Copywriteroffice

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                            [title] => 10 Tips for Improving Your Public Speaking Skills - Professional Development | Harvard DCE
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                            [body] => 10 Tips for Improving Your Public Speaking Skills Few are immune to the fear of public speaking. Marjorie North offers 10 tips for speakers to calm the nerves and deliverable memorable orations. Marjorie North Share Blog Mar 17, 2020 3 minute read Snakes? Fine. Flying? No problem. Public speaking? Yikes! Just thinking about public speaking—routinely described as one of the greatest (and most common) fears—can make your palms sweat. But there are many ways to tackle this anxiety and learn to deliver a memorable speech. In part one of this series, Mastering the Basics of Communication, I shared strategies to improve how you communicate. In part two, How to Communicate More Effectively in the Workplace, I examined how to apply these techniques as you interact with colleagues and supervisors in the workplace. For the third and final part of this series, I’m providing you with public speaking tips that will help reduce your anxiety, dispel myths, and improve your performance. Here Are My 10 Tips for Public Speaking:. 1. Nervousness Is Normal. Practice and Prepare! All people feel some physiological reactions like pounding hearts and trembling hands. Do not associate these feelings with the sense that you will perform poorly or make a fool of yourself. Some nerves are good. The adrenaline rush that makes you sweat also makes you more alert and ready to give your best performance. The best way to overcome anxiety is to prepare, prepare, and prepare some more. Take the time to go over your notes several times. Once you have become comfortable with the material, practice—a lot. Videotape yourself, or get a friend to critique your performance. Communication Strategies: Presenting with Impact Search all Communication programs. 2. Know Your Audience. Your Speech Is About Them, Not You. Before you begin to craft your message, consider who the message is intended for. Learn as much about your listeners as you can. This will help you determine your choice of words, level of information, organization pattern, and motivational statement. 3. Organize Your Material in the Most Effective Manner to Attain Your Purpose. Create the framework for your speech. Write down the topic, general purpose, specific purpose, central idea, and main points. Make sure to grab the audience’s attention in the first 30 seconds. 4. Watch for Feedback and Adapt to It. Keep the focus on the audience. Gauge their reactions, adjust your message, and stay flexible. Delivering a canned speech will guarantee that you lose the attention of or confuse even the most devoted listeners. 5. Let Your Personality Come Through. Be yourself, don’t become a talking head—in any type of communication. You will establish better credibility if your personality shines through, and your audience will trust what you have to say if they can see you as a real person. 6. Use Humor, Tell Stories, and Use Effective Language. Inject a funny anecdote in your presentation, and you will certainly grab your audience’s attention. Audiences generally like a personal touch in a speech. A story can provide that. 7. Don’t Read Unless You Have to. Work from an Outline. Reading from a script or slide fractures the interpersonal connection. By maintaining eye contact with the audience, you keep the focus on yourself and your message. A brief outline can serve to jog your memory and keep you on task. 8. Use Your Voice and Hands Effectively. Omit Nervous Gestures. Nonverbal communication carries most of the message. Good delivery does not call attention to itself, but instead conveys the speaker’s ideas clearly and without distraction. 9. Grab Attention at the Beginning, and Close with a Dynamic End. Do you enjoy hearing a speech start with “Today I’m going to talk to you about X”? Most people don’t. Instead, use a startling statistic, an interesting anecdote, or concise quotation. Conclude your speech with a summary and a strong statement that your audience is sure to remember. 10. Use Audiovisual Aids Wisely. Too many can break the direct connection to the audience, so use them sparingly. They should enhance or clarify your content, or capture and maintain your audience’s attention. Practice Does Not Make Perfect. Good communication is never perfect, and nobody expects you to be perfect. However, putting in the requisite time to prepare will help you deliver a better speech. You may not be able to shake your nerves entirely, but you can learn to minimize them. Find related Communication programs. Browse all Professional Development Programs. Mar 17, 2020 Blog Share About the Author. Marjorie North . North is a consultant for political candidates, physicians, and lawyers, and runs a private practice specializing in public speaking, and executive communication skills. Previously, she was the clinical director in the department of speech and language pathology and audiology at Northeastern University. Read Next. Blog 3 Books to Help You Become a Power Negotiator . Get ready to elevate your negotiating skills with some recommended reading from Maurie Kelly. Close Previous Next / Share. Twitter Facebook LinkedIn Close Harvard Division of Continuing Education . A division of Harvard University dedicated to bringing rigorous programs and innovative online teaching capabilities to distance learners, working professionals, high school students, and those seeking higher learning in retirement. Harvard Division of Continuing Education
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                            [body] => Better Public SpeakingBecoming a Confident, Compelling Speaker. Whether we're talking in a team meeting or presenting in front of an audience, we all have to speak in public from time to time. We can do this well or we can do this badly, and the outcome strongly affects the way that people think about us. This is why public speaking causes so much anxiety and concern. The good news is that, with thorough preparation and practice, you can overcome your nervousness and perform exceptionally well. This article and video explain how. Click here   to view a transcript of this video. The Importance of Public Speaking. Even if you don't need to make regular presentations   in front of a group, there are plenty of situations where good public speaking skills can help you advance your career and create opportunities. For example, you might have to talk about your organization at a conference, make a speech after accepting an award, or teach a class to new recruits. Speaking to an audience also includes online presentations or talks; for instance, when training a virtual team, or when speaking to a group of customers in an online meeting. Good public speaking skills are important in other areas of your life, as well. You might be asked to make a speech at a friend's wedding, give a eulogy for a loved one, or inspire a group of volunteers at a charity event. In short, being a good public speaker can enhance your reputation, boost your self-confidence   , and open up countless opportunities. However, while good skills can open doors, poor ones can close them. For example, your boss might decide against promoting you after sitting through a badly-delivered presentation. You might lose a valuable new contract by failing to connect with a prospect during a sales pitch. Or you could make a poor impression with your new team, because you trip over your words and don't look people in the eye. Make sure that you learn how to speak well! Strategies for Becoming a Better Speaker. The good news is that speaking in public is a learnable skill. As such, you can use the following strategies to become a better speaker and presenter. Plan Appropriately. First, make sure that you plan   your communication appropriately. Use tools like the Rhetorical Triangle   , Monroe's Motivated Sequence   , and the 7Cs of Communication   to think about how you'll structure what you're going to say. When you do this, think about how important a book's first paragraph is; if it doesn't grab you, you're likely going to put it down. The same principle goes for your speech: from the beginning, you need to intrigue your audience. For example, you could start with an interesting statistic, headline, or fact that pertains to what you're talking about and resonates with your audience. You can also use story telling   as a powerful opener; our Expert Interviews with Annette Simmons   and Paul Smith   offer some useful tips on doing this. Planning also helps you to think on your feet   . This is especially important for unpredictable question and answer sessions or last-minute communications. Tip:. Remember that not all occasions when you need to speak in public will be scheduled. You can make good impromptu speeches   by having ideas and mini-speeches pre-prepared. It also helps to have a good, thorough understanding of what's going on in your organization and industry. Practice. There's a good reason that we say, "Practice makes perfect!" You simply cannot be a confident, compelling speaker without practice. To get practice, seek opportunities to speak in front of others. For example, Toastmasters is a club geared specifically towards aspiring speakers, and you can get plenty of practice at Toastmasters sessions. You could also put yourself in situations that require public speaking, such as by cross-training a group from another department, or by volunteering to speak at team meetings. Finding This Article Useful? You can learn another 150 communication skills, like this, by joining the Mind Tools Club. Join the Mind Tools Club Today! Subscribe to Our Newsletter. Receive new career skills every week, plus get our latest offers and a free downloadable Personal Development Plan workbook. Read our Privacy Policy If you're going to be delivering a presentation or prepared speech, create it as early as possible. The earlier you put it together, the more time you'll have to practice. Practice it plenty of times alone, using the resources you'll rely on at the event, and, as you practice, tweak your words until they flow smoothly and easily. Then, if appropriate, do a dummy run in front of a small audience: this will help you calm your jitters and make you feel more comfortable with the material. Your audience can also give you useful feedback   , both on your material and on your performance. Engage With Your Audience. When you speak, try to engage your audience. This makes you feel less isolated as a speaker and keeps everyone involved with your message. If appropriate, ask leading questions   targeted to individuals or groups, and encourage people to participate and ask questions. Keep in mind that some words reduce your power as a speaker. For instance, think about how these sentences sound: "I just want to add that I think we can meet these goals" or "I just think this plan is a good one." The words "just" and "I think" limit your authority and conviction. Don't use them. A similar word is "actually," as in, "Actually, I'd like to add that we were under budget last quarter." When you use "actually," it conveys a sense of submissiveness or even surprise. Instead, say what things are. "We were under budget last quarter" is clear and direct. Also, pay attention to how you're speaking. If you're nervous, you might talk quickly. This increases the chances that you'll trip over your words, or say something you don't mean. Force yourself to slow down by breathing deeply. Don't be afraid to gather your thoughts; pauses are an important part of conversation, and they make you sound confident, natural, and authentic. Finally, avoid reading word-for-word from your notes. Instead, make a list of important points on cue cards, or, as you get better at public speaking, try to memorize what you're going to say – you can still refer back to your cue cards when you need them. Pay Attention to Body Language. If you're unaware of it, your body language   will give your audience constant, subtle clues about your inner state. If you're nervous, or if you don't believe in what you're saying, the audience can soon know. Pay attention to your body language: stand up straight, take deep breaths, look people in the eye, and smile. Don't lean on one leg or use gestures that feel unnatural. Many people prefer to speak behind a podium when giving presentations. While podiums can be useful for holding notes, they put a barrier between you and the audience. They can also become a "crutch," giving you a hiding place from the dozens or hundreds of eyes that are on you. Instead of standing behind a podium, walk around and use gestures to engage the audience. This movement and energy will also come through in your voice, making it more active and passionate. Think Positively. Positive thinking   can make a huge difference to the success of your communication, because it helps you feel more confident. Fear makes it all too easy to slip into a cycle of negative self-talk, especially right before you speak, while self-sabotaging   thoughts such as "I'll never be good at this!" or "I'm going to fall flat on my face!" lower your confidence and increase the chances that you won't achieve what you're truly capable of. Use affirmations   and visualization   to raise your confidence. This is especially important right before your speech or presentation. Visualize giving a successful presentation, and imagine how you'll feel once it's over and when you've made a positive difference for others. Use positive affirmations such as "I'm grateful I have the opportunity to help my audience" or "I'm going to do well!" Cope With Nerves. How often have you listened to or watched a speaker who really messed up? Chances are, the answer is "not very often." When we have to speak in front of others, we can envision terrible things happening. We imagine forgetting every point we want to make, passing out from our nervousness, or doing so horribly that we'll lose our job. But those things almost never come to pass! We build them up in our minds and end up more nervous than we need to be. Many people cite speaking to an audience as their biggest fear, and a fear of failure   is often at the root of this. Public speaking can lead your "fight or flight" response to kick in: adrenaline courses through your bloodstream, your heart rate increases, you sweat, and your breath becomes fast and shallow. Although these symptoms can be annoying or even debilitating, the Inverted-U Model   shows that a certain amount of pressure enhances performance. By changing your mindset, you can use nervous energy to your advantage. First, make an effort to stop thinking about yourself, your nervousness, and your fear. Instead, focus on your audience: what you're saying is "about them." Remember that you're trying to help or educate them in some way, and your message is more important than your fear. Concentrate on the audience's wants and needs, instead of your own. If time allows, use deep breathing exercises   to slow your heart rate and give your body the oxygen it needs to perform. This is especially important right before you speak. Take deep breaths from your belly, hold each one for several seconds, and let it out slowly. Crowds are more intimidating than individuals, so think of your speech as a conversation that you're having with one person. Although your audience may be 100 people, focus on one friendly face at a time, and talk to that person as if he or she is the only one in the room. Watch Recordings of Your Speeches. Whenever possible, record your presentations and speeches. You can improve your speaking skills dramatically by watching yourself later, and then working on improving in areas that didn't go well. As you watch, notice any verbal stalls, such as "um" or "like." Look at your body language: are you swaying, leaning on the podium, or leaning heavily on one leg? Are you looking at the audience? Did you smile? Did you speak clearly at all times? Pay attention to your gestures. Do they appear natural or forced? Make sure that people can see them, especially if you're standing behind a podium. Last, look at how you handled interruptions, such as a sneeze or a question that you weren't prepared for. Does your face show surprise, hesitation, or annoyance? If so, practice managing interruptions like these smoothly, so that you're even better next time. Key Points. Chances are that you'll sometimes have to speak in public as part of your role. While this can seem intimidating, the benefits of being able to speak well outweigh any perceived fears. To become a better speaker, use the following strategies: Plan appropriately. Practice. Engage with your audience. Pay attention to body language. Think positively. Cope with your nerves. Watch recordings of your speeches. If you speak well in public, it can help you get a job or promotion, raise awareness for your team or organization, and educate others. The more you push yourself to speak in front of others, the better you'll become, and the more confidence you'll have. This site teaches you the skills you need for a happy and successful career; and this is just one of many tools and resources that you'll find here at Mind Tools. Subscribe to our free newsletter, or join the Mind Tools Club and really supercharge your career! Add this article to My Learning Plan Mark article as Complete Show Ratings Hide Ratings Ratings. Free login needed. Login / Create Log in. Join the Mind Tools Club and Get 4 Free Workbooks! The Mind Tools Club gives you exclusive tips and tools to boost your career - plus a friendly community and support from our career coaches!  Find Out More Join the Mind Tools Club Sign up for our FREE newsletter Comments (64) Over a month ago Yolande wrote Hi rashi9327, True - many people do fear public speaking. Maybe they fear "falling short" or being ridiculed rather than the speaking itself. Confidence, as you say, is key. And one of the things the help us to be more confident, is solid preparation. Thanks for your comment - we always love hearing people's thoughts. Yolande, Mind Tools Team Over a month ago rashi9327 wrote I feel that Confidence is the key. And to build it you should feel like a conqueror. Public Speaking is one of the most feared things and surprisingly people would jump off a cliff than speak infront on people. Over a month ago BillT wrote Hi JenniferLs, Thank you so much for recognising the hard work that goes in to ceating the resources for the site. BillT Mind Tools Team View All Comments Previous Article Previous Next Article Next Processing. Please wait...
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                            [body] => Public speaking From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Performing a speech to a live audience For the film, see Public Speaking (film). "Public speaker" redirects here. For a person who delivers an oration, see Orator. The orator Cicero speaks to the Roman Senate.Cicero Denounces Catiline (1889), fresco by Cesare Maccari Communication PortalHistory General aspects Communication theory Information Semiotics Language Logic Sociology Fields Discourse analysis Linguistics Mass communication Organizational communication Pragmatics Semiotics Sociolinguistics Disciplines Public speaking Discourse Culture Argumentation Persuasion Research Rhetoric Categories Outline vtePublic speaking, also called oratory or oration, has traditionally meant the act of speaking face to face to a live audience. Today it includes any form of speaking (formally and informally) to an audience, including pre-recorded speech delivered over great distance by means of technology. Confucius, one of many scholars associated with public speaking, once taught that if a speech was considered to be a good speech, it would impact the individuals' lives whether they listened to it directly or not.[1] His idea was that the words and actions of someone of power can influence the world.[1] Public speaking is used for many different purposes, but usually as some mixture of teaching, persuasion, or entertaining. Each of these calls upon slightly different approaches and techniques. Public speaking was developed as a sphere of knowledge in Greece and Rome, where prominent thinkers codified it as a central part of rhetoric. Today, the art of public speaking has been transformed by newly available technology such as videoconferencing, multimedia presentations, and other nontraditional forms, but the essentials remain the same. Contents. 1 Purpose of public speaking 1.1 Persuasion 1.2 Education 1.3 Intervention 2 History 2.1 Greece 2.2 Rome 2.3 China 3 Theorists 3.1 Aristotle 4 Historical speeches 5 Women and public speaking 6 Glossophobia 7 Training 8 Professional speakers 9 Modern 9.1 Technology 9.2 Telecommunication 9.3 Notable modern theorists 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links Purpose of public speaking[edit]. The function of public speaking depends entirely on what effect a speaker intends when addressing a particular audience. The same speaker, with the same strategic intention, might deliver a substantially different speech to two different audiences. The point is to change something, in the hearts, minds or actions of the audience. Despite its name, public speaking is frequently delivered to a closed, limited audience with a broadly common outlook. Audiences may be ardent fans of the speaker; they may be hostile (attending an event unwillingly); or they may be random strangers (indifferent to a speaker on a soap box in the street). All the same, effective speakers remember that even a small audience is not one single mass with a single point of view but a variety of individuals.[2] As a broad generalisation, public speaking seeks either to reassure a troubled audience or to awaken a complacent audience to something important. Having decided which of these approaches is needed, a speaker will then combine information and storytelling in the way most likely to achieve it. Persuasion[edit]. The word persuasion comes from a Latin term “persuadere.”[3]  The main goal behind a persuasive speech is to change the beliefs of a speaker's audience.[3] Examples of persuasive speaking can be found in any political debate where leaders are trying to persuade their audience (general public or members of the government).[3] Persuasive speaking can be defined as a style of speaking in which there are four parts to the process: the one who is persuading, the audience, the method in which the speaker uses to speak, and the message that the speaker is trying to enforce.[3] When trying to persuade an audience, a speaker targets the audience's feelings and beliefs, to help change the opinions of the audience.[3] There are different techniques a speaker can use to gain the support of an audience.[3] Some of the major techniques would include demanding the audience to take action, using inclusive language (we & us) to make the audience and speaker seem as if they are one group, and choosing specific words that have a strong connotative meaning increasing the impact of the message.[3] Asking rhetorical questions, generalizing information, including anecdotes, exaggerating meaning, using metaphors, and applying irony to situations are other methods in which a speaker can enhance the chances of persuading an audience.[3] Education[edit]. Knowledge may be transferred through public speaking. Intervention[edit]. The intervention style of speaking is a relatively new method proposed by a rhetorical theorist named William R. Brown.[4] This style revolves around the fact that humans create a symbolic meaning for life and the things we interact with around them.[4] Because of this, the symbolic meaning of everything changes based on the way we communicate.[4] When approaching communication with an intervention style, communication is understood to be responsible for the constant changes in our society, behaviors, and how we consider the meaning behind objects, ideologies, and the way we conduct our day-to-day lives.[4] From an interventional perspective, when individuals communicate, they are intervening with what is already reality and might “shift symbolic reality.”[4] This approach to communication also encompasses the possibility or idea that we may be responsible for unexpected outcomes due to what and how we communicate.[4] This perspective also widens the scope of focus from a single speaker who is intervening to a multitude of speakers all communicating and intervening, simultaneously affecting the world around us.[4] History[edit]. See also: Rhetoric Greece[edit]. The Orator, c. 100 BCE, an Etrusco-Roman bronze sculpture depicting Aule Metele (Latin: Aulus Metellus), an Etruscan man wearing a Roman toga while engaged in rhetoric; the statue features an inscription in the Etruscan alphabet. Although there is evidence of public speech training in ancient Egypt,[5] the first known piece[6] on oratory, written over 2,000 years ago, came from ancient Greece. This work elaborated on principles drawn from the practices and experiences of ancient Greek orators. Aristotle was one who first recorded the teachers of oratory to use definitive rules and models. One of his key insights was that speakers always combine, to varying degrees, three things: reasoning, credentials and emotion, which he called Logos, Ethos and Pathos.[7] Aristotle's work became an essential part of a liberal arts education during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The classical antiquity works written by the ancient Greeks capture the ways they taught and developed the art of public speaking thousands of years ago. In classical Greece and Rome, rhetoric was the main component of composition and speech delivery, both of which were critical skills for citizens to use in public and private life. In ancient Greece, citizens spoke on their own behalf rather than having professionals, like modern lawyers, speak for them. Any citizen who wished to succeed in court, in politics or in social life had to learn techniques of public speaking. Rhetorical tools were first taught by a group of rhetoric teachers called Sophists who were notable for teaching paying students how to speak effectively using the methods they developed. Separately from the Sophists, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle developed their own theories of public speaking and taught these principles to students who wanted to learn skills in rhetoric. Plato and Aristotle taught these principles in schools that they founded, The Academy and The Lyceum, respectively. Although Greece eventually lost political sovereignty, the Greek culture of training in public speaking was adopted almost identically by the Romans. Demosthenes was a well-known orator from Athens. After his father died when he was 7, he had three legal guardians which were Aphobus, Demophon, and Theryppides.[8] His inspiration for public speaking came after he learned that his guardians had robbed his father's money left for his education.[9] He was first exposed to public speaking when his suit required him to speak in front of the court.[10] Demosthenes started practicing public speaking more after that and is known for sticking pebbles into his mouth in order to help his pronunciation, talk while running so that he wouldn't lose his breath while speaking, and practice talking in front of a mirror to improve his delivery.[10] When Philip II, the ruler of Macedon, tried to conquer the Greeks, Demosthenes made a speech called Kata Philippou A.[8] In this speech, he spoke to the rest of the Greeks about why he opposed Philip II and why he was a threat to them.[8] This speech was one of the first speeches that were known as Philippics.[10] He had other speeches known as Olynthiacs and these speeches along with the Philippics were used to get the people in Athens to rally against Philip II.[10] Demosthenes was known for being in favor of independence.[9] Rome[edit]. In the political rise of the Roman Republic, Roman orators copied and modified the ancient Greek techniques of public speaking. Instruction in rhetoric developed into a full curriculum, including instruction in grammar (study of the poets), preliminary exercises (progymnasmata), and preparation of public speeches (declamation) in both forensic and deliberative genres. The Latin style of rhetoric was heavily influenced by Cicero and involved a strong emphasis on a broad education in all areas of humanistic study in the liberal arts, including philosophy. Other areas of study included the use of wit and humor, the appeal to the listener's emotions, and the use of digressions. Oratory in the Roman empire, though less central to political life than in the days of the Republic, remained significant in law and became a big form of entertainment. Famous orators became like celebrities in ancient Rome—very wealthy and prominent members of society. The Latin style was the primary form of oration until the beginning of the 20th century. After World War II, however, the Latin style of oration began to gradually grow out of style as the trend of ornate speaking was seen as impractical. This cultural change likely had to do with the rise of the scientific method and the emphasis on a "plain" style of speaking and writing. Even formal oratory is much less ornate today than it was in the Classical Era. China[edit]. Ancient China had a delayed start to the implementation of Rhetoric (persuasion) as China did not have rhetoricians teaching rhetoric to its people.[1] It was understood that Chinese rhetoric was already within Chinese philosophy.[1] However, ancient China did have philosophical schools that focused on two concepts: “‘Wen’ (rhetoric) and ‘Zhi’ (thoughtful content).”[1] Ancient Chinese rhetoric shows strong connections with modern-day teachings of public speaking because of ethics being of high value in Chinese rhetoric.[1] Ancient Chinese rhetoric had three meanings: modifying language use to reflect people’s feelings; modifying the language used to be more punctual, effective, and impactful; and rhetoric being used as an “aesthetic tool.”[1] Traditionally, Chinese rhetoric focused primarily on written language vice spoken, but written language and spoken language share similar constructional characteristics.[1] The unique and key difference between Chinese rhetoric and the rhetoric of western cultures can be found in the type of audience being persuaded.[1] In western rhetoric, a public audience is typically the target for persuasion, whereas state rulers were the focus for persuasion in Chinese rhetoric.[1] Another difference between Chinese and Western rhetoric practices is how a speaker establishes credibility or Ethos.[1] The ethical appeal in Chinese rhetoric is not solely focused on the speaker itself, as seen with the western implementation of credibility, but more in the way that the speaker connects to the audience with collectivism.[1] A speaker can accomplish this by sharing personal experiences and establishing a connection between a speaker's concern and public interest.[1] When analyzing public speakers, the Chinese approach to rhetoric indicates that an audience should identify three standards: tracing, examination, and practice.[1] Establishing the tracing of a speaker can be described as how the speaker is speaking according to traditional practices of speech.[1] Examination refers to the consideration of civilian's daily lives.[1] Practice is found in the topic or argument itself and that it is relevant and benefits the “state, society, and people.”[1] Theorists[edit]. Aristotle[edit]. Aristotle and one of his most famous writings, "Rhetoric" (written in 350 B.C.E), have been used as a foundation for learning how to master the arts of public speaking. In his works, rhetoric is the act of publicly persuading the audience.[11] Rhetoric is similar to dialect in that he defines both being acts of persuasion. However, dialect is the act of persuading someone in private, whereas rhetoric is about persuading people in a public setting.[11] More specifically, Aristotle defines someone who practices rhetoric or a "rhetorician" as an individual who is able to interpret and understand what persuasion is and how it is applied.[11] Aristotle breaks up the making of the practice of rhetoric into three categories, the categories being the elements of a speech: the speaker, the topic or point of the speech, and the audience.[11][12] Aristotle also includes three types of oratory or respects: politics, forensic, and ceremonial.[12] The political oratory is used when the intent is to convince someone or a body of people to do something or not.[12] In the forensic approach, someone is the center of attention for them to be accused or defended. Lastly, with the ceremonial approach, someone is being recognized for their actions in either a positive or negative way.[12] Aristotle breaks down the political category into five focus or themes: "ways and means, war and peace, national defense, imports and exports, and legislation."[12] These focuses are broken down into detail so that a speaker can focus on what is needed to take into consideration so that the speaker can effectively influence an audience to agree and support the speaker's ideas.[12] The focus of "ways and means" deals with economic aspects in how the country is spending money.[12] "Peace and War" focus on what the country has to offer in terms of military power, how war has been conducted, how war has affected the country in the past, and how other countries have conducted war.[12] "National defense" deals with taking into consideration the position and strength of a country in the event of an invasion. Forces, fortifying structures, points with a strategic advantage should all be considered.[12] "Food supply" is concerned with the ability to support a country in regards to food, importing and exporting food, and carefully making decisions to arrange agreements with other countries.[12] Lastly, Aristotle breaks down the "legislation" theme, and this theme seems to be the most important to Aristotle. The legislation of a country is the most crucial aspect of all the above because everything is affected by the policies and laws set by the people in power.[12] In Aristotle's "Rhetoric" writing, he mentions three strategies someone can use to try to persuade an audience:[11] Establishing the character of a speaker (Ethos), influencing the emotional element of the audience (Pathos), and focusing on the argument specifically (Logos).[11][13] Aristotle believes establishing the character of a speaker is effective in persuasion because the audience will believe what the speaker is saying to be true if the speaker is credible and trustworthy.[11] With the audience's emotional state, Aristotle believes that individuals do not make the same decisions when in different moods.[11] Because of this, one needs to try to influence the audience by being in control of one's emotions, making persuasion effective.[11] The argument itself can affect the attempt to persuade by making the argument of the case so clear and valid that the audience will understand and believe that the speaker's point is real.[11] In the last part of "Rhetoric", Aristotle mentions that the most critical piece of persuasion is to know in detail what makes up government and to attack what makes it unique: "customs, institutions, and interest".[12] Aristotle also states that everyone is persuaded by considering people's interests and how the society in which they live influences their interests.[12] Historical speeches[edit]. See also: List of speeches Despite the shift in style, the best-known examples of strong public speaking are still studied years after their delivery. Among these examples are: Pericles' Funeral Oration in 427 BC addressing those who died during the Peloponnesian War Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in 1863 Sojourner Truth's identification of racial issues in "Ain't I a Woman?" Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech at the Washington Monument in 1963.[14] As in other parts of general culture, the notion of a canon of the most important historical speeches is giving way to a broader understanding. Many previously forgotten historical speeches are being recovered and studied.[15] Women and public speaking[edit]. This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (December 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new section, as appropriate. (August 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Between 18th and 19th century US, women were publicly banned from speaking in the courtroom, the senate floor, and the pulpit.[16][pages needed] It was also deemed improper for a woman to be heard in a public setting. Exceptions existed for women from the Quaker religion allowing them speak publicly in meetings of the church.[17][pages needed] Frances Wright was one of the first female public speakers of the United States, advocating equal education for both women and men through large audiences and the press.[16][pages needed] Maria Stewart from an African American descent was also one of the first female speaker of the United States, lecturing in Boston in front of both men and women just 4 years after Wright in 1832 and 1833 on educational opportunities and abolition for young girls.[17][pages needed] The American Anti-Slavery Society, first female agents and sisters, Angelina Grimké and Sarah Grimké created a platform for public lectures to women and conducted tours between 1837 and 1839. The sisters advocated how slavery relates to women's rights and why women need equality[18] following disagreement with churches that did not agree with them public speaking due to being women.[19] In addition to figures in the United States, there are many famous international female speakers. Much of women's earlier public speaking is directly correlated to activism work. Emmeline Pankhurst, who was a British political activist, founded the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) on October 10, 1903.[20] The organization was aimed towards fighting for a woman's right for parliamentary vote, which only men were granted for at the time.[21] Emmeline was known for being a powerful orator and for being a courageous person that led many women to rebel through militant forms until the outbreak of World War I in 1914.[20] Malala Yousafzai is a modern-day public speaker who was born in the Swat Valley in Pakistan and is an educational activist for children and women.[22] After the Taliban restricted the educational rights of women in the Swat Valley, Yousafzai presented her first speech How Dare the Taliban Take Away My Basic Right to Education? in which she protested the shutdowns of the schools.[23] She presented this speech to a press in Peshawar.[23] This brought a lot of attention outside of Pakistan and as well as to the Taliban, who tried to silence her.[23] She is known for her “inspiring and passionate speech” about educational rights given at the United Nations.[22] She also talked about her own  experience of when she got shot in the head in 2012 by a Taliban gunman.[22] She received a Nobel Peace Prize in 2014 and is the youngest to be awarded that prize.[22] Her public speaking has brought worldwide attention to the difficulties of the young girls in Pakistan. She continues to advocate for educational rights for children and women worldwide through the Malala Fund[22] with the purpose of helping girls all around the world receive 12 years of education.[23]  Glossophobia[edit]. See also: Glossophobia The fear of speaking in public, known as glossophobia[24] or public speaking anxiety,[25] is often mentioned as one of the most common phobias.[24][25] The reason is uncertain, but it has been speculated that this fear is primal, like animal fear of being seen by predators.[26] However, the apprehension experienced when speaking in public can have a number of causes.[24][25] Training[edit]. Effective public speaking can be developed by joining a club such as Rostrum, Toastmasters International, Association of Speakers Clubs (ASC), or Speaking Circles, in which members are assigned exercises to improve their speaking skills. Members learn by observation and practice, and hone their skills by listening to constructive suggestions followed by new public speaking exercises. Toastmasters International Toastmasters International is a public speaking organization with over 15,000 clubs worldwide and more than 300,000 members.[27] This organization helps individuals with their public speaking skills as well as other skills necessary for them to grow and become effective public speakers.[28] Members of the club meet and work together on their skills as each member practices giving speeches while the other members evaluate and provide feedback.[28] There are also other small tasks that the members do like practice impromptu speaking by talking about different topics without having anything planned.[28] Each member has a specific role and all of these roles help with the process of gaining their skills as public speakers and as leaders.[28] The number of roles lets each member be able to speak at least one time at the meetings.[27] Members are also able to participate in a variety of speech contests in which the winners can compete in the World Championship of Public Speaking.[29] Rostrum Rostrum is another public speaking organization founded in Australia with more than 100 clubs all over the country.[30] This organization aims at helping people become better communicators no matter the occasion.[30] At the meetings, speakers are able to gain skills by presenting speeches and members provide feedback to those presenting.[31] There is also a qualified speaking trainer that provides more feedback at the end of the meetings.[31] There are also competitions that are held for members to participate in.[30] An online club is also available for members, no matter where they live.[32] The new millennium has seen a notable increase in the number of training solutions offered in the form of video and online courses. Videos can provide actual examples of behaviors to emulate. Professional public speakers often engage in ongoing training and education to refine their craft. This may include seeking guidance to improve their speaking skills such as learning better storytelling techniques, learning how to effectively use humour as a communication tool, and continuously researching in their topic area of focus.[citation needed] Professional speakers[edit]. Public speaking for business and commercial events is often done by professionals, whose expertise is well established. These speakers can be contracted independently, through representation by a speakers bureau, or by other means. Public speaking plays a large role in the professional world. In fact, it is believed that 70 percent of all jobs involve some form of public speaking.[33] Modern[edit]. Technology[edit]. Ettus Ted Talk New technology has also opened different forms of public speaking that are nontraditional such as TED Talks,[34] which are conferences that are broadcast globally. This form of public speaking has created a wider audience base because public speaking can now reach both physical and virtual audiences.[35] These audiences can be watching from all around the world. YouTube is another platform that allows public speaking to reach a larger audience. On YouTube, people can post videos of themselves. Audiences are able to watch these videos for all types of purposes.[36] Multimedia presentations can contain different video clips, sound effects, animation, laser pointers, remote control clickers, and endless bullet points.[37] All adding to the presentation and evolving our traditional views of public speaking. Public speakers may use audience response systems. For large assemblies, the speaker will usually speak with the aid of a public address system or microphone and loudspeaker. These new forms of public speaking, which can be considered nontraditional, have opened up debates about whether these forms of public speaking are actually public speaking. Many people consider YouTube broadcasting to not be true forms of public speaking because there is not a real and physical audience. Others argue that public speaking is about getting a group of people together in order to educate them further regardless of how or where the audience is located[citation needed]. Telecommunication[edit]. Telecommunication and videoconferencing are also forms of public speaking. David M. Fetterman of Stanford University wrote in his 1997 article Videoconferencing over the Internet: "Videoconferencing technology allows geographically disparate parties to hear and see each other usually through satellite or telephone communication systems." This technology is helpful for large conference meetings and face-to-face communication between parties without demanding the inconvenience of travel. Notable modern theorists[edit]. Harold Lasswell developed Lasswell's model of communication. There are five basic elements of public speaking that are described in this theory: the communicator, message, medium, audience and effect. In short, the speaker should be answering the question "who says what in which channel to whom with what effect?" See also[edit]. Audience response Crowd manipulation Debate Eloquence Eulogy Glossophobia List of speeches Public orator Persuasion Rhetoric Speechwriter Speakers' bureau Thematic interpretation Toastmasters International References[edit]. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Pei-Ling, Lee (October 2020). "The Application of Chinese Rhetoric to Public Speaking". China Media Research. 16 (4). ^ Flintoff, John-Paul (2021). A Modest Book About How To Make An Adequate Speech. Short Books. p. 52. ISBN 178072456X. An audience is not a single entity, but a group of individuals who differ from one another perhaps as much as they may differ from you. If you forget that, the slip is unlikely to work in your favour. ^ a b c d e f g h Hassan Sallomi, Azhar (2018-01-01). "A STYLISTIC STUDY OF PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE". International Journal of Language Academy. 6 (23): 357–365. doi:10.18033/ijla.3912. ISSN 2342-0251. ^ a b c d e f g Opt, Susan K. (September 2019). ""To Intervene: A Transcending and Reorienting Goal for Public Speaking."". Atlantic Journal of Communication. 27 (4): 247–259. ^ Womack, Morris M.; Bernstein, Elinor (1990). Speech for Foreign Students. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-398-05699-5. Retrieved June 12, 2017. Some of the earliest written records of training in public speaking may be traced to ancient Egypt. However, the most significant records are found among the ancient Greeks. ^ Murphy, James J. "Demosthenes – greatest Greek orator". Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Heinrichs, Jay. (2008). Thank You For Arguing. Penguin. p. 39. ISBN 0593237382. Aristotle called them logos, ethos and pathos, and so will I, because the meanings of the Greek versions are richer than those of the English versions ^ a b c May, James (2004). "Demosthenes". Salem Press. Great Lives from History: The Ancient World, Prehistory-476 c.e. Retrieved December 12, 2020. ^ a b "Demosthenes (Greek orator) | World History: A Comprehensive Reference Set - Credo Reference". search.credoreference.com. Retrieved 2020-12-13. ^ a b c d "Gale Power Search - Document - Demosthenes & Cicero". go.gale.com. Retrieved 2020-12-13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rapp, Christof. "Aristotle's Rhetoric". plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2021-08-06. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Roberts, Rhys, translator. ""The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle."". The Internet Classics Archive: 441 Searchable Works of Classical Literature. Retrieved 1 July 2021. ^ Higgins, Colin; Walker, Robyn (September 2012). "Ethos , logos , pathos : Strategies of persuasion in social/environmental reports". Accounting Forum. 36 (3): 194–208. doi:10.1016/j.accfor.2012.02.003. ISSN 0155-9982. ^ German, Kathleen M. (2010). Principles of Public Speaking. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-205-65396-6. ^ "Archives of Women's Political Communication". awpc.cattcenter.iastate.edu. ^ a b Mankiller, Wilma Pearl (1998). The Reader's Companion to U.S. Women's History. ISBN 978-0585068473. ^ a b O'Dea, Suzanne (2013). From Suffrage to the Senate: America's Political Women. ISBN 978-1-61925-010-9. ^ Bizzell, Patricia (2010). "Chastity Warrants for Women Public Speakers in Nineteenth-Century American Fiction". Rhetoric Society Quarterly. 40 (4): 17. doi:10.1080/02773945.2010.501050. S2CID 143052545. ^ Bahdwar, Neera. "Sarah Grimké and Angelina Grimké Weld: Abolitionists and Feminists". The Future of Freedom Foundation. FFF. Retrieved 28 September 2020. ^ a b "Gale eBooks - Document - Pankhurst, Emmeline, Christabel, and Sylvia". link.gale.com. Retrieved 2020-12-13. ^ Purvis, June (2013), Gottlieb, Julie V.; Toye, Richard (eds.), "Emmeline Pankhurst in the Aftermath of Suffrage, 1918–1928", The Aftermath of Suffrage: Women, Gender, and Politics in Britain, 1918–1945, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 19–36, doi:10.1057/9781137333001_2, ISBN 978-1-137-33300-1, retrieved 2020-12-13 ^ a b c d e "Yousafzai, Malala (1997–) | Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World - Credo Reference". search.credoreference.com. Retrieved 2020-12-13. ^ a b c d "Gale Power Search - Document - Education Meant Risking Her Life A Young Girl's Deadly Struggle to Learn". go.gale.com. Retrieved 2020-12-13. ^ a b c Black, Rosemary (2018-06-04). "Glossophobia (Fear of Public Speaking): Are You Glossophobic?". psycom.net. Retrieved 2019-07-11. ^ a b c Ireland, Christopher (2020). "Apprehension felt towards delivering oral presentations: a case study of accountancy students". Accounting Education. 29 (3): 305–320. doi:10.1080/09639284.2020.1737548. S2CID 216369153. ^ Flintoff, John-Paul (2021-02-07). "Can I Have Your Attention? How I came to love public speaking". theguardian.com. The fear is primal, because for most of history if you had lots of eyeballs on you, it meant you were about to be gobbled up. For thousands of years, hardly anyone knew what it felt like to be stared at, and listened to, by large groups of others. ^ a b Yasin, Burhanuddin; Champion, Ibrahim (November 12–13, 2016). "FROM A CLASS TO A CLUB". Proceedings of the 1st English Education International Conference (EEIC) in Conjunction with the 2nd Reciprocal Graduate Research Symposium (RGRS) of the Consortium of Asia-Pacific Education Universities (CAPEU) Between Sultan Idris Education University and Syiah Kuala University. ISSN 2527-8037. ^ a b c d "Toastmasters International -All About Toastmasters". www.toastmasters.org. Retrieved 2020-12-13. ^ "Toastmasters International -". www.toastmasters.org. Retrieved 2020-12-13. ^ a b c "Rostrum Australia - About Rostrum Public Speaking". www.rostrum.com.au. Retrieved 2020-12-13. ^ a b "Rostrum Australia - FAQ". www.rostrum.com.au. Retrieved 2020-12-13. ^ "Rostrum Australia - Rostrum Online". www.rostrum.com.au. Retrieved 2020-12-13. ^ Schreiber, Lisa. Introduction to Public Speaking.[ISBN missing][1] ^ TED (conference) ^ Gallo, Carmine (2014). Talk Like TED: The 9 Public-Speaking Secrets of the World's Top Minds. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1466837270. ^ Anderson, Chris (2016). TED Talks: The Official TED Guide to Public Speaking. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ^ Ridgley, Stanley K. (2012). The Complete Guide to Business School Presenting: What your professors don't tell you... What you absolutely must know. Anthem Press. Further reading[edit]. Collins, Philip. "The Art of Speeches and Presentations" (John Wiley & Sons, 2012). Fairlie, Henry. "Oratory in Political Life," History Today (Jan 1960) 10#1 pp 3–13. A survey of political oratory in Great Britain from 1730 to 1960. Flintoff, John-Paul. "A Modest Book About How To Make An Adequate Speech" (Short Books, 2021). excerpt Gold, David, and Catherine L. Hobbs, eds. Rhetoric, History, and Women's Oratorical Education: American Women Learn to Speak (Routledge, 2013). Heinrichs, Jay. "Thank You For Arguing" (Penguin, 2008). Lucas, Stephen E. The Art of Public Speaking (13th ed. McGraw Hill, 2019). Noonan, Peggy. "Simply Speaking" (Regan Books, 1998). Parry-Giles, Shawn J., and J. Michael Hogan, eds. The Handbook of Rhetoric and Public Address (2010) excerpt Sproule, J. Michael. "Inventing public speaking: Rhetoric and the speech book, 1730–1930." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 15.4 (2012): 563–608. excerpt Turner, Kathleen J., Randall Osborn, et al. Public speaking (11th ed. Houghton Mifflin, 2017). excerpt Dale Carnegie · Arthur R. Pell. Public Speaking for Success. 2006 Dale Carnegie. Public Speaking and Influencing Men in Business. 2003 Dale Carnegie.How to Develop Self-Confidence &Influence People by Public Speaking. New York: Pocket Books,1926 Chris Anderson. The Official TED Guide to Public Speaking. Hougtorn Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, 2016. External links[edit]. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Public speaking Wikimedia Commons has media related to Public speaking. Public speaking at Curlie How to speak so that people want to listen Authority control Microsoft Academic National Archives (US) Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Public_speaking&oldid=1064885319" Categories: Public speakingRhetoricPoliticsPolitical sciencePerforming artsHidden categories: Pages with missing ISBNsArticles with short descriptionShort description is different from WikidataWikipedia articles with style issues from December 2018All articles with style issuesArticles with limited geographic scope from August 2020Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2018All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from May 2016Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019Commons category link is on WikidataArticles with Curlie linksArticles with MA identifiersArticles with NARA identifiers Navigation menu. Search .
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                            [body] => What Is Public Speaking? & Why Is It Important? (Definition + Tips)AdvertisementAdvertisementAdvertisementAdvertisementAdvertisementby Laura SpencerMar 23, 2021Read Time:12 minsLanguages:Englishالعربية/عربيDeutschEspañolMagyarBahasa IndonesiaMelayuPусскийукраїнська моваPublic SpeakingCommunicationPresentationsSmall BusinessBusinessThis post is part of a series called Fundamentals of Public Speaking (101) Introduction Guide.24 Quick Ways to Overcome Your Fear of Public Speaking If you've been asked to give a public speech, you may wonder: what is public speaking and why is public speaking important? Those questions are quite logical if you've never thought much about public speaking before. In this tutorial you'll learn a public speaking definition and more. (Image Source: Envato Elements) Public speaking is important in both business, education, and the public arena. There are many benefits to speaking in public whether you're an individual or a business. In this article, we'll define public speaking for you. We'll discuss the importance of public speaking in general. We'll also cover the importance of public speaking in business. Plus, we'll share some resources to help you become a better public speaker. This includes some public speaking examples. Also, if you want to pursue speaking in public yourself, be sure to download our free eBook:  The Complete Guide to Making Great Presentations. It'll help you master the complete presentation process. A Public Speaking Definition . What is public speaking? Basically, it's a presentation that's given live before an audience. Public speeches can cover a wide variety of different topics. The goal of the speech may be to educate, entertain, or influence the listeners. Often, visual aids in the form of an electronic slideshow are used to supplement the speech. This makes it more interesting to the listeners.   A public speaking presentation is different from an online presentation. The online presentation is available any time. A public speech is typically limited to a specific time or place. Online presentations often use slideshows. Or they use pre-recorded videos of a speaker. This includes recordings of a live public speaking presentation). Because speaking in public is done before a live audience, you need to consider some special factors. We'll touch on those shortly. Now you've got an understanding of the meaning of public speaking so let's take a quick look at the history of (and the importance of) public speaking. A History of Public Speaking . What is the history of public speaking? And why is public speaking important? Woman speaking in front of an audience on - Public speech image (Image source: Envato Elements) There's a good chance that there's been public speech, in one form or another, as long as there've been people. But most public speaking experts involved with public speaking in business communication, trace the origins of modern public speaking back to ancient Greece and Rome. Of course, those societies didn't have slideshows to help with public speech. But they did have a need for speaking in public. As a result, they developed public speaking methods that are still studied today.   The ancient Greeks used public speech primarily to praise or persuade others. At one point, all Greek citizens had the right to suggest or oppose laws during their assemblies. This resulted in a need for skilled public speakers. Speaking in public became a desirable skill and was taught. Public speaking in the time of the Greeks was called rhetoric.   Later, when Rome came to power, speaking in public was used during the Roman senate sessions. The Romans adopted the public speaking rhetoric methods of the Greeks. In fact, most public speaking teachers of the time were Greek   The Latin style of public speaking was popular in the U.S. and Europe until the mid-20th century. After World War II, a less formal and more conversational speaking style of speaking became popular. Also, electronic tools became available to enhance public presentations. Towards the end of the 20th century, those electronic tools migrated to the computer. They evolved into the computer software tools. PowerPoint, is one of those tools that we know and use today. Don't be fooled, though. Even though today's public speeches are less formal, they still need to be well organized. More on that later. Now let's take a look at the importance of public speaking. The Importance of Public Speaking . If you ask most people, they'll probably say they don't like public speech. They may even admit to being afraid of it since fear of public speaking is a very common fear. Or they may just be shy or introverted. For those reasons, many people avoid speaking in public if they can. If you're one of those people who avoid speaking in public, you're missing out. Over the years, public speaking in communication has played a major role in education, government, and business. Words have the power to inform, persuade, educate, and even entertain. And the spoken word can be even more powerful than the written word in the hands of the right speaker. Whether you're a small business owner,  or a student, you'll benefit from improving your public speaking skills. Some benefits to speaking in public include: improves confidence  better research skills stronger deductive skills ability to advocate for causes and more Speaking in public is especially important for businesses to market their offers. This allows them to get their message in front of potential customers. Sales people and executives are often expected to have good public speaking skills. To learn more about some of the benefits of speaking in public, review the following article: Communication What Are the Life-Changing Benefits of Public Speaking? Laura Spencer Next, let's explore the methods you can use to become better at speaking in public. How to Become Better at Public Speaking (5 Quick Tips). Okay, so now you understand the benefits of public speaking. You might be a little more interested in the topic. Still, you might think it's not for you. Maybe you gave a speech once and it didn't go well. Maybe you're afraid of speaking in public. Or maybe you think you don't have a natural ability for giving speeches. The truth is that speaking in public is a skill. And you can learn any skill. While some people may have more natural speaking ability than others, anyone can learn to be a better public speaker. It just takes some know-how and some effort. To help you become better at giving public speeches, we'll take a look at these five areas: writing the speech overcoming a fear of speaking practicing the speech preparing your presentation slide designs giving the speech We'll start with writing the speech. 1. Write an Effective Speech. The first thing you'll want to do is work on writing a well-organized, engaging speech. Because even a great speaking voice or a great deal of charisma isn't enough if your material isn't any good. The following tutorials can help you learn to write better speeches: Speech How to Write a Great Speech for Public Speaking in 7 Steps Laura Spencer Presentations How to Write a Great Motivational Business Speech Laura Spencer 2. Overcome the Fear of Speaking. Fear of public speaking is very real and can hold you back if you let it. If you don't feel confident when giving your speech, your listeners may pick up on that. This can make your presentation less effective. Fortunately, there are some techniques to help manage the fear of speaking in public. They also help you become more confident. First, let's tackle fear of public speaking. The following tutorials can help you overcome a fear of public speaking: Communication 24 Quick Ways to Overcome Your Fear of Public Speaking Laura Spencer Presentations How to Give a Good Presentation—Without Anxiety or Being Nervous Julia Melymbrose Communication How to Overcome Your Fear of Public Speaking David Masters Next, let's work on improving your confidence. The following tutorial will help you feel better about your speaking ability: Public Speaking How to Speak Confidently in Public (Like a Pro Speaker) Laura Spencer 3. Practice the Speech. Even if you're not afraid of speaking in public, practice helps you give a more effective speech. If you're in a rush, you may be tempted to skip practicing your speech to save time. While skipping practice may seem like a good idea, it's really not. Practicing your speech improves your public presentation skills. It also increases your familiarity with the presentation. As a result, your speech will go smoothly. This tutorial includes a handy checklist to help you practice your speech (and other tips): Presentations How to Get Better At Public Speaking (Improve With Practice) Laura Spencer 4. Prepare Your Presentation Slide Designs. Your slide design needs to be on point. You’ll want to make sure it looks professional and is easy to read. Luckily, you can find plenty of modern and professional presentation templates on Envato Elements and GraphicRiver.  You'll also want to download The Complete Guide to Making Great Presentations eBook now. Download it for FREE with a subscription to the Tuts+ Business Newsletter. Learn how to get your ideas formed into a powerful presentation that'll move your audience. Don't forget to make good use of tools like PowerPoint, Google Slides, or Keynote. The right template for your slide deck can make a huge difference in your presentation. Here are some of the best presentation templates available: Microsoft PowerPoint 35 Cool PowerPoint Templates (Amazing PPT Slides for Presentations in 2021) Laura Spencer Google Slides 35+ Best Business Presentation Templates for Google Slides in 2022 Laura Spencer Microsoft PowerPoint 32+ Professional PowerPoint Templates: For Better Business PPT Presentations 2021 Sean Hodge 5. Give the Speech. You've written a good speech. You feel more confident about giving a speech in public, and you've practiced. You're ready to actually give the speech. There are some tips and tricks you can use on the day of your speech to make it go more smoothly, though. Remember, you're giving a presentation before a live audience at a specific place and time. So, you've got some concerns about the speaking venue that those who give online presentations don't have to worry about. Some common concerns for public speakers include: Will the audience be able the hear me? Does the venue have the equipment I need? Are there enough seats for all my listeners? Here's a tutorial with ideas that'll help you while you're giving your speech: Public Speaking 10+ Top Public Speaking Tips (To Help You Improve Quickly) Laura Spencer Public Speaking Examples. Public speaking examples are great for learning or improving a new skill. That applies to speaking in public as well. If you get the chance to listen to some top-rated public speakers, you should do it. You can observe how other speakers go about giving their speech. In the process, you'll improve your own speaking skills. One great source of recorded public speeches is Ted Talks, which is a series of short presentations on a wide variety of topics. Ted Talks are known for attracting world-class and celebrity speakers. You can find my favorite Ted Talks in this article:  Presentations 12 Best TED Talks of All Time (For Business Leaders in 2021) Laura Spencer The Best Source for Simple PowerPoint Templates (With Unlimited Use). Envato Elements is the perfect place to find modern PowerPoint templates. For a single monthly fee, access unlimited downloads of PowerPoint themes, photos, fonts, and other resources to use in your next presentation.  Elements gives you the best bang for your buck. And thanks to the unlimited downloads, you can try out a variety of slide designs as you build out your public speaking PowerPoint presentation.  PowerPoint templates on Envato Elements PowerPoint templates from Envato Elements have plenty of features to help you create a stunning presentation, such as: bold text and title slides to capture audience attention rich image placeholders to show off photos and videos many infographic elements and charts to visualize data plenty of customization options to make the template your own Thanks to these templates, you’ll be able to create a modern, standout presentation to go with your public speech. 5 Modern PowerPoint Templates From Envato Elements For 2021. Take a look at the top modern PowerPoint templates that are available on Envato Elements right now: 1. Minimalism Clean PowerPoint Presentation . Try this template if you’re looking for a clean and simple PowerPoint slide design. The template features a versatile design. Use it for any type of presentation or topic. It includes 50+ unique slide designs, tons of customization options, and vector elements. The template was designed in widescreen format. 2. Kaspa PowerPoint Presentation . The Kaspa PowerPoint template has a modern and trendy design. It’s best suited for presentations that need a lot of photos to share information. The template can be customized completely. It comes with slide animations and transitions. The template also includes vector icons. 3. Guava PowerPoint . The Guava PowerPoint has a dramatic, yet elegant design. You’ll notice dark image overlays and elegant typography that makes your message stand out. The template comes with 50+ unique designs, image placeholders, and master slides. It was designed in widescreen resolution. 4. Dauna Minimalist PowerPoint . The Dauna template is another minimalist PowerPoint design. It works well for any type of business presentation. You’ll find 30 unique slides and two color variations. The template comes with image placeholders and plenty of customization options.  5. Pastelize Colorful Business PowerPoint Presentation . If you’re looking for a colorful and bold PowerPoint, the Pastelize template is the perfect choice. The template includes many slide designs, three color variations and color themes, and image placeholders. Make Great Presentations (Free PDF eBook Download) . We also have the perfect complement to this tutorial, which will walk you through the complete presentation process. Learn how to write your presentation, design it like a pro, and prepare it to present powerfully. Download our new eBook: The Complete Guide to Making Great Presentations. It's available for free with a subscription to the Tuts+ Business Newsletter. Conclusion. You've just learned all about public speaking. You now know the importance of public speaking.  You've also learned a bit about the history of public speaking in Rome. And you've learned the public speaking definition. We've shared some tools to help you learn how to give a public speech. We also provided you with a source for good public speaking examples that you can learn from.   You should now be ready to create public speeches of your own. So, go ahead. Write that public speech and give it. You'll be glad you did! Editorial Note: This tutorial was last published in June of 2018. It's been revised to make it current, accurate, and up to date by our staff—with special help from Brenda Barron. AdvertisementPublic SpeakingCommunicationPresentationsSmall BusinessBusinessLaura SpencerEnvato Tuts+ Associate Editor Business, North Texas, USALaura Spencer is our Associate Business Editor here on Tuts+. She uses her business knowledge to help a wide variety of audiences. By sharing her knowledge in well-researched articles, she hopes to help others do well. Laura graduated with a degree in business. Besides Tuts+, Laura's work has been published on many sites including Vandelay Design Blog, FreelanceM.ag, Freelance Folder, Lubbock Avalanche Journal, Woman's Day, LifeHacker, and more. She's also written over 40 business study guides for continuing education companies. Laura has also managed her own writing business since 2002. Before that, she worked in corporate America as a technical writer and also as a marketing writer. As a lifelong learner, Laura continues to seek out better information to help her readers. Check out her latest ideas on her blog. TXWriterFeed Like Follow Weekly email summarySubscribe below and we’ll send you a weekly email summary of all new Business tutorials. Never miss out on learning about the next big thing.Update me weeklyAdvertisementAdvertisementAdvertisementAdvertisement Looking for something to help kick start your next project? Envato Market has a range of items for sale to help get you started. PowerPoint TemplatesFrom $4Keynote TemplatesFrom $4Website TemplatesFrom $3Business Card TemplatesFrom $2 ×Envato Tuts+ is now part of Envato ElementsOne subscription provides unlimited access to:. 1,200+ courses and ebooksDesign, code, video editing, business, and much more.Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator and InDesignGraphic, Logo and Print DesignSketch, Adobe XD & FigmaWordPressJavascript, PHP & PythonAdobe After Effects & Premiere ProMuch MoreMillions of creative assetsDesign templates, stock videos, photos & audio, and much more.Graphic TemplatesStock PhotosMusic TracksVideo TemplatesWeb TemplatesDesign AssetsWordpress Themes & PluginsMuch MoreFrom $16.50/mSubscribe nowUnlimited DownloadsFrom $16.50/monthGet access to over one million creative assets on Envato Elements. Over 9 Million Digital Assets Everything you need for your next creative project. Create Beautiful Logos, Designs & Mockups in Seconds Design like a professional without Photoshop. Join the Community Share ideas. 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Collaborate.Quick LinksExplore popular categoriesCurated Design AssetsBest Cool FontsInDesign Magazine TemplatesPhotoshop ActionsInDesign Newsletter TemplatesInDesign TemplatesCurated Web Design AssetsResponsive WordPress ThemesWordPress Themes for ConsultantsWireframe TemplatesBest Shopify ThemesMasonry WordPress ThemesWeb Themes & TemplatesWP ThemesHTML TemplatesShopify ThemesBootstrap ThemesFree WordPress ThemesVideoAfter Effects TemplatesApple Motion TemplatesVideo EffectsLower ThirdsStock FootagePlaceitLogo MakerVideo MakerDesign TemplatesFree TemplatesMockupsCurated Video AssetsAfter Effects Slideshow TemplatesPremiere Pro Video Intro TemplatesFinal Cut Pro TemplatesFinal Cut Pro Title TemplatesPremiere Pro Video EffectsCurated Presentation AssetsKeynote Pitch Deck TemplatesGoogle Slides Business TemplatesPowerPoint Pitch Deck TemplatesBest Shopify Mobile ThemesBest Presentation TemplatesFree ToolsImage ResizerVideo CropperVideo To Gif ConverterElementsWordPress ThemesStock ImagesWebsite TemplatesLogosFontsTuts+Learn JavaScriptPhotoshop TutorialsHow to DrawHow to Use WordPressHow to Use PowerPoint
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                            [body] => Introduction to Public SpeakingFilled StarFilled StarFilled StarFilled StarFilled Star4.8stars1,752 ratingsDr. Matt McGarrity   Financial aid available205,328 already enrolledOffered ByDynamic Public Speaking SpecializationUniversity of WashingtonAbout this Course. 334,237 recent viewsThis course gives you a reliable model for preparing and delivering effective presentations. In business, in school, and in public life, we are often called upon to “make a few comments.” Often, people tasked with such speeches become flummoxed. They might not know what to talk about, or ramble without making a point, or simply be confusing to listen to. This course is designed to help you shine where others falter. We’ll learn how organize talks clearly, write them memorably, and deliver them confidently. By the end of the course, you should be able to significantly reduce your fear of public speaking, use rehearsal techniques to develop a strong, vibrant speaking voice, and perform speeches with dynamic movement and gestures. The speech model that we’ll practice is useful for briefings, elevator talks, interviews, and even as a structure for hour-long presentations. If you’re a beginner, this course will help you quickly master the fundamentals of speaking. If you’re a seasoned speaker, this course will help you better understand public speaking and push you to the next level.Flexible deadlinesFlexible deadlinesReset deadlines in accordance to your schedule.Shareable CertificateShareable CertificateEarn a Certificate upon completion100% online100% onlineStart instantly and learn at your own schedule.SpecializationCourse 1 of 4 in theDynamic Public Speaking SpecializationBeginner LevelBeginner LevelHours to completeApprox. 12 hours to completeAvailable languagesEnglishSubtitles: Arabic, French, Portuguese (European), Italian, Portuguese (Brazilian), Vietnamese, German, Russian, English, SpanishSkills you will gain. ConfidencePresentationSpeechPublic SpeakingFlexible deadlinesFlexible deadlinesReset deadlines in accordance to your schedule.Shareable CertificateShareable CertificateEarn a Certificate upon completion100% online100% onlineStart instantly and learn at your own schedule.SpecializationCourse 1 of 4 in theDynamic Public Speaking SpecializationBeginner LevelBeginner LevelHours to completeApprox. 12 hours to completeAvailable languagesEnglishSubtitles: Arabic, French, Portuguese (European), Italian, Portuguese (Brazilian), Vietnamese, German, Russian, English, SpanishInstructor. Instructor rating 4.87/5 (415 Ratings)InfoDr. Matt McGarrity. Teaching ProfessorUW Department of Communication 666,445 Learners 8 CoursesOffered by. University of Washington. Founded in 1861, the University of Washington is one of the oldest state-supported institutions of higher education on the West Coast and is one of the preeminent research universities in the world.go to previous testimonialgo to next testimonial123Syllabus - What you will learn from this course. Content RatingThumbs Up98%(27,353 ratings)InfoWeek1Week 1. Hours to complete3 hours to completeWeek 1: Understanding speech. Thank you for joining Introduction to Public Speaking! I am thrilled at the prospect of a global discussion about good speech. Let's get started! In this module, we’ll focus on the basics of the course and how rhetorical canons will help us structure our time. Then we’ll turn to the important ways that speaking and writing differ. By the end of this week, you should have some tools for evaluating your speech writing. If you want some feedback, you’ll be able to upload an introductory speech for peer review.Hours to complete3 hours to completeReading13 videos (Total 43 min), 2 readings, 3 quizzesSee AllVideo13 videosWelcome!1mCourse and assignment overview4mWeek 1 overview53sWhat is rhetoric?1mRhetorical situations5mThe canons of rhetoric3mSpeech is a natural medium of sound6mDon't treat speaking as writing4mHow do we talk?3mGood delivery is easy to understand3mWeek 1 review54sIntroductory speech sample2mRecording good speech videos4mReading2 readingsWeek one lesson summaries10mWeek one assignment check-in10mQuiz2 practice exercisesRhetoric30mWeek 1 quiz10mWeek2Week 2. Hours to complete3 hours to completeWeek 2: Making ideas compelling and memorable. Now that we have the course foundation out of the way, we can work on our basic speech model: the key point speech. I love this format. It's the Swiss army knife of speeches. This basic model works in interviews, short presentations, elevator talks, and can even structure an hour long presentation. After overviewing the assignment, we’ll talk about how to plan out your speeches. By the end of the week, you should have some tools for quickly putting together short presentations. You can practice this by analyzing some speeches.Hours to complete3 hours to completeReading14 videos (Total 55 min), 8 readings, 3 quizzesSee AllVideo14 videosWeek 2 overview51sKey point speech overview3mKey point speech rubric4mThe components of a memorable point5mCan you hear these components?2mOutlining and flowing7mInventing key points: Topics5mInventing key points: How many points?4mArranging key points: Subordination2mArranging key points: Coordination and discreteness4mStylizing key points: Phrasing4mKey point speech for analysis3mImproved key point speech (Optional)4mWeek 2 review1mReading8 readingsKey point speech assignment description10mCase study: Inventing key points15mSpeech analysis #1 overview2mMatt's feedback (Optional)10mWeek two lesson summaries10mWeek two assignment check-in10mDealing with Q&A10mSample Q&A exchanges10mQuiz2 practice exercisesWeek 2 quiz10mDealing with Q&A2mWeek3Week 3. Hours to complete2 hours to completeWeek 3: Illustrating and delivering your ideas. This week, we’ll talk about support and arrangement. The lessons here will immediately help all of your other presentations. Why? Because we need to think about how audiences hear our ideas in real time. There are things we should be doing to help listeners instantly organize and process the information we’re presenting to them. By the end of the week, you should be able to discuss evidence clearly and highlight your speech's organization. If you want some feedback, you’ll be able to upload a practice elevator speech for peer review.Hours to complete2 hours to completeReading14 videos (Total 50 min), 2 readings, 3 quizzesSee AllVideo14 videosWeek 3 overview57sFinding the right support4mDiscussing your examples concisely3mPerforming your key point3mSample performance of a key point4mHighlighting speech structure3mIntroductions4mTransitions3mConclusions3mKey point speech with structure identified (Optional)7mRevising your speech5mPracticing and remembering your speech4mWeek 3 review1mSample elevator speech1mReading2 readingsWeek three lesson summaries10mWeek three assignment check-in10mQuiz2 practice exercisesDiscussing your support10mWeek 3 quiz10mWeek4Week 4. Hours to complete3 hours to completeWeek 4: Overcoming your fear of public speaking and developing great delivery. This week, we'll discuss speech apprehension and delivery. I know the fear of public speaking is a pressing topic for many. Why didn’t we start the course with this? Because I think many delivery concerns go away if the invention and arrangement are good. However, invention and arrangement are just part of the equation - now we can supercharge our delivery. By the end of this week, you’ll have some techniques for combating those butterflies and speaking confidently. If you want some feedback, you’ll be able to upload a practice key point speech for peer review.Hours to complete3 hours to completeReading15 videos (Total 72 min), 6 readings, 4 quizzesSee AllVideo15 videosWeek 4 overview54sWhat is public speaking apprehension?6mThe causes of public speaking apprehension6mReducing your public speaking apprehension5mExample of public speaking apprehension5mAnalyzing the example4mBreath control6mProjection5mPitch6mRate and pauses5mGestures6mMovement4mSample speech2mImproved speech (Optional)3mWeek 4 review58sReading6 readingsSpeech analysis #2 overview5mMatt's feedback on the sample speech (Optional)10mWeek four lesson summaries10mWeek four assignment check-in5mLinguistic bias, uptalk, and vocal fry10mGetting interrupted at work10mQuiz3 practice exercisesPause length5mWeek 4 quiz10mDealing with difficult situtaionsShow MoreWeek5Week 5. Hours to complete1 hour to completeWeek 5: Course conclusion and your final speech. Thank you for time in this course. I hope the material has proven helpful in some way. We concluded our discussion of the speech last week. I would like to spend a bit of time reflecting on the course and talking a bit about the other courses in this specialization. We will end this week with your final key point speech.Hours to complete1 hour to completeReading3 videos (Total 12 min)See AllVideo3 videosCourse review2mOther recommended courses1mSample key point speech7mReviews. 4.8Filled StarFilled StarFilled StarFilled StarFilled Star577 reviews5 stars82.89%4 stars14.04%3 stars1.41%2 stars0.22%1 star1.41%TOP REVIEWS FROM INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC SPEAKING. Filled StarFilled StarFilled StarFilled StarFilled Starby EFeb 27, 2017This course is great. You simply learn a lot in an easy way. The teacher is really good and knows how to teach and engage you in the lessons. I am looking forward to next courses in the specializationFilled StarFilled StarFilled StarFilled StarFilled Starby AJJun 5, 2020Excellent course for who are starting to speak in public or who are already a public speaker, no matter you join this course to get more tools & ideas to make your speech interesting to the audience.Filled StarFilled StarFilled StarFilled StarFilled Starby MSJul 15, 2020This is indeed a very good course for a beginner since it discusses all the ways of preparing and delivering a proper speech with necessary theoretical as well as practical classes and assignments.Filled StarFilled StarFilled StarFilled StarFilled Starby MADec 15, 2020Excellent course! I got so much out of taking this course. I only wish I had taken this course sooner, as my prior speeches and presentations would have been so much better, with this knowledge.View all reviewsAbout the Dynamic Public Speaking Specialization. Good speaking is your most enduring job skill. This four-course specialization will provide you with the instruction, experience, and practice to develop and deliver compelling presentations. Drawing from the established knowledge in communication, rhetoric, linguistics, and argumentation, each course balances proven ideas with lots of speech practice.The courses in this specializations should help speakers at all levels. If you are nervous about public speaking, this is for you! I have spent an entire career helping nervous novice speakers grow into confident communicators. We slowly work up specific skills that you can practice multiple times before putting together a longer speech.Frequently Asked Questions. When will I have access to the lectures and assignments?Access to lectures and assignments depends on your type of enrollment. If you take a course in audit mode, you will be able to see most course materials for free. To access graded assignments and to earn a Certificate, you will need to purchase the Certificate experience, during or after your audit. If you don't see the audit option: The course may not offer an audit option. You can try a Free Trial instead, or apply for Financial Aid.The course may offer 'Full Course, No Certificate' instead. This option lets you see all course materials, submit required assessments, and get a final grade. This also means that you will not be able to purchase a Certificate experience.What will I get if I subscribe to this Specialization?When you enroll in the course, you get access to all of the courses in the Specialization, and you earn a certificate when you complete the work. Your electronic Certificate will be added to your Accomplishments page - from there, you can print your Certificate or add it to your LinkedIn profile. If you only want to read and view the course content, you can audit the course for free.Is financial aid available?Yes, Coursera provides financial aid to learners who cannot afford the fee. Apply for it by clicking on the Financial Aid link beneath the "Enroll" button on the left. You'll be prompted to complete an application and will be notified if you are approved. You'll need to complete this step for each course in the Specialization, including the Capstone Project. Learn more.What do I need for the course?This class has peer review speech assignments. You need to have a digital video camera or smart phone so you can record your speeches for upload and review. More questions? Visit the Learner Help Center. Coursera Footer. Start or advance your career. 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                                            [title] => 4 Tips To IMPROVE Your Public Speaking - How to ...
                                            [url] => https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=962eYqe--Yc&vl=en
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                                            [parsed] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [source] => YouTube
                                                    [date] => Aug 19, 2019
                                                    [channel] => Motivation2Study
                                                )

                                        )

                                    [1] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [title] => Public Speaking For Beginners
                                            [url] => https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5mYphUoOCs&vl=en
                                            [thumbnail] => data:image/jpeg;base64,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
                                            [parsed] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [source] => YouTube
                                                    [date] => Feb 12, 2018
                                                    [channel] => Communication Coach Alex Lyon
                                                )

                                        )

                                    [2] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [title] => Five Basic Public Speaking Tips
                                            [url] => https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AykYRO5d_lI
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                            [title] => 20 Tips for Mastering the Art of Public Speaking | Inc.com
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                            [body] => 20 Tips for Mastering the Art of Public SpeakingTerrified of public speaking? You're not alone. Following these tips will pave the way to speaking success.ShapeBy Brent Gleeson, Keynote speaker and author of 'TakingPoint'@brentgleesonGetty ImagesOne Saturday morning in December 2012, I received an email out of the blue from the president of Bank of America Merrill Lynch Asia Pacific--one of the most senior executives in the global organization. He mentioned he had just read one of my articles (one of the first ones I had written for this column) and was fascinated by the correlations I made between the culture of the U.S. special-operations community and building high-performance teams in the business world.He ended the email by inviting me to do a series of keynote presentations and workshops during the company's global leadership meetings the following month in Hong Kong. Terrified, I accepted. I'm an entrepreneur, for crying out loud.As soon as I hit "send" I turned to my wife and said, "Oh s---, I need to learn how to be a professional speaker...fast!"Up until that point, I had no significant public speaking experience outside of company meetings and sitting on panels at trade shows. But one thing that sticks with all former Navy SEALs for the rest of their life is the importance of preparedness. So I prepared. And prepared. Then prepared some more. It went so well, they brought me out to Sydney and Singapore two months later. That was five years ago. I now speak about one hundred times each year.And you know what? It gets easier!We all have the need to speak well in front of an audience at times during our lives. Whether you're speaking at your sister's wedding, addressing your team, teaching a course or speaking to a judge, we all want to do well. So why leave things to chance?Here are some tips that will launch you into the speaking stratosphere.1. Know your audience.If you are speaking in front of an audience, there is usually a reason. Know who you are speaking to and what they want or need to take away. If it's friends and family, entertain them. If it's a corporate event, teach and inspire them. Knowing the demographic of the audience is imperative.2. Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse. . Nothing becomes muscle memory unless you practice relentlessly. If you have a big speech coming up, make time every day to practice. Prepare your goals and the content well ahead of time. This can be done while driving, exercising, in the car, on a plane...anywhere.3. Practice with distractions.Once I know the content, I like to add a little bit of distraction to test how well prepared I really am. Turn on the TV or rehearse while pushing your child in the swing. Anything that adds a little more challenge.4. Find a style that works for you.Different events will often require a different approach or style. Sometimes reading a prepared speech is fine. But know it backward are forward so you're not staring down at the pages the whole time. Some use notes. Others prefer to be 100 percent scripted and memorized. If that's your style, memorize the content so well that you can go off script if needed -- and so you don't sound like you're reciting a poem. Use the proper approach for the appropriate event.5. Know the environment. . Know the venue where you will be speaking. Get there well ahead of time. Walk the room. Walk the stage. Get a feel for the vibe of the environment so you are more comfortable when its "go time."6. Test all equipment. . Nothing sucks more that last-minute technical difficulties. Avoid adding even more stress by testing any and all equipment and audio visual functions ahead of time. And have backups.7. Practice in front of a mirror. . Practicing in front of a mirror is a good way to learn the proper amount of body motion, hand usage and facial expressions.8. Take every opportunity to speak.The only way to get better at anything is to do it all the time. Rehearsing is good, but nothing compares to actually getting up in front of an audience and doing it for real.9. Practice body language and movement. . Remember, communication is much more about tone and body language than the words we say. The words of course matter, but emphasis comes with movement and body language.10. Slow down.We have some great sayings in the SEAL teams: "slow is smooth, and smooth is fast, " and "don't run to your death." Nothing shows nerves more than racing through your presentation. If you want to impact the audience in a meaningful way, make sure they actually hear what you are saying. Slow it down.11. Make eye contact.This one is very important, and it doesn't matter how big the audience is. Make eye contact with as many people as possible. It makes the audience members feel like you are speaking directly to them. And don't just stick to people in the first couple rows. Look at the people in the back too.12. Know your material.If your goal is to become a thought leader or actually teach the audience something, only a truly authentic understanding of the material will get you there.13. Take long pauses.Similar to slowing things down, make a point to take long pauses. And make them longer than you even think is appropriate. It can have a great impact on emphasizing key points and emotionally connecting to the audience.14. Practice tone and projection. . Don't just eek your way through a speech using the same tone and volume. Tone and projection add a layer of entertainment and help keep the audience fully engaged from start to finish. These too must be practiced religiously.15. Use humor and emotion. . It doesn't matter what you are talking about. There is always a place for emotion or humor, or both. I once gave a presentation about data analytics at a conference -- boring! So I made sure to weave in plenty of humor to spice things up. I find self-deprecating humor to work the best. And if you are starting to get emotional, so what? Use it. The audience may not remember everything you said, but they will remember how you made them feel. 16. Mentally prepare. . Find time during the hour before your speech for some solitude. Get your mind right. Clear your head. If it's five minutes before, just relax. The time for making sure you know the material perfectly has passed.17. Exercise before you go on. . It's almost impossible to feel stress and anxiety after a good workout. If you have the time, exercise. The closer to your speech, the better. It's also a good time to practice. I like to rehearse while running or swimming.18. Project confidence. . The more you project confidence, the more confident you are likely to feel. Get out there and own the room. Even if you are terrified. Fake it. Look people in the eye and command their attention.19. Don't go over the allotted time.  . When in doubt, go under the allotted time. Less is sometimes more. But never, ever, go over. It's poor speaking etiquette and shows you are not prepared. It's also disrespectful of the agenda for the event. Again, just practice.20. Ask for feedback. . Most of us don't like to ask for feedback, especially when we know the response may include some constructive criticism. One of the first big events I did was the "Vetrepreneur Day" at the Inc. 500 | 5000 conference. I spoke right after Simon Sinek. Really?! I later asked Inc.'s editor-in-chief, Eric Schurenberg, what he thought. One thing I love about Eric is that he's a straight shooter. He said, "Well Brent, it just wasn't that good. It wasn't polished." Hiding my devastation, I accepted the advice. I was never ill-prepared again.Speaking is a great way to connect with people and a skill we all should master. The president of Bank of America Merrill Lynch? He and I are now very close friends and godparents to each other's children! So you never know where a great speech will take you. It's a must for leaders and managers. It's a must for sales. It's basically a requirement for all entrepreneurs and business leaders.So get on it.Nov 6, 2017Sponsored Business Content
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                            [body] => 9 Tips to Improve Your Public Speaking Skills Consider these effective public speaking tips to help you nail your next speech or presentation that you give to a group of people. . Posted May 28, 2021 by Saint Leo University If the idea of delivering a speech to an audience makes your palms sweat, hopefully you can find some reassurance in the fact that you’re not the only one who has this reaction. Research indicates that one in five people experience public speaking anxiety, or PSA, making it one of the most common types of anxiety today. Here’s the good news: other studies have found that, with the right strategies in place for fighting your fears, you can still perform well when you have a public speaking engagement or presentation of any sort. What are a few of these strategies? #1: Breathe. When you’re nervous, your heart rate speeds up, you begin to sweat, and—if you’re not careful—you can easily work yourself into an anxiety attack. To help control all of these responses, take a few minutes before delivering your speech to close your eyes and take a couple of deep breaths. Calm your body so you can enter the stage (or speaking area) with a certain level of peace and not feeling all frenzied. #2: Admit Your Nervousness. Even the most seasoned public speaker can feel nervous on stage. The harder you try to conceal this nervousness, the easier it will likely show through. Yet, admitting that speaking makes you anxious can actually help put both you and your audience at ease. You feel a sense of relief because now the information is out there, giving you the ability to address your anxiety and move on. #3: Use (Minimal) Notes. If public speaking makes you anxious, there can be a tendency to write your speech out word for word so you can look at it if you forget your next statement. However, if you’ve ever watched a speaker read from their notes the entire time they are on stage, you know that this isn’t effective. You will lose your audience. Instead, keep your notes to a minimum, using only one- or two-word prompts for each point you want to make. This will help you keep your place without detracting from your audience. #4: Become Comfortable with “The Pause”. One of the biggest distractions as an audience member is a speaker who constantly says “uh” or “um.” These fillers are typically used as a way to say something, anything, while you’re thinking of your next point. But some of the best speakers know that “the pause” is not something to avoid. A well-timed break in speaking can even be used to help strengthen a point, letting it sit with the audience before moving on to the next topic. Become more comfortable with this pause and you will become a better public speaker. #5: Be Aware of Your Hand Gestures. Have you ever talked to someone who is all worked up and noticed that their hands are flailing wildly? Some people naturally speak with their hands. When they’re nervous, this type of gesturing can ramp up. While some hand movement is a great way to emphasize certain points, it’s also important to not let these movements distract from what you’re trying to say. So, pay attention to your hands when you’re speaking. Slowing down their movement may also help slow down your brain, creating a greater sense of calm. #6: Move Around Some, But Not Too Much. People often pace when they’re nervous. If this is you, you may have a tendency to walk back and forth across the stage when public speaking. Like with hand gestures, a little bit of movement is okay but too much is, well, too much. Don’t be afraid to walk away from the podium, but try not to make your audience feel like they’re watching a tennis match either. #7: Incorporate Visual Prompts. If the idea of having all eyes on you makes you nervous, visual prompts are a good way to divert the audience’s attention yet still stay on topic. These prompts can be by way of a slide of an image or graph or something more concrete, such as pouring a half glass of water to emphasize the effect of “living with your glass half full.” It might feel good to have their attention diverted, even if only for a moment. Plus, it gives you something to do with your hands. #8: Practice, Practice, Practice…Then Practice Some More. Mark Twain once said, “It usually takes me more than three weeks to prepare a good impromptu speech.” So, maybe your fear of public speaking comes from not being fully prepared. One way to overcome this, then, is to practice, practice, and practice some more. Each time you deliver your speech, you will become more comfortable. You’ll begin to learn it inside and out, increasing your confidence when delivering it for real. #9: Record Yourself Speaking. This final public speaking tip is intended to help you recognize how you may come across to an audience. When you record yourself speaking and watch it back, you may notice that you do things that you didn’t even realize. This provides the opportunity to correct these issues before being in front of a live audience. Another option is to practice your speech in front of a friend or family member and ask for their honest feedback. Summing Up Public Speaking Tips. Public speaking is a common fear. The good news, however, is that this fear doesn’t have to stop you from delivering an amazing speech. These public speaking tips can help you feel some calmness on stage while also better connecting with your audience…making you a more impactful public speaker. Topics: Career Advice, Featured, Virtual presentations, Public Speaking Recent Posts. Subscribe to Email Updates. Related Posts. 7 Career Tracks with a Respiratory Therapy Degree. What is Bibliotherapy? Students Explore Books as Therapy in Lit Class. Saint Leo Theology Degree Student Serves Fellow Army Soldiers. Request More Information. 33701 State Road 52, St. Leo, FL 33574Call (800) 334-5532 • Campus (352) 588-8200 accessibility athletics Department Directory campus store ca requirements accreditations disclosures privacy policy
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                            [body] => Public Speaking201020101h 24mIMDb RATING7.7/102KYOUR RATINGRateCast & crewUser reviewsIMDbProAll topicsPlay trailer0:521 Video9 PhotosDocumentaryA feature-length documentary starring Fran Lebowitz, a writer known for her unique take on modern life. The film weaves together extemporaneous monologues with archival footage and the effec... Read allA feature-length documentary starring Fran Lebowitz, a writer known for her unique take on modern life. The film weaves together extemporaneous monologues with archival footage and the effect is a portrait of Fran's worldview and experiences.A feature-length documentary starring Fran Lebowitz, a writer known for her unique take on modern life. The film weaves together extemporaneous monologues with archival footage and the effect is a portrait of Fran's worldview and experiences.IMDb RATING7.7/102KYOUR RATINGRateDirectorMartin ScorseseStarsJames Baldwin(archive footage)William F. Buckley(archive footage)Truman Capote(archive footage)Top creditsDirectorMartin ScorseseStarsJames Baldwin(archive footage)William F. Buckley(archive footage)Truman Capote(archive footage)See production, box office & company info10User reviews15Critic reviewsSee more at IMDbProAwards1 nominationVideos1. Trailer 0:52Public SpeakingPhotos9. Top cast. EditJames BaldwinSelfas Self(archive footage)William F. BuckleyTruman CapotePau CasalsCandy DarlingSerge GainsbourgIvo JuhaniSelfas SelfGary KeatingMaître D'as Maître D'Fran LebowitzSelfas SelfOscar LevantThelonious MonkToni MorrisonConan O'BrienSelfas Self(archive footage)Eugene O'NeillJack PaarDorothy ParkerS.J. PerelmanPablo PicassoDirectorMartin ScorseseAll cast & crewSee more cast details at IMDbProMore like this. 8.1Pretend It's a CityWatch options7.5A Letter to EliaWatch options6.5The 50 Year Argument8.2My Voyage to ItalyWatch options7.2Shine a LightWatch options7.6Rolling Thunder RevueWatch options8.2George Harrison: Living in the Material WorldWatch options7.5ItalianamericanWatch options7.9The Key to Reserva7.3American Boy: A Profile of - Steven PrinceWatch options6.5Bleu de Chanel6.5Street ScenesStoryline. EditA feature-length documentary starring Fran Lebowitz, a writer known for her unique take on modern life. The film weaves together extemporaneous monologues with archival footage and the effect is a portrait of Fran's worldview and experiences. —Anonymouspublic speakingtwo word titleindependent filmPlot summaryAdd synopsisGenreDocumentaryParents guideAdd content advisoryDid you know. EditConnectionsFeatures The Mystery of Picasso (1956)SoundtracksProva d'OrchestraWritten by Nino RotaUser reviews10. ReviewTop review Right on the mark!I have been reading, here and there, quotes from Fran Lebowitz for decades, not really knowing who she was.She is a virtuoso at cutting through the haze and nonsense of American culture to expose the ludicrous truths beneath. I've always felt sort of silly, being American, and now I know why. Thank you, Fran, for putting into words what any well-traveled American already knows in their heart but can't quite verbalize.We need people like Fran to give us an honest look at ourselves and knock some of the pompous self-righteousness out of us now and then. Thank you, Fran and Mr. Scorsese.helpful•144debniakMar 4, 2011Details. EditRelease dateNovember 22, 2010 (United States)Country of originUnited StatesLanguageEnglishAlso known asPublic Speaking. Fran Lebowitz por Martin ScorseseFilming locationsNew York City, New York, USAProduction companiesHBO Documentary FilmsAmerican ExpressConsolidated DocumentariesSee more company credits at IMDbProBox office. EditGross US & Canada$62,173Opening weekend US & Canada$6,260Feb 27, 2011Gross worldwide$62,173See detailed box office info on IMDbProTechnical specs. EditRuntime1 hour 24 minutesColorColorRelated news. ‘Pretend It’s a City’ Is Martin Scorsese’s Second Documentary About Fran Lebowitz, and She Can’t Understand WhyAug 24The Wrap‘Awards Chatter’ Podcast — Fran Lebowitz (‘Pretend It’s a City’)Jun 21The Hollywood Reporter - Film + TVContribute to this page. Suggest an edit or add missing contentTop GapWhat is the English language plot outline for Public Speaking (2010)?AnswerSee more gapsLearn more about contributingEdit pageMore to explore. ListThe Best TV and Movies to Watch in JanuarySee the full list2:45Most Anticipated Movies Coming in 2022Watch the videoRecently viewed. You have no recently viewed pages
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                            [body] => public speaking noun Save Word Definition of public speaking. 1 : the act or process of making speeches in public 2 : the art of effective oral communication with an audience Synonyms Example Sentences Learn More About public speaking Synonyms for public speaking. Synonyms elocution, oratory Visit the Thesaurus for More  Examples of public speaking in a Sentence. He has a fear of public speaking. She has a gift for public speaking. a book on public speaking See More Recent Examples on the Web The real challenge is to relearn how to think about public speaking. — Johnny Warström, Forbes, 27 Dec. 2021 Daniela said participating helped her with fears of public speaking and helped build her confidence. — Claire Bryan, San Antonio Express-News, 2 Dec. 2021 Skills such as public speaking, writing, programming, videography and many others have value across many industries. — Expert Panel, Forbes, 8 Nov. 2021 The prospect of public speaking, in particular, might fill you with dread. — Tarot Astrologers, chicagotribune.com, 27 Nov. 2021 The cadre of Supreme Court lawyers who regularly appear before the justices today are also good at public speaking. — Matt Ford, The New Republic, 24 Nov. 2021 For me, public speaking is not something that came naturally. — Udi Dorner, Forbes, 5 Oct. 2021 Many of us are afraid of public speaking and often this personal fear trickles into everyday conversation, preventing us from being our best at work. — Marita Decker, Forbes, 5 Oct. 2021 That didn’t just apply to people renowned for public speaking, notes Lage. — BostonGlobe.com, 9 June 2021 These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'public speaking.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback. See More First Known Use of public speaking. 1759, in the meaning defined at sense 1 Buying Guide Our team at The Usage has selected the best computer microphones. Learn More About public speaking. Share public speaking Post the Definition of public speaking to Facebook Share the Definition of public speaking on Twitter Time Traveler for public speaking The first known use of public speaking was in 1759. See more words from the same year Dictionary Entries Near public speaking. public speaker public speaking public-spirited See More Nearby Entries  Statistics for public speaking. Last Updated 30 Dec 2021 Look-up Popularity Cite this Entry “Public speaking.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/public%20speaking. Accessed 13 Jan. 2022. Style: MLA MLA Chicago APA Merriam-Webster More Definitions for public speaking public speaking noun English Language Learners Definition of public speaking. : the act or skill of speaking to a usually large group of people See the full definition for public speaking in the English Language Learners Dictionary More from Merriam-Webster on public speaking Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about public speaking WORD OF THE DAY . meritorious . See Definitions and Examples » Get Word of the Day daily email! Test Your Vocabulary . Name that Thing: Flower Edition Name that flower chrysanthemum amaryllis hydrangea hyacinth Test your visual vocabulary with our 10-question challenge! TAKE THE QUIZ A daily challenge for crossword fanatics. TAKE THE QUIZ Love words? Need even more definitions? Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Merriam-Webster unabridged Words at Play “In Vino Veritas” and Other Latin Phrases to Live By Top 10 Latin Phrases Winter Vocab and Other Words for Snow Because 200 seemed like overkill ‘Phase’ vs. ‘Faze’ Don't be fazed by these homophones. Merriam-Webster's Words of the Week - Jan. 7 From the week ending 1/7/2022 Ask the Editors 'Everyday' vs. 'Every Day' A simple trick to keep them separate What Is 'Semantic Bleaching'? How 'literally' can mean "figuratively" Literally How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe... Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? The awkward case of 'his or her' Word Games Do You Know These Formidable Words? New Year, Recondite Vocabulary Take the quiz Advanced Vocabulary Quiz Tough words and tougher competition. Take the quiz Name That Thing Test your visual vocabulary with our 10-question ... Take the quiz
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                            [body] => Important Public Speaking Skills for Workplace Success ••• Paul Bradbury / OJO Images / Getty Images Table of Contents Expand Table of Contents What Is Public Speaking? Why Employers Value Public Speaking Top Public Speaking Skills How to Showcase Your Skills How to Improve Your Public Speaking Skills By Alison Doyle Full Bio Alison Doyle is one of the nation’s foremost career experts and has counseled both students and corporations on hiring practices. She has given hundreds of interviews on the topic for outlets including The New York Times, BBC News, and LinkedIn. Alison founded CareerToolBelt.com and has been an expert in the field for more than 20 years. Learn about our editorial policies Updated on August 27, 2021 Candidates with strong public speaking skills are in demand for the many occupations that require the ability to speak to a group. Dynamic and well-prepared speakers are highly valued by employers, and having this skill set can even help land you leadership positions and important roles.  Learn more about public speaking, why it's important, and how to improve your public speaking skills. What Is Public Speaking? . Public speaking is a soft skill that requires excellent communication skills, enthusiasm, and the ability to engage with an audience. Soft skills are interpersonal skills that are less technical and more about how you interact with others. Public speakers make presentations to a group. Presentations could range from speaking to a small number of employees to presenting to a large audience at a national conference or event. The same skill set and ability to be comfortable speaking in public are required regardless of the size of the group. Why Employers Value Public Speaking Skills . The art of public speaking comes into play in many places. It's important not only in the delivery of speeches and public talks, but also in professional presentations, training events, and motivational speaking. Consultants, training, managers, clergy, sales representatives, and teachers, for example, all have a reason at times to speak in front of others. A lackluster speaker can make a solid product or proposal seem less than enticing, while a polished speaker can add allure to an otherwise mediocre proposition.  Most professional-level roles require some amount of public speaking. It's often necessary to carry out functions like presenting findings, pitching proposals, training staff, and leading meetings. Top Public Speaking Skills . When you want to highlight your public speaking skills in your cover letter or resume, or during an interview, be sure to go beyond stating that you have "public speaking skills." Go into detail about which aspects of public speaking you are good at, and provide specific examples of your skills and expertise. Some of the most important skills for successful public speaking include the following. Clear Articulation . Of course, public speakers must be able to speak well. That includes enunciating, speaking loudly enough, and using proper grammar without a lot of verbal crutches such as "um." It helps to be able to talk well in ordinary conversation, but public speaking is a kind of performance and, as such, requires practice and preparation. Memorization is not usually necessary, because many people are able to speak in an unscripted way to some degree. However, you must be familiar enough with your material that you don't pause excessively, repeat yourself, or stumble over your words. You also need to be able to pace yourself so that you finish on time rather than early or late. Engaging Presentation Style . Presentation style includes vocal tone, body language, facial expression, and timing. The right style can make a talk that could have been boring become exciting and engaging. Assessing the Needs of the Audience . Some audiences want a lot of technical detail; others don't. Some will enjoy humor; others won't. There are jokes that work in some crowds but not others. To draft a successful talk and to adopt the appropriate presentation style, you need to be able to assess the needs of your audience. Tip. Before you begin speaking, think about your audience and what they hope to gain from your presentation. That can help you assess their needs, which can help ensure that your presentation is the best possible use of your time and theirs. PowerPoint Skills . PowerPoint is a popular software used for creating slides. Not all public speakers use them, but slides are so common that doing without them is sometimes called "speaking naked." It's not only important to understand the technical aspects of using the software, it also helps if you have the artistic ability to create slides that are aesthetically pleasing and easy to understand—or, you should work with a collaborator who can do so. Either way, you must know how to integrate your slides smoothly into the other aspects of your presentations. Composition Skills . Whether you prepare your talk ahead of time or just go with the flow, you must be able to construct talks that are rational, coherent, and easy to understand, and that cover all the points you want to hit. Storytelling and humor help, and you must know how to use them. Public speaking is not only a form of performance art; it also requires writing skills. Other Public Speaking Skills . The skills mentioned above aren't the only ones that are important to public speaking. The following skills and tips can make you an even more effective public speaker: Controlling performance anxietyDrafting an evaluation form that attendees are likely to completeGrabbing the attention of the audience with a powerful openingHanding out copies of slides in advance to minimize note-taking demands on the audienceMaintaining eye contact with the audience and providing an energetic, animated physical presenceMemorizing enough content so that the speech does not come off as a reading of notesModulating vocal tone to emphasize important points and avoid monotonous presentationOrganizing a logical flow to a speechPreparing examples that are relevant to the experience of the expected audienceProviding compelling evidence to support themesRehearsing the presentation and revising rough spotsResearching information about the latest trends in an industry before presenting at a professional seminarRestating critical points at the end of a speech to cement key conceptsReviewing feedback and modifying the approach for talks in the futureSummarizing the topics to be covered at the beginning of a lecture to provide context for attendees How to Showcase Your Skills . Public speaking is a skill in itself, but it is also a collection of skills. Lists like this can help you name some of these skills so you can identify which jobs require the abilities you have.  Tip. Be sure to read job descriptions carefully. Even very similar positions can have different requirements, depending on what the hiring manager is looking for. Mention Skills in Your Resume and Cover Letter . When you apply, you can use these skills as keywords on your resume or other application materials. Hiring managers sometimes scan through applications looking for these keywords to make an initial cut, so it's important to make it clear from the beginning that you have the sought-after qualifications. Then, use your cover letter to highlight some of your most relevant skills. Share Your Skills During a Job Interview . Be prepared to give examples of specific times when you embodied these skills, because your interviewer is likely to ask. If you've made public presentations or internal company presentations, share the details with the interviewer. How to Improve Your Public Speaking Skills . Whether you feel like a public-speaking expert or you're new to it, there are always ways you can improve. You can brush up on your public speaking skills with these tips: Take a public speaking class or workshop.Practice in front of the mirror.Practice in front of friends, family, or colleagues; then, ask for feedback.Record yourself giving a presentation, watch the video, and take notes.Watch videos of accomplished public speakers you admire. Share Tweet Share Email The 7 Best Online Public Speaking Classes of 2022 What Employees and Employers Need to Know About Negotiating Important Communication Skills for Resumes & Cover Letters Top Management Skills Employers Value With Examples Important Time Management Skills That Employers Value What Are the Most Important Skills Needed for PR Jobs? Examples of Cognitive Skills Employers Look for in an Employee Use These Skill Words When Applying for a Graphic Design Job Social Media Skills for Resumes, Cover Letters, and Interviews Rock Your Next Benefits Presentation with These 7 Expert Tips Top 5 Important Social Skills Employers Want 10 Interview Skills That You Can Use to Help You Get Hired How to Turn a Volunteer Position Into a Job Top Skills for Bartender Jobs What Skills Do I Need to Succeed in Marketing? Tips for Answering Questions About Weaknesses in Interviews
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                            [body] => Bad at public speaking? Use this mental trick that takes just 15 minutes, says speech expertPublished Mon, Jun 21 202110:42 AM EDTJohn Bowe, [email protected] Article via FacebookShare Article via TwitterShare Article via LinkedInShare Article via EmailGorodenkoff | GettySpeech anxiety is one of the most common social fears, affecting 15% to 30% of the general population.After a difficult speech or two, most of us assume that we're just shy, then hope that we'll never be forced to speak in public again. And when, inevitably, it's time to hold a meeting, do a job interview or deliver a pitch, we freeze in front of the people we most want to impress.But improving your public speaking skills has nothing to do with changing your personality or your emotions — and everything to do with understanding how people listen.A simple mental trick. Many people approach public speaking with their egos: "What will they think of me? I'm going to sound dumb!" But our audience isn't thinking about us. Their biggest concern is figuring out what we're talking about and how it pertains to them.I've coached thousands of people on how to present ideas effectively, and everything I teach boils down to a single mental trick that takes just 15 minutes or less: Pretend you're in the audience, listening to yourself.Here are some tips and what to remember when imagining yourself as the audience:1. Greet them. How do you like it when a speaker takes the stage and lurches directly into their talk, rattling on in a monotone with no introduction?When you begin to speak without acknowledging your audience's existence, they find the omission unnerving. Why? Because you're not the only one with an ego.Rightly or not, your audience thinks they're more important than your information. Before any kind of speech, do them the courtesy of giving them a nod, a hello, a thanks or a recognition of the occasion.2. Get to the point, then lead the way. Do you like to listen to a presenter apologize about how nervous they are, or about the traffic jam they encountered on the way to the speech? Or their quaint family story that has nothing to do with what they're going to talk about?Most audience members find it hard to focus and to suppress their inner chatter to listen to a speaker for very long, so skip the small talk.Help them concentrate by explaining early in your speech what your topic is, why it's important to them and how you plan to fill your allotted time. It sounds so simple, but setting expectations helps people relax and enjoy the ride.3. Be legible — in every sense. When you're sitting in an audience, do you like it when you can barely see or hear the speaker, or read the slides (e.g., because the text is too small)?Whether on stage or in virtual meetings, help people understand your ideas by reducing the cognitive work it takes to see and hear you. Use good lighting and a decent microphone. Speak slowly, enunciate, and use short words, sentences and paragraphs.Lastly, get rid of filler words like "um," "ah," "like" and other expressions that can distract from or bloat your message when used in excess.4. Share what you think or how you feel. Have you ever sat in a meeting where a speaker projects one slide after another filled with data, while turning their back to you to recite what's on their slides?  Whether you're a scientist delivering research findings or an executive pitching a strategy, the point of a live meeting or presentation is not to recite information that could just as easily be emailed, but to create a human context. Audiences want to know at least something about how you think and feel about what you're sharing.More importantly, they're curious about how you think they should think and feel about it. Information doesn't speak for itself. Make it meaningful by explaining what it means — to you, your company and the people who asked you to talk about it.  5. End your speech ... with an ending. Ever hear a presentation that just peters out? ("Yeah, no, so I guess, you know, that's it. If, um, anyone has any, uh, questions...") It probably didn't make you think: Wow. How authoritative!Whether you're facing a parole board or delivering Q4 sales results, your speech is only as good as your conclusion. There's no single best way to wrap up, but my general rule is to always write out your conclusion in advance and memorize it.A conclusion should remind the audience what the speech was about, and often reiterates a call to action. Look them in the eye and give them something to remember after the presentation is over.John Bowe is a speech trainer, award-winning journalist, and author of "I Have Something to Say: Mastering the Art of Public Speaking in an Age of Disconnection." He has contributed to The New Yorker, The New York Times Magazine, GQ, McSweeney's, This American Life, and many others. Visit his website here.Don't miss:Ditch these 12 words and phrases that make you sound boring, says speech expert—what to say insteadBad at public speaking? The trick is to distill your message to these 15 words, says speech trainerIf you want to sound smarter, avoid mixing up these 11 most commonly confused words in EnglishVIDEO1:1401:14Smart people avoid these 6 common phrases at all costsMake ItSign up now: Get smarter about your money and career with our weekly newsletter
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                            [body] => COMM101: Public Speaking Course Introduction. Time: 92 hours Free Certificate This course systematically examines the elements of an effective speech and goes through an element-by-element examination of the essentials of public speaking, while also identifying traits of the individual speaker and how they affect preparation and presentation. This course also demonstrates specific, performance-oriented aspects of public speaking. The themes of information and ethics tie these elements together and are emphasized in every part of the course because they are vitally important to all communicators. Since modern societies have ever-increasing access to information, there are increased demands on the individual to use information effectively and ethically. For example, "the New York Times has more information in one week than individuals in the 1800s would encounter in a lifetime". This illustrates the additional challenges speakers face beyond the common stresses of public speaking anxiety. In spite of that, ethical communication means not only accepting responsibility for the information you present, but also speaking up when others abuse their information platforms. First, read the course syllabus. Then, enroll in the course by clicking "Enroll me in this course". Click Unit 1 to read its introduction and learning outcomes. You will then see the learning materials and instructions on how to use them.Course Syllabus PageUnit 1: Why Public Speaking Matters Today. You probably remember the public protests from 2011 which rocked the world. In northern Africa, in the United States, in Russia and in many other countries, people protesting their governments' decision-making dominated the news sections of many media outlets. These protests – literally "mass" communication from people to people – represent just one of many reasons why public speaking matters today. Although it can now take on many forms and formats, from standing in front of a crowd to tweeting, emailing, posting on a social media site, or commenting in the discussion area after a news article, communicating in public matters today for the same reason has always mattered, because it can be one of the most effective ways for the voices of the people to be heard. Recognize, however, that due to the primary textbook this course utilizes, the material in this unit approaches public speaking with an inevitably American cultural bias. Moreover, it is unethical to force one's cultural biases onto others and expect them to conform. The content which ends this unit covers the topic of ethics in public speaking, completing this introductory examination of the subject in a manner that should encourage you to become more aware of and sensitive about such issues, which also illustrate why public speaking matters today.Completing this unit should take you approximately 8 hours.Unit 2: Speaking Confidently. Unfortunately, understanding the anxiety which you may experience about public speaking does not necessarily help to alleviate it. However, as this unit of the course emphasizes, recognizing how your anxiety manifests itself in your behavior and then being able to try out a few recommendations for managing it can at least make you feel more empowered to carry on regardless. This unit will explore what is communication apprehension, where it comes from, and suggestions and tips on how it can be minimized.Completing this unit should take you approximately 5 hours.Unit 3: The Importance of Listening. Every speech course includes a unit on listening, even though most people do not associate the subjects with each other. Yet, it is very important that you associate listening habits with public speaking skills and public speaking presentations. A well-known saying is that you should "walk a mile in another man's shoes" in order to understand that person. That also applies to speech audiences; you need to imagine what it would be like to be your own audience. This means assessing your personal listening habits as well as those of your anticipated audience. Unit 4 introduces audience analysis as one of the ways to proceed with that assessment, but in this unit, the focus is on the general traits possessed by all listeners and how you should plan your speech with those traits in mind.Completing this unit should take you approximately 5 hours.Unit 4: Audience Analysis. The Shannon and Weaver model of communication introduced in Unit 1 (see the Section 1.2 reading in Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking) identifies all of the elements which influence the process of communication, and because it is a model intended to apply to a wide range of communication situations, it uses generic terms for those elements: "source", not "speaker;" "receiver", not "audience;" "noise", not "distraction", for example. Considering your "audience" in the generic sense of being "receivers" of your messages is a good way to approach the contents of this unit. The word "audience" tends to imply the passivity of sitting before a television or a stage or a book, as spectators not participants. However, in reality audiences are far more active than that, and using Shannon and Weaver's generic terms, you can frame this concept of the audience as a receiver more clearly. A source sends a message to a receiver in the same way a pitcher tosses a ball to a batter. The pitcher analyzes, among other things, the batter's stance and perhaps what is known about the batter's swinging style, temperament, or weaknesses. Then, the pitcher throws the ball and the batter reacts either by swinging, because the throw was good, or by stepping back because the ball was foul. Communication audiences react much like batters; their responses are based on how the ball – the message – is sent to them. The analogy breaks down at this point, however, because in the game of baseball, the pitcher does not want the batter to connect with the ball, while in public speaking, that connection is your goal. As you review the materials in this unit, keep in mind that audiences are not passive. They stand at bat, ready to swing and hit, swing and miss, or stand back and let your message just pass them by. Completing this unit should take you approximately 5 hours.Unit 5: Finding a Purpose and Selecting a Topic. More often than not, the purpose and topic of your speech will be determined for you by outside factors such as the context of your speech and its audience. Nevertheless, it remains your responsibility to narrow the topic of your speech such that it suits the nature of your audience, your own interests, and other factors associated with the setting and occasion. This unit examines all of the elements in the speech context which should influence your decisions. The operational word in the preceding sentence, however, is "should". Many inexperienced speakers do not take the time to fully analyze those elements which "should" determine the nature of their speech. The relationship between purpose and audience is one example of this problem. The only time an effective communicator does not analyze his or her audience with respect to the purpose of a speech is when he or she does not care how an audience receives or reacts to its message. To understand how important this is, consider the four goals of communication, three of which you will encounter in this course: to inform, to persuade, to entertain, and to express. Teachers inform, politicians persuade, comedians entertain, but who expresses? One answer could be artists. What impact does a poet seek in presenting a poem? To answer that, consider first what impact a communicator has with the other types: to inform someone of something, to persuade someone to do something, to entertain someone. But there is no "someone" at the other end of "to express", is there? And what about communicators who are not artists, but who also seek to express themselves anyway? One example of this occurs when an angry person swears. The problem that arises with expression, which could be defined as communicating with no consideration of context or audience, is that the speaker has little control over the effects, as the frequently offensive nature of swearing illustrates. In this unit, you will study the various purposes of speech-giving, as well as tips and suggestions for selecting a topic for your speech. Completing this unit should take you approximately 5 hours.Unit 6: Researching Your Speech. In the introduction to the chapter in the textbook which covers the topic of research, the authors emphasize an entity whose role in society is being usurped by other developments. That entity is the librarian and the most influential of those "other developments" is the Internet. Pursuing accurate, ethical, and relevant research today is complicated by the sheer number of sources of information that is now available. In the past, libraries and librarians acted as gatekeepers to screen out many flawed or misleading sources of information; today, however, access to the Internet gives the researcher the freedom to make his or her own choices, regardless of whether that individual is adequately prepared to do so. As this issue becomes increasingly important, educators are emphasizing information literacy as a "core" skill – like public speaking – which is a requisite for success in the information-driven, information-overloaded world we live and work in today.Completing this unit should take you approximately 5 hours.Unit 7: Supporting Ideas and Building Arguments. This unit covers topics which establish the substance of your speech. Many inexperienced speakers focus their efforts on the main points or major arguments of their speeches, but only cursorily attach to those elements synthesis of ideas – the details and connections which establish their real impact. The result is that student speeches tend to use the same type of support, over and over again, creating a dull sameness that causes the attention of audiences to sag even as they lose respect for the speaker's motivations and/or credibility. You can avoid this syndrome by absorbing not only the function of supporting details in a speech but also the variety of types and formats you can choose from to keep your speech interesting and influential. This unit will focus on providing you with information and advice on how to use various types of supporting evidence to strengthen any arguments made in your speech.Completing this unit should take you approximately 7 hours.Unit 8: The Body of a Speech. This unit of the course deviates from the order of content presented in the textbook by presenting material on developing the body of your speech before material on developing the speech's introduction. This has been done because an introduction introduces the body of the speech, but if the body of the speech does not exist yet, the speaker has nothing to base the introduction on. This unit also begins the second half of the course, which focuses on actually developing a speech. Moreover, because public speaking requires performance as well as comprehension, starting with this unit, the rest of this course includes a number of assignments which challenge you to apply the information you obtain to specific tasks associated with writing or presenting a speech.Completing this unit should take you approximately 5 hours.Unit 9: Introductions and Conclusions. Now that you have an understanding of how to develop the body of your speech, it is time to focus on creating an engaging introduction and memorable conclusion. This unit will provide information on the functions of an introduction and conclusion, as well as it will provide tips on developing effective openings and closings to your speech. You will also review analysis of introductions and conclusions in this unit to use as models in understanding which techniques work best in developing strong introductions and conclusions. As you review the resources in this unit, keep in mind that terminology used in instruction can vary from source to source. Moreover, some sources will group together information which others keep separate. These two traits are often the case with resources which discuss the functions of speech introductions and conclusions. When you encounter differences in the resources in this section, consider focusing on that resource which breaks down the information the most. Such a breakdown can be used as a checklist of what you must accomplish to be effective when you present these sections of your speech. This is particularly important with introductions and conclusions since different sources identify between three and five functions which these sections must fulfill. As a result, you should favor that source which identifies the most functions, thereby insuring that your introduction and conclusion sections are as effective as possible.Completing this unit should take you approximately 5 hours.Unit 10: Outlining. This unit explores the use of outlining in preparation for giving a speech. In this unit and the next, consider critically the authors' recommendation to favor sentence outlines over keyword outlines. Sometimes, the use of sentence outlines needs to be balanced with an inexperienced speaker's tendency to produce a manuscript rather than a speech. Unit 11 will emphasize using language designed for the ear rather than the eye when presenting a speech. Many would argue that sentence outlines can interfere with that process. Moreover, sentence outlines allow a speaker to be less familiar with a topic and thus less flexible in presenting it, even if, as the textbook also recommends, the sentence outline is converted to keywords and phrases on cue cards. Lastly, sentence outlines can make a speaker dependent on pre-planned phrasing rather than addressing the audience through a natural, conversational style. As a result of these potential pitfalls, pay particular attention to the "tricks" described at the end of the chapter, which are designed to avoid reliance on reading and/or on words that were originally written "for the eye rather than the ear". Completing this unit should take you approximately 4 hours.Unit 11: The Importance of Language. Critiquing the language you use in a speech is the oral equivalent of editing your own writing. It can be difficult to recognize when words and phrases you use casually every day may not suit the context or audience of a public presentation. Upon completing the readings and viewing the web media in this unit, you may conclude that it contains too many minor details about this subject. However, that would be an inappropriate conclusion. You may not remember all of those details, your exposure to them will, at the very least, heighten your awareness of the importance of choosing language which suits the occasion, even if, as is often the case, it does not suit you as well. Indeed, attention to language is often what distinguishes the professional communicator from the casual one, and it is why the term "wordsmith" is sometimes used as a compliment to those who do it well.Completing this unit should take you approximately 4 hours.Unit 12: Delivering the Speech. It is not just what you say; it is how you say it. This is why understanding the nature of oral delivery and improving your own oral characteristics are important in ensuring the success of your presentation. Few speakers have pitch-perfect delivery. Actors, politicians, businessmen and women, and clerics have been known to seek out delivery coaches to upgrade their oratory. You will probably not have access to a speech coach, but if you are determined to present powerfully delivered speeches, there are two actions you can take to improve your skills: videotape yourself and seek out opportunities to deliver public presentations. Private and public practice will create self-critiques and public exposure all speakers need to both educate and motivate them to improve. There are many ways you can do this – for example, you may consider joining Toastmasters International, a membership-based, educational organization which shares information about public speaking and gives speakers opportunities to practice their skills and be critiqued by other members. Completing this unit should take you approximately 5 hours.Unit 13: Presentation Aids: Design and Usage. Decisions and opportunities associated with the design and use of presentation aids are innumerable, making it difficult to decide where to begin, but not if you approach such aids systematically. Many students err in this area when they develop the entire contents of their speeches first and then go back and attempt to fit some aids into the presentation – or even more commonly, simply used such aids to summarize content. Developing aids in such an isolated way almost always results in materials which do not strengthen a presentation, and sometimes even weaken it considerably. Systematically approaching the development of presentation aids means you select identify what you will require "as you go". For example, you have been advised in this course to develop the body section of your speech first. That section is controlled by main points and fleshed out by supporting details and evidence. As you identify the contents for each of these elements, you should ask yourself whether they would be enhanced – made more powerful, clearer, more memorable, or just more understandable – if aided. In other words, you should have a reason for including every presentation aid you use. Completing this unit should take you approximately 8 hours.Unit 14: Speaking to Inform and Entertain. In this unit, you will review and focus more directly on the purposes of informing and entertaining when giving speeches. Even though the topics of this unit often stand on their own as significant sections, in this course they are shorter because most of the guidance that might be necessary to develop both informative and entertaining speeches has already been covered. Unlike the theory-driven language and approaches you will discover are associated with persuasive speaking, the language and approach you take to inform or entertain is driven by you, the speaker, and your relationship to your audience, your topic, and your purpose – each of which have been the subject of entire units in this course already. As a result, rather than review those subjects, the material in this unit focuses on the characteristics which make these two types of speeches distinct.Completing this unit should take you approximately 5 hours.Unit 15: Persuasive Speaking. Most speakers consider persuasive speaking as the most difficult of the three basic types (informative, persuasive, and entertaining). One of the reasons why understanding the demands of persuasive speaking is more difficult is because it requires a knowledge of terms that are specific to argumentation, such as claims and evidence. What is important to realize, however, is that while the terms may be different, most of the elements they refer to function in ways that are similar to what occurs in informative and entertaining speeches. Main points are called arguments, supporting detail is evidence, but presenting your observation and then backing them up with the kind of information your audience can understand, accept, and/or appreciate is universal communicative behavior.Completing this unit should take you approximately 9 hours.Course Feedback Survey. Please take a few minutes to give us feedback about this course. We appreciate your feedback, whether you completed the whole course or even just a few resources. Your feedback will help us make our courses better, and we use your feedback each time we make updates to our courses. If you come across any urgent problems, email [email protected] or post in our discussion forum.Course Feedback Survey URLCertificate Final Exam. Take this exam if you want to earn a free Course Completion Certificate. To receive a free Course Completion Certificate, you will need to earn a grade of 70% or higher on this final exam. Your grade for the exam will be calculated as soon as you complete it. If you do not pass the exam on your first try, you can take it again as many times as you want, with a 7-day waiting period between each attempt. Once you pass this final exam, you will be awarded a free Course Completion Certificate.COMM101: Certificate Final Exam Quiz Receive a grade
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                            [body] => How to Speak in PublicBy Adam BryantIllustrations by Timo KuilderShare on FacebookShare on TwitterShare in an emailBookmark the pagePublic speaking can tap into a viper’s nest of dread with seemingly infinite possibilities for messing up and creating scar-tissue embarrassment in front of a crowd. If you do a Google search with these four words – “public speaking scarier death” – you’ll get more than 50 million results, many of them about surveys noting that people list speaking in public as their No. 1 fear, with death coming in second. If you find yourself agreeing with those surveys, even reading these words may be causing your pulse to quicken or your palms to sweat (apologies for that). But here’s the good news: You can do this. We’ve broken down the art of public speaking to make it less overwhelming and potentially even rewarding. (Seriously.)Start at the Beginning. Before you can get on stage, you need to think about your presentation.Preparation will ensure that you can effectively deliver a speech that relays the message you want to deliver. One of the best insights I’ve ever heard about speaking to large audiences came from Marcus Ryu, the C.E.O. of Guidewire Software. In my Corner Office interview with him, he explained what I’ve come to refer to as the “Einstein Theory of Communication.” “I’ve come to realize that no matter how smart the people are you’re communicating to, the more of them there are, the dumber the collective gets,” Ryu told me. “And so you could have a room full of Einsteins, but if there are 200 or 300 of them, then you still have to talk to them like they’re just average people. As the audience gets bigger and bigger, your message has to get simpler and simpler, and the bullet-point list has to be shorter and shorter.” This isn’t to say that simple is easy or means simplistic. It means that you should really home in on the core insight of your talk and call that out in clear language at the beginning and at the end.  Ask yourself: What is the central question you are asking and answering? If you’re creating a presentation you’re going to use many times, aim for 30 to 35 minutes to make sure you have something substantial, and then be prepared to do a shorter version if need be. Then, use bullet points to crystallize your subthemes. Make sure that nobody can miss the point of your talk.  You may feel like you’re “dumbing down” your talk to make it so clear, but that’s not the point. Ryu’s insight will help you resolve competing impulses — yes, you know your audience is smart, but you have to keep it really simple.  Get an editor. Everybody needs an editor and speeches are no different; find somebody whose judgment you trust and pressure-test your talk with them. Is it clear? Does the arc make sense? What is the key insight? Are the takeaways clear?The Slides. The theory of “keep it simple” applies to more than just what you say; it also applies to how to present it. Many speakers still subscribe to the “more is more” philosophy of packing as much as they can into their slides — dense text, long lists and hard-to-read charts, with small fonts that require squinting to read from the back of the room.  There are lots of books and websites that will explain best practices about design, but all you really need to do is follow these basic rules for slides:  No more than a dozen words per slide. Make sure the font size is big enough for easy reading from the back of the room. Because you might not know how large the screen is that you’ll be using, better to err on the side of larger rather than smaller. (I’ve never heard anybody complain about big fonts.) Use only two different fonts, and use a consistent framework for why you use one or the other (headlines vs short blocks of text, for example). Some pairs of fonts work particularly well together, and a Google search will turn up some good suggestions. Use photographs, not clip art, that capture the spirit of the point you’re making in a clear but clever way. There are plenty of websites, including Unsplash and Pixabay, that have good search tools. And if you’re going to use a photo that doesn’t take up the full slide, put a thin border around it. These small design touches will add  crispness to your slides. Don’t be too clever with the formatting of your slides. Design should be in the service of the point you’re making, not a distraction from it. There are many programs and software features that do nifty transitions between slides and make images do pirouettes. But again, less is more. Making your presentation clear and memorable is your goal. The same goes for video clips and other multimedia. They can help make your talk more engaging, but make sure they are not adding sizzle just for the sake of sizzle.  Don’t read your slides out loud for your audience. Let them read the text, while you provide some commentary or further insight about the idea. If you’re going to present a list and talk about each item on it, do not present the whole list at once, because people will read ahead. Build your slides so each new slide adds another bullet point to the growing list.  More About The Fear of Public Speaking. Conquering My Fear of Speaking in Public. October 1, 2011The Introvert on the Podium. November 22, 2014Ahem, Ummm, Well ...December 24, 2013Getting Over Stage Fright With the Help of Your Smartphone. June 8, 2016Build Up to It. You don't have to start in front of a crowd of thousands, just push yourself a bit every time you speak.  We’ve all seen and admired those people who seem like they were born on a stage. They speak in full paragraphs without notes, and look as relaxed as if they were heading out for a Sunday stroll. That could be you someday.  The key is to work up to it.  If You’re New to Public Speaking: Write your speech out in full beforehand, to reduce the risk of any big flubs. Be sure that you are writing for the ear, with conversational words, phrases and sentence structures. People often write in somewhat more formal language when they write (“we engaged in heated debate,” rather than “we argued.”) so make sure your talk sounds as natural as if you were speaking at a dinner party. Then, practice, practice, practice. Practice it enough that you can look up at the audience as often as possible between sentences. And don’t just practice by yourself. You want to get comfortable with your material in front of others.  Try this: Take one piece of your speech, and try it out at the right moment during a meeting at work or at a gathering of friends. Don’t make a big deal of it; just weave it into the conversation. In those settings, of course, you always talk without notes, so it’s a good testing ground for yourself. Get comfortable with your material in front of smaller audiences, and then work up to larger ones.  Try to see the stage and lectern as an extension of everyday life, rather than as foreign and scary terrain. There are plenty of moments in life when you’re the center of attention, so just see the lectern and stage as simply another one.  The second, third or fourth time you speak: Push yourself a bit to talk, even for a sentence or two, without reading your notes verbatim.  Once you’re a bit more experienced: Work up to the next step, where you’re giving yourself just bullet points or cue cards to remind yourself of the notes you want to hit.  “But wait!” you say. “What if I forget something I wanted to say?” Here’s a secret about speaking in front of an audience: Nobody knows what you forget to say. If you didn’t mention something, no big deal. Just focus on hitting the key points.  Once you’re super comfortable: You may find yourself enjoying the same sense of exhilaration you felt as a kid when you took off those training wheels and rode your bike for the first time. Hard as it may be to imagine, it can be thrilling, even fun. But You’ll Still Be Nervous. The nerves never fully go away. And you should feel a bit nervous before a talk. The key is channeling and focusing that nervousness in a positive way. Remember this clever saying: “It’s okay to have butterflies; just get them to fly in formation.” Over time, you learn to trust yourself, and know that once you’re on stage, you can be confident and deliver a great talk. Turn It Up. Tune into your presentation style and then turn it up a few notches. There is a hilarious scene in the 1984 mock documentary about a heavy metal-band, “This Is Spinal Tap,” that provides an important lesson about speaking in public. In the scene, the dimwitted guitarist Nigel Tufnel, played by Christopher Guest, is explaining to Rob Reiner’s Marty Di Bergi his decision to change the dials on his Marshall amplifier so that they go to 11 instead of 10. The rationale makes no sense to anyone but himself — only the numbers have changed, after all, not the amp’s ability to play louder. And when Di Bergi presses Tufnel on the squishy logic, the guitarist is stumped and can only repeat himself: “These go to 11.” What does any of this have to do with public speaking? Here’s the insight: You need to turn up the dial on yourself to 11. Not in terms of how loud you speak, but in terms of your personality. Bring your best self to the lectern. It’s a lesson I’ve learned first-hand. During the break of a session I did earlier this year, a woman in the audience came up to me and offered some feedback suggesting that I could be an even bigger presence. As memo-to-self moments go, it was a powerful one, and has freed me up to be even more energetic. After all, it’s your energy that people will remember about you long after your talk is done. It’s unlikely that they’ll remember any of the specific words you said. They might remember some of the photos or video clips you used. But if you inspire people a bit, they will remember how you made them feel. So turn up your dial to 11. Even though you may feel like you’re a bit over the top, it will feel like a 7 to the audience.When The Audience Needs Dialing Up. And sometimes audiences have low energy. One of the more unnerving moments of speaking to groups can come when you’re looking at all the people in front of you and they are just sitting there or, even worse, are on their phones. You try to read their body language, and you can’t tell if they are bored or tired or listening quietly. Don’t let it throw you. Every audience is a bit different, and even though you may be feeling little to no energy from the crowd, people will likely come up to you afterward and say how great you were. In any crowd, there are always some head-nodders – people who are engaged and listening intently. Feed off their energy. And those people on their phones? Some of them are taking notes from your talk. Bonus tip: Do not apologize. I’ve seen far too many people over the years start off their talks by apologizing for some aspect of the talk they are about to give. They probably are nervous and maybe want to lower expectations. Resist the temptation. Step up and own it.  More on Improving Your Performance. How to Give a Better Speech: Talk to a Dog. August 5, 2016So, Um, How Do You, Like, Stop Using Filler Words?February 24, 2017The Art of the Wedding Toast. June 15, 2012Finding New Meaning in Life Through PowerPoint. January 6, 2014Connect With the Audience. Gain respect and attention by making it clear that you are here for them. When you speak in front of a crowd, there is a kind of invisible wall between you and your audience. Many speakers make no effort whatsoever to break it down. They show up, give their talk, and leave, which has all the personalized feel of watching a TED talk on YouTube. You can do better. The first step is simple. Thank people for their time, for the invitation and the opportunity to speak. You might also acknowledge that you know how busy they are — a sign that you respect their time and are going to make the most of it.  The second step requires some creativity: Find some personal connection with the audience and what they do. It doesn’t take a lot, and the connection can take many forms, like a shared interest or experience. But put in the effort and time to find something.  Another reliable way to engage the audience is to drop in the occasional “Show of hands, how many people have…?” questions. Move around the stage, and look at people in different parts of the room, making eye contact with as many of them as you can. Focus on the Beginning and End. Consider this connective tissue as Plan A for your opening, but then during the event or milling around before your talk, be on the lookout for something that feels more of-the-moment. It could be an offhand remark that you overheard during a break that you can use to make a larger (and ideally funny) point. If somebody is speaking before you, show up and watch them, because that may spark an idea that you can use as a bridge to your own talk. Again, you just need something that shows you’re making an effort. If you’re hoping for a laugh, don’t deliver the punchline and worry about crickets. Just deliver it in a more casual way, so that a chuckle or laugh is a bonus, and keep going.  Since we’re talking about opening strong, it’s worth mentioning here that you should finish strong, too. Save your best stuff for your opening and the closing. That’s how people will remember you. It’s Not (Always) You. As much as you should make an effort to connect with people, some audiences just don’t click, and you shouldn’t take it personally (mostly). I’ve done enough talks over the years to know that I can give the same talk back-to-back to two different audiences, and the reactions could be completely different. It might be the time of day, the temperature in the room, what they served for lunch — plenty of things that aren’t about you.  A big factor is also the physical space of the room you’re in for your talk. There is simply nothing better for creating energy than a person in every seat, and a room that feels tight in a good way. It makes people feel like they are having a shared moment. If I walk into a vast conference or convention room and there are empty pockets of space or seats, I know that trying to create some energy in the room is going to be a Sisyphean struggle. Bonus tip: If you’re doing a Q&A session on stage with the audience after your talk, do not say “great question” to some of the people who raise their hand. The question they just asked you may in fact be great, but calling it out signals that all the other questions that came before or after didn’t impress you. Just answer the questions.Related Guide. How to Tell a Story. Sharing a tale with an audience can be immensely rewarding, but for novices, it can also be terrifying. We’re here to help you build your confidence and find your own voice.Be Proactively Paranoid. Nothing will go wrong if you come prepared for everything that does. If things can go wrong with your talk, they will go wrong. Here are a few tips that I’ve learned the hard way over the years (so you don’t have to). Find out what the AV set-up is beforehand. Show up early to your presentation, introduce yourself to the tech people and shake their hands. They will help you if they want to help you, so treat them with respect. You have enough to worry about with delivering your talk. Don’t let AV challenges add to your stress levels. When possible, use your own computer. It’s (hopefully) the one you practiced on at home, and therefore your most comfortable tool.  Arrive technologically prepared. There have been plenty of moments when the set-up can’t accommodate my computer on stage. So bring your own multi-prong adapter, charger, clicker to advance your slides, and anything else you could possibly need. The AV staff probably has what you need, but it’s always safer to bring your own.  Give the AV people a backup version of your slides on a thumb drive just in case things go awry. This has saved me on more than one occasion. Any backup you share should be in a PDF format, because fonts can change between different systems.  Look in a mirror. Always check yourself in a mirror before you go on to make sure there is no errant thread on your clothes or something in your teeth, and that everything is in place and done up.  Try to Find the Fun. Follow these tips, and you’ll set yourself up for success. You’ve earned the opportunity to be invited to come share your thoughts. So be your best self, create some energy in the room (and maybe a bit of inspiration) and people will remember you long after you’ve left the stage.About the Author. Adam Bryant is managing director of Merryck & Co., a leadership development and executive mentoring firm. An 18-year veteran of The New York Times, he created the Corner Office interview series and spoke to 525 chief executives about how they lead. He is also the author of two books, including “Quick and Nimble: Lessons from Leading CEOs on How to Create a Culture of Innovation.”Twitter: @AdamBBryant
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                            [body] => 9 simple and effective public speaking tips for scientists Do you fear public speaking? Don't worry, a lot of people hate giving presentations in front of an audience, whether it is just one person or an entire Mongolian horde. Unfortunately for research scientists, public speaking is part of the job and can affect how successful you are at getting your ideas heard, advancing your career and receiving more funding. Here are Scientifica’s top 9 tips for making public speaking easier:. 1. Be prepared. The most important part of a successful public speaking presentation happens before you even start talking. Once you do begin speaking, you will be thankful for your fastidious preparation and practice. Create your presentation with lots of time to spare and make notes on all of the points you want to make for each slide. This time will help you ensure that all the materials you need exist and allow for plenty of practice.If you are going to use a handout, then make sure you have these ready in advance (this is also a useful backup in case of technical difficulties).Give your presentation to the mirror, your partner/mum/housemate, video camera. Get feedback and watch the recording. Establish where your difficulties lie and any bad habits you might have. Fix them with more practice or by altering the talk.If there are any difficult to pronounce words or technical jargon, then make sure you can say them. The correct pronunciation and knowledge of industry language will give you credibility. 2. Command the space. Be aware of your body language when public speaking. The right physical communication can have a profound impact on how your message is received and interpreted. Here are some ways to improve your body language: Face your audience and stand with your feet hip distance apartMake eye contact, but not for too long! You don’t want to appear creepyDon’t remain rigid, hiding behind a lectern. Move around freely, but don’t pace. Own the available space on the stageAvoid crossing your arms, clasping your hands behind or in front of your body or hands in pockets.Don’t fiddle with anything. Keep your hands free for expressive gesticulation. Command your space when public speaking, remember your audience is there to see you! 3. Channel your inner Patrick Stewart. The tone of your voice and how you talk will have a significant impact on the way your talk is received. To speak clearly and confidently you must become like a classically trained actor (e.g. Shakespearean actor and esteemed Star Trek captain Patrick Stewart). Use the 5 ‘P’s to improve the clarity of your speech when public speaking: Projection – Make sure the back of the room can hear, but don’t deafen those at the front.Pace – Keep a steady pace. Your nerves may encourage you to speak faster to get the ordeal over, but that will make it difficult to understand and dampen your message. Try varying the pace to keep things interesting.Pitch – Vary your pitch, monotonous voices are boring and difficult to listen to but don’t be over the top. Also, try not to use an upward inflexion at the end of all sentences, it makes you sound like you’re unsure about the things you are saying.Pronunciation – Don’t mumble. Ensure that all of the syllables are clear. Practice hard to say words and phrases.Pause – Pausing helps the audience to absorb the information they just heard and gives you time to prepare for the next section. It also allows a moment for you to collect your thoughts. Additionally, it is better to be silent then use filler words like ‘um’, ‘ah’ and ‘you know’. 4. Know your audience. Scientists often have to give presentations to a variety of people; from school children to the public, undergraduates and other experts in their field. Ensure that the content, language, tone, body language is appropriate for the audience. Furthermore, try to understand why the audience is listening. Ask: “what will I gain from listening to this talk?” as if you were in the audience yourself. Be clear about your goal and what the audience should obtain by attending. Additionally, establish your credibility. Tell your audience why they should listen to you. For tips on how to communicate your research to non-expert, read this article. 5. Conquer your fear. Easier said than done, but understanding how your nerves affect your ability to speak publicly is a good start. Knowing what might happen will help to calm your nerves and carry on if they start. Firstly, the more prepared you are, the better and less nervous you will be and the better you will be able to deal with any mishaps. Do not drink caffeine beforehand it will heighten your anxiety. But do take water in case you get a dry mouth. Eat something beforehand, a low sugar level won’t help to dispel any nervous thoughts and will also affect your concentration levels. Remember that the audience is not there to see you. They are much more interested in what you have to say. They also have no interest in you failing; they are your friends not your enemies. Remember that you are speaking as a service to your attendees, this helps focus less on you and more on the content. Don’t tell the audience you are nervous. Nearly everyone suffers from some anxiety about public speaking; it is rarely as obvious from the outside as it feels. If necessary, use breathing and relaxation techniques before you begin to help settle any last minute jitters. For more tips on how to overcome nervousness to improve your public speaking, read this useful article. Don't let the fear of public speaking take over. Conquer your fear in public speaking, you got this! 6. Throw away your notes. Although you should have written notes on all of the points you want to make for each slide, don’t take them into the presentation with you. (If you must have something in case of an emergency, then create a list of bullet points below your slides in your presentation software.) Using notes has two key harmful effects on your talk: Firstly, notes make it appear like you aren’t an expert on the topic. They reduce your credibility.Secondly, they become something to hide behind to help contain your nerves. If you are looking down at your notes, then you aren’t engaging with your audience. If you aren’t engaging with your audience, then they aren’t listening properly.Additionally, if you are reading directly from notes then your tone of voice will likely be flat, and you will have minimal stage presence. If this is the case, you might be talking about the most exciting topic on the planet, and your audience may well still be nodding off. 7. Add some style. If you are using presentation slides, then make the most of them. More than being pretty, the slides should be functional, but adding a bit of fun and colour usually doesn’t hurt. Here are three quick tips to improve slides: Keep the words on each slide to a minimumEnsure any words or visuals are large enough to be seen at the back of the roomOnly include images, videos and animations to help clarify your points. (Don't add them if they have the opposite effect!) You don’t want to have everything you are going to say in the slides. Just prompts to help remind you what to talk about and audio/visual media to enhance any point you are making. 8. Try to enjoy yourself (or at least look like it!). If you look bored when you are speaking, then the audience will think you are bored. And if you’re bored by the topic, then why should anyone listening be interested? When you come out, have a smile on your face, make it seem like your happy and thankful to be there (even if you’d rather be in bed watching Netflix). If you feel confident enough to do so, add a little humour (as long as it’s appropriate). This will help you and your audience relax, and break the ice if the room is feeling a little tense or unfriendly. 9. Learn from your mistakes (and successes). Every time you give a presentation, take some time afterwards to think about what worked and what failed. If it went well, consider what made it go well. If it went badly, analyse where and how it went wrong so that next time you can change your strategy and ensure the same thing doesn’t happen again during your next public speaking role. Embrace the challenge. Public speaking is part of the life of a research scientist, and you should take every possible opportunity to advocate your work. What is the point of making scientific discoveries (big or small) if no one knows about them? The best way to deal with the (sometimes unfortunate) need to speak publicly is to embrace it, realise how it will help you and your audience, and enjoy the conversation that it sparks. We hope that these top tips for effective public speaking have helped you and good luck. Always be confident when public speaking, you will be great! Here are some other articles you may be interested in . Tips for presenting your scientific poster at a conference Less is more: Advice for keeping your poster concise Sign up to receive the latest news and resources. Don’t miss a thing, access up-to-date advice to enhance your research. Comments. Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. Contact Form. Join us to receive the latest news and resources. Don’t miss a thing, access up-to-date advice to enhance your research. Receive free content that is relevant to you. Get started
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                            [body] => Public Speaking The process of communicating information to a live audience Home › Resources › Careers › Soft Skills › Public Speaking What is Public Speaking?Public speaking, also called oration or oratory, is the process of communicatingInterpersonal SkillsInterpersonal skills are the skills required to effectively communicate, interact, and work with individuals and groups. information to a live audience. The type of information communicated is deliberately structured to inform, persuadeEmotional IntelligenceEmotional intelligence also known as the emotional quotient (EQ) is the ability to manage one's emotions and the emotions of others. For, and entertain. Many people fear they suffer from a public speaking weaknessPublic Speaking WeaknessThe "public speaking weakness" answer is a great way to get around the question, "what is your biggest weakness?". If public speaking is not and lack the will to master the skill. This guide will give you some helpful tips.  Great public speaking consists of three components:Style: Masterfully constructed by using words to create text that is both beautiful to hear and read.Substance: A centralized theme to appeal and inspire the audience’s values and ideals.Impact: Impactful by changing opinions, minds, and hearts. An impactful oration results in a lingering effect on the audience. The Importance of Public Speaking. Public speaking is one of the most important skillsLeading by ExampleLeadership is a process in which an individual influences the behavior and attitudes of other people. Leading by example helps other people see what lies that an individual can learn. For example, consider the monumental impact of the following two public speeches: 1. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation”. On December 8, 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered an electrifying speech, declaring war on Japan and assuring Americans that the United States would achieve victory. Imagine the uneasiness of every American family knowing that their world was about to change. The reaction of Congress solidified a very real and exceptionally delivered speech. The speech brings every listener to a very critical moment in history. 2. Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream Speech”. On August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. delivered a speech to end racism in the United States and for civil and economic rights. This sterling example of great public speaking was a defining movement of the civil rights movement, which resulted in the passing of the Civil Rights Act, giving African-Americans equal treatment. It is considered one of the greatest pieces of oratory in American history. The greatest public speeches in the world motivated people during dark times, gave hope in times of despair, provided courage and inspired millions, and changed the course of history. Now that the importance of public speaking and its impact on others are understood, let us understand the importance of good public speaking in a business setting. Importance of Public Speaking in Business. In business, public speaking falls into several major categories:External Speeches – these are delivered to investors, suppliers, and other parties that don’t directly work for the company.Internal Speeches – theses are delivered to employees if the form of a Town Hall kind of address or an All-Hands meeting.Meetings & Presentations – meetings and presentations are much less formal than the above two types of speeches and occur more frequently. Having good public speaking skills at an internal meeting can be very important for your career.Public speaking is important in a business context for several reasons:Gathering employees, shareholders, customers, or the public together requires time – there should be a good reason to do so. Therefore, this is an important opportunity to inspire, inform, persuade, and re-excite the audience about a certain idea.The public speaking skill of an individual gives an impression of the company. For example, if a CEO delivers a bad speech, the audience may conclude that the company has lackluster leadership, the company is a waste of time, or that the company is not putting in the effort to be successful.Good public speaking sparks innovation and opportunities. For example, a well-delivered speech in a board meeting room can inspire organizational change and push the company in another direction. Every major business decision starts with a good public speech or group discussion. Ways to Improve Public Speaking Skills. With preparation and practice, any individual can be great at public speaking. Here are some things to take into consideration when preparing for your public speech: 1. Plan accordingly. Tools such as Monroe’s Motivated Sequence and The Rhetorical Triangle can help plan a public speech. In addition, starting with something interesting, such as storytelling, can be a powerful opener in public speaking. Understand the structure of your public speech and the impact you want it to make on your audience. A strong public speech is not something that is written and delivered in a day – it takes days to prepare and plan an effective oration. 2. Practice public speaking. A good speech cannot be delivered without practice. Record yourself delivering your speech and notice your tone of voice, body language, and body stance. When you are practicing, ask yourself the following questions:Is your tone of voice controlled?Are you putting greater emphasis on important words?Are you using a lot of filler words such as “um, er, ah, like”?Does your body language correlate with what you are trying to convey?Do you look confident?Do you have a power stance? 3. Engage with the audience. A good oration should not be one-sided. It is important to get your audience engaged. The audience should be able to feel your power and presence. For example, words such as “I think” or “maybe” limit the power that the speaker has. Instead, use words such as “actually” or “in fact.” Introduce pauses in your oration to not only slow yourself down, but to give the audience a chance to think about what you have said. An oration that is delivered too fast incites confusion and ambiguity. 4. Maintain a confident mindset. Public speaking in front of others can understandably be nerve-racking. We often envision something terrible happening, such as an awkward pause or forgetting what you were going to say. However, it is important to know that these thoughts cause us to be more nervous than we really should be. Stop thinking about your nervousness and fear and instead develop a winning mindset. Be confident in yourself and do not self-sabotage. Overcoming the Fear of Public Speaking. Here are some tips for overcoming the fear of public speaking:Organize your thoughts and materials.Practice and prepare your speech.Eliminate your fear of failure by being confident in yourself.Watch your facial expressions and body language in front of the mirror.Record yourself and get used to your voice and speaking style.Deliver your speech to another person.Do some deep breathing and stay hydrated before speaking.Incorporate strategic pauses to help regain composure and reduce anxiety.Do not memorize your speech – rather, remember key points. Related Readings. Thank you for reading CFI’s guide to public speaking. To keep learning and advancing your career, the following resources will be helpful:Networking and Building RelationshipsNetworking and Building Relationships (Part 2)This article is part of a series of useful tips to help you find success in your career and the totality of your life experience. While technical skills get us hired for our preferred post, soft skills help us communicate and collaborate effectively in the workplace. Soft skills such as knowing how to get along with other peopleLeadership TraitsLeadership TraitsLeadership traits refer to personal qualities that define effective leaders. Leadership refers to the ability of an individual or an organization to guide individuals, teams, or organizations toward the fulfillment of goals and objectives. Leadership plays an important function in managementPersonal BrandPersonal BrandOur personal brand is what people see as our identity, who they see us as and what qualities and things they associate with us. It revealsListening SkillsListening SkillsHaving effective listening skills means being able to display interest in the topic discussed and understand the information provided. In today’s society, the ability to communicate effectively is becoming increasingly important. Financial Analyst Certification. Become a certified Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA)®Become a Certified Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA)®CFI's Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA)® certification will help you gain the confidence you need in your finance career. Enroll today! by completing CFI’s online financial modeling classes and training program! Corporate Finance Institute Back to Website 0 search results for ‘’ People also search for: excel Free free courses Balance sheet accounting IRR DCF Explore Our Certifications Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA)®Learn more Commercial Banking & Credit Analyst (CBCA)™Learn more Capital Markets & Securities Analyst (CMSA)®Learn more Certified Business Intelligence & Data Analyst (BIDA)™Learn more Resources Excel Shortcuts PC Mac List of Excel Shortcuts Excel shortcuts - It may seem slower at first if you're used to the mouse, but it's worth the investment to take the time and... Free Financial Modeling Guide A Complete Guide to Financial Modeling This resource is designed to be the best free guide to financial modeling!  We will break down the most important... SQL Data Types What are SQL Data Types? The Structured Query Language (SQL) comprises several different data types that allow it to store different types of information... Structured Query Language (SQL) What is Structured Query Language (SQL)? Structured Query Language (SQL) is a specialized programming language designed for interacting with a database.... See All Resources See All Popular Courses Free! FMVA® - Prep Courses 3.5h Excel Fundamentals - Formulas for Finance FMVA® - Required 5.5h Building a 3 Statement Financial Model FMVA® - Required 7.5h Business Valuation Modeling Part I FMVA® - Required 2.5h Scenario & Sensitivity Analysis in Excel FMVA® - Required 6h Dashboards & Data Visualization FMVA® - Electives 11h Leveraged Buyout LBO Modeling See All Courses See All Recent Searches Suggestions Free Courses Excel Courses Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA)® Test Your Skills Create an account to take the assessment.
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                            [body] => 17 Public Speaking Tips That’ll Help You Crush Your Next PresentationHero Images/Getty Images It’s no easy feat to stand up and talk in front of people—whether it’s five or 50 or 500. In fact, surveys have found that public speaking has long been one of the things Americans fear most. Unfortunately, in many professions, some amount of public speaking is necessary. It might be that you need to present in a small meeting, give an update to the entire company, or present at a conference or other event. No matter what it is or how daunting you find it, there are steps you can take to prepare and improve your skills. Understand the Expectations and Learn the Details Know Your Audience Plan and Structure Your Speech Don’t Overload Your Slides Practice, Practice, Practice Get Feedback Memorize Your First and Last Lines Join a Club or Go to a Workshop Get in the Zone Don’t Bury Your Face in Notes Make Eye Contact Use Pauses Repeat Yourself Let Some Questions Go Keep Talking Remember the Audience Is on Your Side Don’t Be So Hard on Yourself Before You Even Get Up There. So much of what goes into public speaking happens way before you step up to the front of the room. Preparation and practice are key. Here’s what you can do in advance to make the actual speaking part as smooth as possible. 1. Understand the Expectations and Learn the Details. “Gather all of the information regarding location, technical setup, time you’ll be speaking, dress, topics to include/avoid, type of presentation, etc.,” says Tara Goodfellow, a Muse career coach and owner of Athena Consultants. Having all of this information ahead of time will help you prepare a presentation that fits the occasion and resonates with your audience. It’ll also help you avoid technical or logistical snafus that can add unnecessary stress, Goodfellow says: “You don’t want any surprises as in realizing you were supposed to bring a laptop or handouts.” 2. Know Your Audience. It’s as important to understand your audience as it is to understand the subject you’ll be discussing in front of them. “Make sure you understand the level of knowledge,” Goodfellow says, and tailor your presentation accordingly. “You don’t want to bore them with details they already know nor do you want to overwhelm them.” Josephine Lee, third place winner in the 2016 Toastmasters World Championship of Public Speaking, emphasizes that even if she’s giving the same speech to two different audiences, she’ll take the time to customize it. She always asks herself, “What is the specific audience and why are they there?” So, for example, the toast you’d give at an engagement party among all your college friends might be pretty different from the speech you give at the same friend’s wedding in front of the whole extended family. Or in a professional context, imagine you’re giving a presentation about the future of your company. That would look really different depending on whether you’re talking to a group of executives from your own organization versus a room full of college students who are interested in getting into the industry. For one, you might dive into the nitty gritty of last quarter’s performance and share your insights about what changes your organization needs to make to remain competitive. For the other, you’d probably zoom out a bit more, give an intro to your industry, and sketch out what your company does and where it’s going. 3. Plan and Structure Your Speech. So often the focus of advice about public speaking is about how you’re saying the words in front of an audience. Those things are unequivocally important (which is why we go into detail about them below!) but before you get there, you have to think about what you’re saying. “You can have great diction and you can have great presentation skills, but if your words and structure are all over the place then people are not going to remember what you said,” says Lee, who credits Toastmasters with teaching her how to write a speech. “It is 100% about simplicity, because when you’re giving a speech in front of a live audience it’s so fleeting that if you have multiple points and if you go off on tangents and if you don’t stay on one simple path then people won’t remember what you were speaking about.” Lee always picks one central point when she’s preparing a talk—whether she’ll be speaking for five minutes or 45. She’ll present her central theme, give supporting evidence and examples, and keep circling back to that main message. “So even if the audience forgets 99% of your speech, which they will, they will go home with that 1%,” she says. Rajiv Nathan, a Muse career coach and founder and CEO of Startup Hypeman, takes a similar approach with a slightly different formula. His go-to structure for a talk is “inward, outward, forward.” He starts with a story that explains why he’s talking about this topic in the first place, zooms out to evidence that others are thinking about it as well, and ends with solutions. In a workplace setting, this might translate into laying out a challenge your team is facing, zooming out to examine how other teams and companies are thinking about and handling similar issues, and end by proposing next steps for your team. 4. Don’t Overload Your Slides. If you’re using slides to accompany your presentation, make sure you avoid overloading them with too much text. “Think about how you like to be presented to,” Goodfellow says. “Very few of us like an 80-slide presentation where the person just reads everything to us.” Beyond the simple fact that people will be distracted squinting at that teeny tiny type, you might be tempted to start reading off the slides and you’ll end up sounding a little too much like Ferris Bueller’s economics teacher (i.e. droning on and on and on in a monotone). Instead, Nathan says, use slides primarily as visual complements to your words and a tool to emphasize your main takeaway. 5. Practice, Practice, Practice. Okay, pay attention, because if you absorb just one thing from this article it should be this: You have to practice. Not once or twice but over and over again. “When you practice it enough you figure out the rhythm,” says Nathan, who estimates he practiced his TEDx talk about 100 times before he gave it. You’ll also feel more confident and comfortable speaking without reading off a piece of paper (or your slides) because the structure and progression will become so familiar. Lee takes advantage of any opportunity to practice when she’s preparing to speak. “Practice of any sort can be very helpful. I practice in my room or in the shower or driving in the car,” she says. 6. Get Feedback. While practicing on your own is useful, it can be even better to do it in front of a live audience—even if that’s just your work bestie or your sister. The more you get used to speaking in front of actual humans the easier it’ll get. Plus, you can get feedback from your trusted practice audience before you go out and do the real thing. Ask them if your words and points were clear, if there was anything that confused them, how your rhythm was, and if there was anything else they noticed. You can also give yourself feedback. Use your phone (or whatever other device you have) to record audio or video of your practice sessions. When you play it back, you can become your own audience in a way and pick up on things you didn’t realize needed some attention. “I have had clients astounded at their mannerisms and overuse of ‘um’ when we’ve played back video. Most of us have a nervous ‘go to’ sound or movement,” Goodfellow says. “Once you’re aware of it, you can work on it.” 7. Memorize Your First and Last Lines. You’ll want to have a pretty clear idea of what you’re going to say, of course. But you also don’t want to sound like a robot regurgitating a pile of words you wrote down. By the time she was comfortable in front of an audience, Lee wasn’t reading her speeches or even memorizing an exact script. “If you memorize everything word for word, it’s not going to sound very natural,” she says. Instead, she plans the structure but keeps the words themselves a little loose with a couple of exceptions: “I generally try to memorize the opening sentence and the closing sentence.” The goal is to ensure you start and end strong while still giving yourself the room to speak naturally in between. 8. Join a Club or Go to a Workshop. If you’re committed to improving your public speaking skills, then not only should you practice each speech or presentation before you give it, but you should also try to get as many of the real thing under your belt as you can so that you become accustomed to it. “It’s the most important to get as much stage time in front of an audience” as possible, Lee says. “That’s why Toastmasters was such a useful organization for me because it gave me the grounds to practice on in front of a live audience.” Toastmasters is of course one of the more well-known options, with more than 16,000 clubs all over the world, but you can also check out meetups, classes, and workshops. If those options aren’t available in your area or don’t appeal to you, try gathering a group of friends and/or colleagues who want to practice their skills and give and get feedback on a regular basis as well. During Your Speech. Doing all of the prep work should help you feel ready and confident—at least, more than you would otherwise. Here’s how you can keep helping yourself in the moment. 9. Get in the Zone. For about 10 minutes before he gets on stage to give a talk, Nathan becomes something of a recluse. He doesn’t talk to anyone, he drinks some water, he crouches down somewhere, he focuses on his breathing, and he repeats this phrase to himself: “Use expression to create possibility.” Now, that’s a very specific set of actions that works for him, but he recommends everyone figure out their own “stage mantra” or routine. Ask yourself, he says, “What do you need to be repeating to yourself beforehand? What, action-wise, do you need to do beforehand to get yourself in the zone?” It might take some time to find the things that help you in the lead-up, whether you do them the night before, the day of, or in the moments just before you begin. If you’re not sure where to start, think back to some other reference point in your life when you were preparing for an important event, Nathan says. What did you use to do before a baseball game or piano recital or big exam? See if those things help now and iterate until you find the right combination. 10. Don’t Bury Your Face in Notes. When Lee first started giving speeches, she’d just read the whole thing word for word off a piece of paper. “It was terrible,” she says, remembering the early days before she became the accomplished speaker she is today. “Notes are like a crutch. So you just start to rely on [them] more and more,” she’s realized. “It’s more important that you’re connecting with the audience, making eye contact with the audience, and [having] a true conversation with the audience.” She no longer uses notes at all—she just memorizes the opening and closing lines, as mentioned—but reaching that comfort level takes practice. If you’re still working up to that and need your notes, she says, go with bullet points. They’ll help you stay on track without tempting you to read everything from the page. Notes can also block your face or torso, or draw your eyes down as you’re reading, says Nathan. So if you plan to bring some, try folding your paper or using index cards with just those few bullet points to serve as a reference. 11. Make Eye Contact. You’ve surely heard it before, but eye contact is key in public speaking. It helps you connect with the audience, Lee says, and it’s most effective when you focus on one person at a time. “When you are giving a speech, you should always sound like you are delivering to a single individual rather than speaking to the masses,” she says. “Direct eye contact with one person then moving to another is an effective way to do that.” 12. Use Pauses. “A lot of times people speak really fast. Their mind is racing and they want to make a good impression,” says Jennifer Sukola, a Muse career coach and human resources professional. “People tend to want to rush through and get it over with,” especially when they’re nervous. It’s something you might get feedback about or pick up on if you record yourself. One of Sukola’s biggest tips for public speaking—using pauses—can help with overall speed as well as pacing. You can use pauses strategically, inserting them right after important points to let them sink in or right before to allow you to gather your thoughts and get the audience’s attention for what you’re about to say. Sukola likes to follow a structure where she makes a point, pauses, provides support for that point and recaps, pauses again, makes a related point, etc. “If you follow that outline and pause in conjunction with the points you’re making,” she says, “the audience has a chance to let that simmer, to let your points settle and think through [them].” 13. Repeat Yourself. Remember that the people listening to you talk live can’t rewind to catch that important thing you just said or flip back a few pages to find that crucial point you made earlier the way they could if they were watching a video or reading a book. So help them out by repeating the thesis or main takeaway of your talk, says Nathan. In his own talks, he might repeat that take-home line six or eight times. The repetition ensures that everyone hears it, realizes it’s important, and can process it and let it sink in. “It’s got to be short and punchy,” says Nathan, and you can accentuate it with pauses before or after you say it. If you have slides, you might also want to put it up there once or twice. It’s like the chorus of a song, Nathan explains. It’s catchy and it’s the first thing someone will be able to repeat back to you. 14. Let Some Questions Go. You can do a whole lot of planning, but the truth is that you can’t anticipate everything, including questions that might come up. Goodfellow stresses that it’s okay to say, “That’s a great question, let me get back to you on that.” In fact, that’s far better than stammering through and making something up. 15. Keep Talking. Lee may now be an award-winning speaker who travels all over the world to give talks and feels comfortable ditching the notes, but even she still freezes and forgets her speech sometimes. You have to just keep talking until you find your way back. “Get away from that mentality that you have to be perfect. It’s okay if you forget,” she says. “You learn to start to fill in the gaps. Start to speak until you remember. No one in the audience knows you forgot your speech,” she adds. “What you are feeling inside is not as apparent as you think it is. If you keep that in mind and keep talking, eventually you’ll come back.” And if your talk has a clear, simple structure, it’ll be easier to find your way back in. 16. Remember the Audience Is on Your Side. For many people, public speaking feels like one of the scariest things they could be called on to do, Lee says. They’re terrified of failing and think they’ll be humiliated and ostracized. But the people on the other side don’t want to see you mess up—they’re eager to hear what you have to say. “If you remember that the audience wants you to do well, that they’re on your side, it’s a much easier process,” says Lee. Focus on what you’re giving to the audience—as if you were giving advice or telling a story to your best friend—rather than on yourself and how you appear. 17. Don’t Be So Hard on Yourself. Finally, remember that everyone gets nervous. Those executives many levels above you whose presence is making you sweat? They probably get nervous when they speak, too, Goodfellow points out. “Give yourself a little bit of grace,” she says, and do the best that you can.
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                            [body] => 10 Ways to Improve Your Public Speaking Skills by Steve Bailey Published on April 29, 2021 Share this Article BestColleges.com is an advertising-supported site. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. This compensation does not influence our school rankings, resource guides, or other editorially-independent information published on this site. Ready to start your journey? Public speaking skills help you demonstrate knowledge and succeed in your career. Incorporate a few public speaking tips into your life to gain more comfort speaking in public. Watch great public speakers to understand what works well for them. Take public speaking classes to build your skills and gain greater confidence. Most people possess at least some degree of fear of public speaking. In fact, only about 10% of people in the United States report actually enjoying it. Developing your public speaking skills can put you at a big advantage in your career, as it can lead to opportunities that others may avoid. Below, you'll find public speaking tips and techniques that will help you get comfortable in front of audiences and speak with confidence. The Importance of Strong Public Speaking Skills. In both college and your career, strong public speaking skills will set you apart, make you feel more confident, and give you the ability to take on leadership roles. Public speaking offers one of the most effective ways to get your point across, demonstrate your knowledge, and influence others. It can even help you stay organized and improve your writing and interpersonal communication. Many people who appear completely comfortable in front of crowds started out with a significant fear of public speaking. By overcoming this fear, practicing, and gaining confidence, you can give yourself big advantages in life. How to Become a Better Public Speaker. By incorporating several public speaking tips into your daily life, you can steadily improve your skills and become more comfortable giving presentations and speeches. These best practices include watching your body language, studying what works well for talented public speakers, practicing breath control, and preparing well in advance of your presentation. Study Great Public Speakers. Watching and learning from exceptional speakers offers one of the best ways to improve your own public speaking skills. To start, search for examples of great public speakers on YouTube. When you watch these individuals, take note of their body language. You'll find that it tends to remain open and inviting. They use their arms and hands in ways that accentuate their key points. They also avoid unnecessary fidgeting and wisely use the space provided to them to capture the audience's attention. Pay particular attention to how speakers pace themselves. They tend to take their time and deliver their words intentionally. Additionally, they use pauses to keep the audience engaged and do not rush themselves. They may use humor or anecdotes in appropriate and effective ways. To start your search, check out some of the TED Talks available online. Toastmasters International also provides examples of some of the best public speakers in the world. Relax Your Body Language. A fear of public speaking can make you feel tense, which negatively affects your body language. The best public speakers maintain proper posture, make eye contact with the audience, and move in ways that look natural. Good body language improves your performance and helps the audience take in and remember what you say. Avoid putting your hands in your pockets or crossing your arms. Instead, start with your arms at your side and use purposeful hand gestures as you make your points. Look out into the audience. Don't stare down at the ground or at your notes for long periods of time. As you build confidence, you may even start to make eye contact with individual people watching your presentation. Practice Voice and Breath Control. For many people, public speaking can warp their sense of time, making them speak faster than they normally would. Be aware of this phenomenon and keep a steady pace while presenting. It will help calm your nerves and allow the audience to better understand what you say. Breath control can help you do this. Practice using your stomach to push air in and out of your lungs. Before you begin public speaking, take 10 slow, deep breaths. Prepare Talking Points. Before you give a speech, prepare a series of talking points that contain the key messages you want your audience to know, feel, and understand by the time you have finished speaking. Start with 3-5 broad messages, then outline several underlying points that support each message. Organize your talking points in chronological order, starting with the message you want to cover first. Having an outline of your messages on hand helps prevent you from getting off track in your presentation and ensures you do not forget to cover any important points. Know Your Audience. Before you give a presentation, take the time to understand your audience so that you can tailor your speech to them. Think about what is important to them and what they are most likely to find useful. The type of event where you'll be speaking will also affect your approach. A formal gala, for example, may require a different type of presentation than a group of your fellow students in a classroom setting. Add a Visual Aid. A visual aid, such as a PowerPoint presentation, can help you make your key points while better engaging the audience. Your visual aid should support your presentation but not distract from it. Avoid text-heavy PowerPoints or reading verbatim from your slides. Create slides that feature graphs and images that reflect your points. If you need to include text, make it just a few short bullet points. Rehearse. One of the best ways to improve your public speaking skills is simply to practice. Through repetition, you can iron out your messaging and find better ways to phrase certain parts of your presentation. Once you have rehearsed your speech multiple times, you will naturally feel more comfortable giving it in front of an audience. Record Your Speeches. Record your public speaking performances on camera so you can go back and watch yourself. Examine your body language, how your voice sounds, and your pacing. Even the best speakers do this on a regular basis and often find ways they can improve their public speaking skills. Phone a Friend. Bring a friend you trust to watch you present. Let them know that you're looking for constructive feedback and that they can be completely honest with you. Give them a few pointers about what to watch out for so they notice if you still need to work on your pacing, your fidgeting, or your delivery in a particular section. Take a Public Speaking Class. By taking public speaking classes, students gain critical skills that rapidly improve their ability to speak and present to audiences. They also gain confidence as they learn from experts and rely on their peers for support. If you have a fear of public speaking, you can connect with fellow students dealing with the same challenge. If you wish to improve your public speaking skills when giving virtual presentations, consider an online public speaking course. If you want to learn how to talk in front of a live audience, an in-person class may be the better option. You may also be able to find student clubs that can help you practice your public speaking skills. Taking public speaking classes in college, especially early on, can help you succeed in the rest of your time in school and give you an advantage when it's time to start your career. Here are a few helpful resources to boost your public speaking skills: Inc. Magazine: 20 Tips for Mastering the Art of Public Speaking TED's Secret to Great Public Speaking Resources From Toastmasters Related Pages. Feature Image: Jasmin Merdan / Moment / Getty Images The class action lawsuit alleges that some of these schools did not admit students on a fully need-blind basis, which was required by law. Online certificate in sonography programs can offer a pathway to a lucrative career. Learn more about the best certificate programs in sonography. Kinesiology studies the mechanics of human movement and how exercise, stress reduction, and mobility can impact overall health and well-being. A bachelor's degree in kinesiology prepares students to work as exercise physiologists, athletic trainers, and recreational therapists. A bachelor's in kinesiology (sometimes called an exercise science program) typically takes 3-4 years to complete. Degree programs […] BestColleges.com is an advertising-supported site. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. This compensation does not influence our school rankings, resource guides, or other editorially-independent information published on this site. Compare your school options. View the most relevant school for your interests and compare them by tuition, programs, acceptance rate, and other factors important to find your college home.
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                            [body] => What Is Public Speaking and Why Do I Need to Do It? Lesson Transcript Instructor Kat Kadian-Baumeyer Kat has a Master of Science in Organizational Leadership and Management and teaches Business courses. View bio Expert Contributor Ginna Wilkerson Ginna earned M.Ed. degrees in Curriculum and Development and Mental Health Counseling, followed by a Ph.D. in English. She has over 30 years of teaching experience. View bio Public speaking is a necessary skill for public careers and a useful tool to learn. Understand the five elements of public speaking and discover why it's important. Updated: 10/01/2021 What Is Public Speaking, Anyway?Think about a time that you had to stand in front of a bunch of people and tell them something. Maybe it was an oral report in grade school or a proposal at work. After gathering your materials and preparing what to say, you arrived at the podium and started talking. That, my friend, is public speaking, and it involves communicating information before a large audience. What makes public speaking different than, say, just talking to a crowd of people, is in the way information is conveyed. In public speaking, the information is purposeful and meant to inform, influence or entertain a group of listeners. There are five elements of public speaking, and it basically boils down to who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effect. In other words, who is the source of the message. What is the message itself. Whom is the audience, while the medium is the actual delivery method and ending in the effect. Think of the effect as the speaker's intent for the speech. Public speaking dates back centuries, yet still remains one of the most important skills we can acquire in modern times. So, why is it so important to know? An error occurred trying to load this video. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. You must cCreate an account to continue watching. Register to view this lesson. Are you a student or a teacher? I am a student I am a teacher Create Your Account To Continue Watching As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 84,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Get unlimited access to over 84,000 lessons. Try it now It only takes a few minutes to setup and you can cancel any time. Already registered? Log in here for access  Back What teachers are saying about Study.com Try it now Already registered? Log in here for access Coming up next: Public Speaking as a Communication Process You're on a roll. Keep up the good work! Take Quiz Watch Next Lesson  Replay Just checking in. Are you still watching? Yes! Keep playing. Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds 0:01 What Is Public… 1:14 Why Do We Need to Do It? 2:26 Lesson Summary Save Save Save Want to watch this again later? Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Log in or Sign up Timeline Autoplay Autoplay Speed Speed 199K views Video Quiz Course Why Do We Need to Do It?So, you're thinking of a time when you had to present something in front of a group. And the only memory you have might be of sweaty palms and knocking knees. There are some very good reasons why you need to know how to do it. Actually, there are so many reasons why everyone should learn how to speak in a public forum. Let's check out a few: Every time you speak in public, it increases your self-confidence As we become comfortable speaking, we become more comfortable around people We can reach a large audience in a shorter time than having individual conversations It's a great way to show how much you know about a subject You can build a fan base of followers If these reasons are not enough to convince you to step up to the podium and give it your all, perhaps you should know that good public speaking skills gets the attention of employers. In fact, a person who has what it takes to capture an audience's attention is likely to outshine others in the workplace, in school or even in his or her own personal life. By taking the microphone, you can influence the world around you by shaping and affecting the way groups of people think. Lesson Summary. To sum things up, public speaking involves communicating information before a large audience. There are essentially five elements of public speaking and they look something like this. Who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effect. Remember, who is the source of the message. What is the message itself. Whom is the audience. The medium is the actual delivery method, ending in the effect, or speaker's intent. There are so many reasons to learn public speaking skills. Employers look for people who have what it takes to command an audience. It also increases self-confidence and we become more comfortable around people. It also lets us show off how much we know about a subject. This helps us build a fan base of followers. Good public speaking is useful in school, work or even in our personal lives. Learning Outcomes. After watching this lesson, you should be able to: Define public speaking Identify the five elements of public speaking Explain why public speaking skills are important To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. Create your account Additional Activities Getting Comfortable with Public Speaking. Prep:. Part of getting comfortable with this skill is to take it one step at a time. Think about what should happen before a public speaking experience. Consider all the variables that might affect the actual speech situation. Make a list of the preparation process as you see it. Get some feedback on your list from a teacher or fellow student. Choose a subject about which you could effectively share with others. This could be a hobby, an area of study, something in your work assignment, or a current issue you've studied thoroughly. Make an outline to assist in making a presentation concerning this topic. If possible, get a person you trust to serve as an audience for your practice activity. Observation Activities. Study a specific example of public speaking that occurs in your everyday world. It isn't hard to find examples all around us—maybe a school principal or teacher at a school assembly, or a pastor or rabbi, or a community meeting in your neighborhood. Evaluate what you observe about the situation. Does the speaker seem anxious? Is their material well-organized? How does the audience react to what is said? Watch an interview-type show on television or online. Both people involved in the conversation are public speakers at that time. How prepared is the interviewer? How about the person being interviewed? See what you can learn from your observation that might help you sometime when you are in front of a crowd or a camera. Note to Instructors. The main take-away from this lesson and these activities is to help the student be more aware of public speaking situations that happen all around us in the "real world." Observing is a prime learning activity in a performing type of skill. Then comes planning, and finally practicing the skill. If possible, give students an opportunity to practice speaking in public in a safe-feeling environment. Register to view this lesson. Are you a student or a teacher? I am a student I am a teacher Unlock Your Education. See for yourself why 30 million people use Study.com. Become a Study.com member and start learning now. Become a Member Already a member? Log In  Back What teachers are saying about Study.com Try it now Already registered? Log in here for access What Is Public Speaking and Why Do I Need to Do It? Related Study Materials. Recommended Lessons and Courses for You. Related Lessons Related Courses Related Lessons . The Historical Tradition of Public Speaking Managing Anxiety About Public Speaking: Strategies & Tips Public Speaking as a Communication Process Tips for Overcoming Speech Anxiety The Importance of Being a Civil and Ethical Listener How Public Speaking Differs from Casual Conversation Speech Outline Types & Examples | How to Write a Speech Outline Informative Speaking | Purpose & Types Understanding the Role of Special Occasion Speeches How a Cell Recognizes an Injury Evaluating Yourself as a Speaker: Goals & Methods Choosing an Appropriate Speech Topic: Steps & Characteristics Adapting to Your Audience During and After Your Speech The Art of Persuasion in Public Speaking Effective Research Strategies: Speaking to Your Audience & Purpose Being an Ethical Speaker: Guidelines & Issues Comparing Types of Business Correspondence Speech Conclusions: Role & Components Preparing an Impromptu Speech: Topic Choice, Outline Preparation & Practice Aspects of Effective Listening in Group Communication Related Courses . 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What is the meaning of orator? 1. Which of the following should you NOT do to manage your fear? a. Classify your fears into categories to recognize common themes. b. Remind yourself that your audience is just a group of individua In public speaking, how can you "stretch" your terministic screens? What are the six techniques for reducing communication apprehension? What is the history of public speaking? Dialect is most closely associated with which vocal quality? a. pronunciation b. rate c. pauses d. pitch e. paralanguage Patrick Henry's famous speech carries the theme give me liberty or give me death. What is the speech about? A. events. B. processes. C. concepts. D. objects. Credibility in public speaking is what Aristotle refers to as? A. ethos. B. pathos. C. logos. D. mythos. What is an appeal in a speech? Create an account to start this course today Used by over 30 million students worldwide Create an account Like this lesson Share Explore our library of over 84,000 lessons. 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                            [body] => 12 Tips For Public SpeakingIESE Business SchoolContributorOpinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own.Leadership StrategyWe share global insights and research.Share to FacebookShare to TwitterShare to LinkedinThere are few skills that will bring more opportunity into your life than the ability to speak well in public. Below are 12 tips that can make the difference between those speakers who leave a powerful, positive impression and those that are quickly forgotten. Speak with an intent to move people to action. Know what you want your audience to do immediately after hearing your speech. If nobody does anything different than they would have done before you spoke – the value of your speech is zero. Start strong with a “grabber”. A personal story, a quote from an expert or a shocking statistic – something that takes a hold of your audience and gets them hooked and opens their mind to your message. Give the audience a chance to see your personal connection to the topic. Structure your material in three sections– grabber, middle, close. Know your material. Get really interested in the topic. Find good stories. Practice. Practice.Rehearse out loud with all equipment you plan on using. Work to control filler words; Practice, pause and breathe. Use a clock to check your timings and allow time for the unexpected. Know the audience.Try to speak to one or two people in the audience as they arrive – they will be your allies in the audience – it is easier to speak to friends than to strangers. Know the setup.Arrive in good time to check out the speaking area and get practice using the microphone and any visual aids. Relax. Begin with a well prepared grabber. A relevant personal story is a great start.  It establishes your credibility.  It connects you to the audience and creates the right emotional atmosphere (and calms your nerves). Visualize yourself successful.See yourself at the end of the speech surrounded by people asking questions, visualize the applause. Pauses. Include 3-8 second pauses at key moments – just before key statements or just after a story – this really brings the audience into the speech. Don’t apologize– the audience probably never noticed it. Smile. Look like the content matters to you – if the audience don’t feel that it is important to you, it will be really hard for them to feel that it should be important for them. Get experience.Take every opportunity you can get to speak (and listen to other speakers). Prepare well ahead of time. Experience builds confidence, which is the key to effective speaking. (Credit: Pixabay/ fill) A final note on practice: There are many resources available for those who decide that they wish to become influential.  However, nothing can help the person who does not practice.  No tool is as powerful in allowing you to practice than the webcam.  Make it a habit to switch on the webcam for 3 minutes each day and practice expressing yourself.  Explain why your project is important.  Explain why someone should work on your team.  Explain your tips for success in your business.  Practice your answer to “tell me about yourself?” A great musician practices a symphony hundreds of times before playing it in front of an audience.  A great speaker practices the words before they find themselves on the spot. Malcolm Gladwell made famous the idea that we need 10,000 hours of practice in order to become a world-class performer.  Start now with your first webcam video.  It may take many years before you accumulate 10,000 hours of practice, but there are big steps forward in your influence at 1, 10 and 100 hours of practice. Conor Neill is a senior lecturer at IESE Business School and an expert in communications.   IESE Business SchoolPrintReprints & Permissions
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                            [body] => How to Improve Your Public Speaking Skills By Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of "Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder" and "7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety." Learn about our editorial process Updated on May 06, 2020 Medically reviewed Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more. by Carly Snyder, MD Medically reviewed by Carly Snyder, MD Carly Snyder, MD is a reproductive and perinatal psychiatrist who combines traditional psychiatry with integrative medicine-based treatments.  Learn about our Medical Review Board Table of Contents View All Table of Contents Voice Control Body Language Delivery Audience Relations A Word From Verywell Even if you don't make regular presentations in front of a group, public speaking is a useful skill to have from making a speech at a friend's wedding to inspiring a group of volunteers at a charity event. Developing your public speaking skills can increase your confidence and help you overcome speech-related anxiety you may have. Even those who live with social anxiety disorder (SAD) can become confident speakers with traditional anxiety treatment and by working on public speaking skill development. Klaus Vedfelt / Getty Images  Voice Control . Your voice is the most important tool you will use as a public speaker. One simple way to improve your voice is by learning to breathe fully and deeply from your diaphragm. Diaphragmatic breathing, or belly breathing, is essential for accessing your most powerful voice. It is the technique professional singers use to make their voices sound fabulous. It enables them to hold notes long after most people would be out of breath. Diaphragmatic Breathing . Practicing diaphragmatic breathing also reduces feelings of breathlessness caused by speech anxiety. This type of breathing will allow you to better control the following aspects of your voice: Tone (quality)Pitch (high or low)Volume Before your speech, place one hand on your abdomen, and breathe into your hand. Count to 10 as you inhale and fill your stomach, then count to 10 again as you exhale. Remember to breathe from your diaphragm as you deliver your speech. 4 Tips for Practicing Diaphragmatic Breathing for Social Anxiety Body Language . Simply put, body language is your body's way of communicating without using words. It's the combination of facial expressions, gestures, and movements that convey what's going on in your mind. Practice strong, confident body language to fuel your presentation: Stand up straight. If you're physically capable of standing up straight, then make sure you stand tall and straight during your presentation. Assume the [power] position. If you're feeling stressed before your presentation, take a moment to stand in a powerful position. Doing this for just a few minutes will raise your testosterone and increase your self-confidence while reducing stress, anxiety, and cortisol. One of the most popular power poses is the "superhero" pose: Put your hands on your hips, keep your chin up, and your chest out. Be facially expressive. Your facial expressions should match the message you are delivering. If you're giving an upbeat speech, try to have a relaxed and joyful look on your face. Plant your feet. Shifting your weight from side to side can lull your audience into a semi-hypnotic state (also known as sleep). Stand tall and firm. If you feel that your stage presence is lacking, view clips of speakers you admire. Aim to imitate parts of their style that you feel could work for you. Then, "fake it until you make it." In other words, act confident until you feel confident. 10 Ways to Have More Confident Body Language Delivery . When it comes to public speaking, delivery is everything. Even if you have a great voice and good body language, your message will get lost if the audience can't easily follow what you say. Below are some tips for developing good delivery skills: Speak slowly, but not too slowly. Talk too fast and your audience will have a hard time understanding you. Talk too slowly and you risk putting them to sleep. When it comes to public speaking, talking at a conversational pace is your safest bet.Pause between ideas. Great public speakers often pause for two to three seconds or even longer. A well-placed pause gives the audience time to digest what you are saying. It also makes you sound more confident and in control.Avoid filler words. Words such as "um," "ah," "you know," and "like" diminish your credibility and distract from your message. Instead, replace these filler words with pauses.Carefully articulate and pronounce your words. A mumbling public speaker is hard to understand. How to Read Body Language Audience Relations . Good public speakers are in tune with their audience. Public speaking is more than standing in front of a group and talking; you also need to engage your audience. Acknowledge your audience as soon as you take the stage. This helps to make you seem more like a "real" person and keeps a conversational tone. Grab their attention immediately. When you speak, you have about 60 seconds to capture your audience's attention and captivate them before they tune out. Use this time to ask a rhetorical thought-provoking question, tell a captivating story, or share a shocking statistic—anything that will keep them intrigued. Find a friendly face. There's bound to be friendly people in the audience. Find those people and pretend that you're speaking to only them. Make eye contact. Regardless of how big your audience is, try to make eye contact with as many people as possible. It will make them feel like you are speaking directly to them. Press Play for Advice on Facing Your Fears. Hosted by Editor-in-Chief and therapist Amy Morin, LCSW, this episode of The Verywell Mind Podcast shares a strategy to help you find courage when you need it the most. Click below to listen now. Follow Now: Apple Podcasts / Spotify / Google Podcasts / RSS A Word From Verywell . Fear of public speaking is a common experience, and developing new public speaking skills can help you face your fear confidently. If you have extreme anxiety while speaking in public, however, it is important to seek help from your doctor or a trained mental health professional. While improving your public speaking skills is helpful, for people with social anxiety, those efforts should be grounded in a solid framework for overcoming your anxiety. Managing Public Speaking When You Have Social Anxiety Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! What are your concerns? Other Inaccurate Hard to Understand 2 Sources Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Carney DR, Cuddy AJC, Yap AJ. Power posing: Brief nonverbal displays affect neuroendocrine levels and risk tolerance. Psychol Sci. 2010;21(10):1363-1368. doi:10.1177/0956797610383437 Price D. Well Said!: Presentations and Conversations That Get Results. American Management Association; 2012. Additional Reading Jackson B, Compton J, Thornton AL, Dimmock JA. Re-Thinking Anxiety: Using Inoculation Messages to Reduce and Reinterpret Public Speaking Fears. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0169972. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0169972 Jackson B, Compton J, Whiddett R, Anthony DR, Dimmock JA. Preempting performance challenges: the effects of inoculation messaging on attacks to task self-efficacy. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0124886. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124886 Speak to a Therapist for Social Anxiety Disorder Advertiser Disclosure × The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Verywell Mind receives compensation. Related Articles Managing Public Speaking When You Have Social Anxiety 20 Public Speaking Tips to Help You Become a Better Speaker How to Have Easier Conversations When You Have Social Anxiety Disorder How Flirting Is Good for Your Health and Well-Being The Best Self-Help Strategies for Social Anxiety Disorder How to Overcome Speaking in Public If You Have PTSD 6 Ways to Improve Your Body Language Skills Preparing a Speech When You Have Public Speaking Anxiety Do You Have Glossophobia—Fear of Public Speaking? Healthy Coping Skills for Uncomfortable Emotions Want to Feel More Relaxed? Try These Deep Breathing Techniques 9 Tips to Use Your Best Voice When You Have Social Anxiety Deep Breathing Exercises to Reduce Anxiety Hearing vs. Listening: What's the Difference? 6 Ways to Start Boosting Your Self-Confidence Today Reasons Why Your Spouse Won't Listen to You
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                            [body] => How to improve your public speaking skills: 8 tips By Shonna Waters, PhD May 28, 2021 - 15 min read Share this article Jump to section The importance of having public speaking skills How to improve public speaking skills — 4 factors to keep in mind 8 tips for public speaking Know how to improve public speaking skills and master your fears Some people are more afraid of public speaking than they are of dying. I know that sounds extreme, but it makes sense when you think about it.  Our ancestors needed one another to survive. Social acceptance or rejection meant the difference between life and death. And if there’s one situation where you run the risk of mass rejection, it’s public speaking. No wonder many of us find it terrifying. It’s our survival instinct kicking in. Yet, public speaking is an essential skill in today’s labor market. If you want to know how to improve public speaking skills, keep reading for tips and strategies that will help make you a better public speaker. The importance of having public speaking skills. Strong spoken communication skills are essential for a successful career or business. According to a study by the Association of American Colleges and Universities, the majority of executives and hiring managers prioritize strong oral communication skills. Most jobs require some degree of public speaking, whether it’s giving a presentation to your team or speaking at a conference. But the survey respondents reported that less than half of college graduates are satisfactory in this area. Public speaking requires you to present your ideas clearly. At the same time, you must project an image of yourself that inspires empathy in your audience. But many of us experience public speaking anxiety. It can hinder your ability to deliver your message and engage your audience.  Public speaking isn’t only important at work. Fear of public speaking can also affect your personal life. It may create misunderstandings with family or friends or prevent you from taking part in activities.  For example, you might avoid speaking about your ideas or plans or giving a speech at a wedding or social event. The inability to communicate your ideas results in feeling misunderstood. This can lead to frustration, loneliness, and even social anxiety. But if you have stage fright, don’t worry — you’re not alone. Few people are born with a natural talent for public speaking.  This is good news, as it means it’s a skill that you can learn. So let’s dive into how to become a great public speaker.   Thank you for your interest in BetterUp. How to improve public speaking skills — 4 factors to keep in mind. Developing your public speaking skills has many benefits in a work environment. It will also increase your confidence. Even if you’re an introvert or suffer from chronic anxiety, overcoming your fear and learning to be a great public speaker is possible. Here are four factors that influence your ability to communicate effectively. 1. Voice control. Your voice is the most basic communication tool you possess. Learning to use it properly is key for improving your public speaking. Diaphragmatic breathing is a useful voice control technique. It can give your voice greater power and clarity and prevent the shortness of breath that anxiety causes. To do this technique, relax your belly and let it expand as you breathe. Extend your inhalations and exhalations to a count of four each. Practicing this type of breathing without speaking will help you prepare to use it while speaking.  It also helps calm your nerves.  During your public speaking event, use diaphragmatic breathing to control the three main aspects of your voice: Volume Tone Pitch 2. Body language. Your body language is the combination of your gestures, facial expressions, and movements.  It’s an integral part of how we communicate. It helps your audience better understand the nuances of your message. If your body language contrasts with what you want to transmit or seems incoherent, your speech will be confusing. Once you confuse people, you lose them. Use the following tips to improve your body language and engage your audience: Stand up straight and avoid slouching if you are able. . Make sure your facial expression is coherent with your message. Stay still. Constant movement can distract your audience or change the way they receive your message. Practice power poses before your speaking event. This reduces stress and boosts your confidence. Try standing with your feet apart and arms stretched up. Take a few deep breaths, then observe how you feel. Watch a TED Talk and identify body language that effective communicators use.  3. Delivery. Delivery is the way you speak. Good delivery is essential for your audience to understand your speech. Follow these tips to improve your delivery: Speak at the speed of a normal conversation. Avoid speaking too quickly because people will get lost in what you are saying. But don’t speak too slowly, either, as they will get bored. Pause regularly. This gives people time to absorb the concepts and ideas. It also makes you appear more confident. Don’t mumble or eat your words — articulate clearly. Avoid making noises such as “ahh” or “umm” between words. If you need time to think, take a brief pause. There is nothing wrong with a few seconds of silence. 4. Audience relations. If you want your audience to listen to you, you need to engage them from the beginning. The following are ways to connect with your audience: Smile and greet the audience. Thank them for being there. This will humanize you and establish a conversational tone. Look for people in the audience who seem actively engaged in your speech. Imagine speaking only to them. Make eye contact with as many people as possible. This will help establish personal connections with your audience. 8 tips for public speaking. Public speaking is a skill that anyone can develop.  These tips for public speaking will help you overcome your fear and show up with confidence at your next public speaking engagement. 1. Prepare. Giving a great speech or presentation starts with planning.  Identify