Read next . What insurance do you need if you’re self-employed? What insurance do you need if you’re self-employed? . Life insurance Buying life insurance through your business Buying life insurance through your business . Life insurance Is over-50s life insurance a good idea? Is over-50s life insurance a good idea? . Life insurance Want to become financially fit? . Join our Couch to £5K challenge this January — six weekly newsletters to help you reach your financial goals. By entering your details, you agree these will be used according to our privacy policy. When you subscribe, you will also receive our weekly newsletter too. You can unsubscribe, although if you do you will stop receiving both newsletters You’re now subscribed to our Couch to £5K newsletter. Happy saving! . Success Want to become financially fit? Join our Couch to £5K challenge this January — six weekly newsletters to help you reach your financial goals. By entering your details, you agree these will be used according to our privacy policy. When you subscribe, you will also receive our weekly newsletter too. You can unsubscribe, although if you do you will stop receiving both newsletters You’re now subscribed to our Couch to £5K newsletter. Happy saving! . Success By entering your details, you agree these will be used according to our privacy policy. When you subscribe, you will also receive our weekly newsletter too. You can unsubscribe, although if you do you will stop receiving both newsletters
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