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                                    [0] => Why should the consumer provide quality control after making a purchase based on published specifications.
                                    [1] => Do they work on the assumption that many of us might not notice and if we do, that is why they provide a warranty?
                                    [2] => If it is up to the consumer perhaps a future article on how to verify your new lens performance?
                                    [3] => When you add a teleconverter, things get that much more complicated, since you have a third device that can be off.
                                    [4] => “plastic”).
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                            [body] => Understanding Camera Lenses: A Beginner’s Guide By Spencer Cox 9 CommentsLast Updated On May 25, 2019Lenses. They’re arguably the most important piece of equipment a photographer can buy – even more important than the camera itself. But what makes lenses so useful? Why are some camera lenses so much better than others? The answer goes beyond simple things like sharpness and image quality. Instead, lenses matter because they control which photos you can even take in the first place.Table of Contents1. The Anatomy of a Lens. Modern lenses look something like this:Each part of the lens serves an important purpose: Filter thread: Lets you attach lens filters to modify light that reaches your camera sensor Front element: Collects light and bends it to the other lens elements Lens hood thread: Lets you attach lens hoods to block sunlight and reduce flare Zoom ring: Rotates to zoom the lens in and out Focus ring: Rotates to focus manually; does not rotate when camera autofocuses Lens name: Identifies lens A/M switch: Switches between autofocus and manual focusNot every lens has all seven of these features, and other lenses have many more than this. However, the lens above is fairly representative of modern zoom lenses.2. Camera Lens Terminology. Most lenses today are named in a relatively standard way: Brand name, lens type, focal length (in mm), maximum aperture, other lens features/abbreviations.For example, the official name for one of Nikon’s professional zooms is the “Nikon AF-S 24-70mm f/2.8 E ED VR” lens. Canon’s equivalent is the “Canon EF 24-70mm f/2.8 L II USM” lens.The most important terms are focal length and maximum aperture. In other words, the “mm” and the “f/number” terms. These numbers are the most directly related to the types of photos you will be able to capture with the lens. (I’ve got a full section later on each one and why it is so important.)What about the abbreviations at the end of the lens name? They still matter, denoting the extra features offered by each lens. For example, the “VR” term in the Nikon lens stands for “vibration reduction,” which stabilizes the lens for handheld shooting. However, these other terms are usually secondary in importance. Some don’t even refer to a specific feature, but instead are solely for advertising value (such as “L” on the Canon lens, which simply means it is one of Canon’s high-end lenses).NIKON D800E + 70-200mm f/4 @ 200mm, ISO 100, 1/40, f/16.0Thanks to this telephoto lens’s vibration reduction feature, I was able to handhold it at 1/40 second and still capture a sharp photo.The main exception to the “mm and f-number matter most” rule is when you’re dealing with specialty lenses. With fisheyes, macro lenses, tilt-shifts, and so on, your main reason for buying the lens has more to do with its unique feature than anything else.So, what do all the abbreviations at the end of a lens name stand for? Each company labels its lenses in a different way, with potentially dozens of abbreviations per manufacturer – too many to fit in this article. However, we’ve covered all the various terms for many lens manufacturers the following guides: Nikon lens abbreviations Canon lens abbreviations Sony lens abbreviations Fuji lens abbreviations Sigma lens abbreviations3. What Is Focal Length?The most important specification for most lenses is their focal length – in generic terms, how far “zoomed in” the lens is. Focal length is written in millimeters.Some lenses only have a single focal length. These are known as prime lenses. A popular example is the 50mm lens – a very common first prime lens for photographers, thanks to its high usefulness and low price.Other lenses are zoom lenses, meaning that they cover a range of focal lengths. For example, the most common zoom lens on the market is an 18-55mm kit lens (sometimes 18-50mm or similar). These lenses zoom from a relatively wide angle (18mm) to a moderate telephoto (55mm). If you divide the lens’s longer focal length by its wider focal length (like 55/18), then you get the lens’s zoom ratio (like 3x).Also see our article primes vs zooms.A few specialty lenses on the market fit somewhere between primes and zooms, such as the Leica 16-18-21mm f/4 lens. This lens covers three specific focal lengths – 16mm, 18mm, and 21mm – but none of the focal lengths in between. This is contrary to a normal zoom lens, which smoothly zooms from its widest to longest focal length.The technical definition of focal length is a bit messy, and beyond the scope of this article. Elizabeth wrote a comprehensive guide to focal length that explains everything at a technical level.We also have full articles introducing wide angle lenses and telephotos.3.1. The Impact of Camera Sensor. I’ll note quickly that the sensor size of your camera contributes to the apparent focal length you’re using. This is because small camera sensors are like crops from a large camera sensor. Put the same lens on both, and the lens will appear more zoomed in on the small sensor.Cameras with a larger crop factor (i.e. smaller sensor) will exhibit this effect the most. You can calculate the exact amount simply by multiplying your lens focal length by your crop factor. So, an 18-55mm lens used on a Nikon DX sensor – which has a 1.55x crop factor – is equivalent to a 28-85mm lens on a larger full frame camera sensor.This is also why you can’t just say that a 28mm lens, for example, is a wide-angle. On some cameras, it is more like a medium lens, and on others it’s even a moderate telephoto. You have to specify 28mm equivalent.Here’s a general guide: Wider than 35mm (equivalent): Wide angle lens 35-70mm (equivalent): Normal lens Longer than 70mm (equivalent): TelephotoAnything wider than 18mm and longer than 300mm is generally considered an ultra-wide or a super-telephoto. (On Nikon DX and other APS-C cameras, that would be wider than 12mm and longer than 200mm.)All of these are rough figures, though. Some photographers may consider 35mm to be wide angle rather than normal, or vice versa, and it’s not a big deal either way.NIKON D7000 + 17-55mm f/2.8 @ 17mm, ISO 160, 30 seconds, f/8.0Taken at 17mm. Since I used a DX camera (the Nikon D7000), this is only a moderate wide angle. On full frame, 17mm would be ultra-wide.4. What Is Maximum Aperture?The other critical term in a lens name is the “f/number” term, which stands for the lens’s maximum aperture.First, if you are unfamiliar with the concept of aperture, I recommend reading our beginner’s guide to aperture. In short, aperture describes the “pupil” of your lens. Just like the pupil in our eyes, the aperture in a lens will let in more or less light. It is quite an important specification.Many photographers don’t realize that aperture is written as a fraction. This is why f/2 is larger than f/4 – it’s just like 1/2 being larger than 1/4. Expensive lenses often have large apertures to let in a lot of light (again, like a large pupil). For that reason, a 24-70mm f/2.8 zoom is going to be more expensive than a 24-70mm f/4 zoom in practically every case.In general, prime lenses have a larger maximum aperture than zooms, especially at a given price. It’s one major reason why photographers use primes. Zooms usually max out at f/2.8, while plenty of primes on the market go to f/1.4 and sometimes wider. This means prime lenses can let in 4x as much light as the best zooms.Of course, even though a lens name will include its maximum aperture, you aren’t restricted to using that aperture alone. You can always change the aperture to be smaller if you want. Almost all lenses go down to at least f/16, while many allow f/22, f/32, and beyond. This is called minimum aperture.Minimum aperture isn’t nearly as important as maximum aperture, though. It’s why you only see maximum aperture in the lens name. If you use extremely small apertures, especially f/22 and beyond, you start to add blur throughout your photos and darken them more than you’d normally want.As with focal length, here’s a general guide to aperture: Wider than f/1.4: Extremely large aperture f/1.4 to f/2.8: Large aperture f/4 to f/8: Normal aperture f/11 to f/22: Small aperture Narrower than f/22: Extremely small aperture4.1. Depth of Field. The other reason why maximum aperture is so important is that it impacts your depth of field. Large apertures like f/1.4 and f/2.8 will give you more of a “shallow focus” effect, where the background is blurred and your subject is sharp. This is very common to see in portraiture and still life photography.Depth of field is also influenced by the lens’s focal length. Telephoto lenses have a shallower depth of field than wide angles. So, if you really want to blur the background of your photo as much as possible, you’ll want at least a 50mm f/1.8, and probably something like an 85mm f/1.8, 85mm f/1.4 or 105mm f/1.4. But those lenses also get progressively more and more expensive.NIKON D810 + Noct-NIKKOR 58mm f/1.2 @ 58mm, ISO 64, 1/6400, f/1.24.2. Variable Aperture Zooms. Some zoom lenses have a different maximum aperture at their wide angle and telephoto ends. These are called “variable aperture” lenses. For example, the 18-55mm zoom I talked about earlier usually is f/3.5-5.6 variable aperture. If you shoot at 18mm, you can use an aperture as wide as f/3.5. If you shoot at 55mm, you can use an aperture as wide as f/5.6. (At focal lengths in between, your maximum aperture gradually changes from f/3.5 to f/5.6.)Variable aperture lenses don’t have the best reputation. In part, this is because it is annoying to have different aperture limitations throughout the zoom range. But all lens designs have trade-offs, and variable aperture is hardly the worst compromise out there.In fact, these lenses can be smaller and less expensive than constant aperture zooms, making them quite reasonable in many cases. So, don’t avoid variable aperture zooms by default. Instead, look to other features of the lens, too, to see if it’s a good fit for you.The Fuji XF 100-400mm f4.5-5.6 R LM OIS WR lens, a high quality variable-aperture telephoto5. Important Lens Features. When I buy a lens, I don’t look at image quality first. Instead, there are other factors which matter more.First: size and weight. I’m willing to give up some image quality – as well as things like zoom range and maximum aperture – to get a lighter weight lens. Of course, finding a lightweight lens can be a bit deceptive. If one heavy zoom lens replaces three moderately heavy primes in your kit, the zoom isn’t really heavy at all. Or if two lenses are equal in weight, but one goes with a lighter camera system, it’s still got the advantage.On top of that is autofocus. Not all lenses have autofocus, and not all autofocus lenses are equally fast and accurate. It doesn’t matter as much to some genres as others, but if you’re a sports photographer, chances are good you’re willing to pay for top-notch autofocus performance.There are tons of other lens features that matter in photography. A big one is durability/weatherproofness. If you can use your lens for several years in tricky conditions, it’s worth much more than a lens that can’t handle being bumped around.The overall ergonomics of the lens also matter quite a bit. This includes everything from the position of the zoom ring to the smoothness of the focus ring, and how seamless it is to use the lens. You might not notice lenses with good ergonomics, but you’ll certainly notice bad ones.And, naturally, all of these factors tie into price (same as the next section, image quality). As nice as the Zeiss Otus lenses might look to you, it’s probably more reasonable to go with a Nikon or Canon lens that fits the same focal length.5.1. Construction. Of all of these concerns, one of the most important and easiest to overlook is simply the lens’s construction. Lenses with the fewest number of moving parts (i.e., internal focus and internal zoom) are generally ideal, since it allows for fewer points of failure. The same is true for lenses which are weather sealed; it’s worth paying more for a lens that will last longer.I’ll also mention the distinction between metal vs plastic lens construction. Typically, metal lenses are seen as higher-end and may command a higher price because of it. However, I personally prefer high-quality plastic lenses instead. They weigh less, deal better with bumps, and don’t get as cold in bad weather. Metal lenses may be more durable in certain situations, but generally there is nothing wrong with plastic lenses in this regard.Although you pay a bit of a price for better construction lenses (both in dollars and in weight), it’s worthwhile in the end, since you may save yourself from needing to buy a replacement.6. Lens Image Quality. There are dozens of image quality factors that make some lenses better than others. I’ll go through the most important below.First, though, keep in mind: lenses with extreme specifications are more likely to have compromises than their relatively ordinary counterparts. I’m referring to everything from superzooms to lenses with especially wide apertures. Although compromise can take many forms, it usually means lenses with lower image quality or a higher size/weight/price.6.1. Sharpness. Right or wrong, the top feature on everyone’s mind when a new lens comes out is sharpness. The good news is that modern lenses are sharper than ever. The limit of sharpness in your photos is very likely to be your technique, not your lens.Today, every new lens is sharp at f/8 in the center.On top of that, most new lenses are sharp at f/8 in the corners. The same is true at their maximum aperture (whatever it may be) in the center.The main area where modern lenses can be unsharp is at their maximum aperture in the corners of the frame. This is hardly relevant to most photographers. If you’re shooting at f/1.4, you’re likely to get a shallow focus effect. And in that case, the corners wouldn’t be sharp anyway, so your lens’s corner sharpness is irrelevant. (Milky Way photography is one exception. If you’re not a Milky Way photographer, you probably don’t need to worry about corner sharpness at f/1.4.)Personally, my primary concern with sharpness for landscape photography is that the lens remains sharp in the corners at f/8 to f/11, my most common aperture range. Although almost all lenses pass the “acceptable” threshold, some do better than others. I don’t care about small differences, but a bad lens here will not end up in my bag.6.2. Distortion. Distortion means that the lens introduces a “bulge” or “pinch” to straight lines in your images. The most obvious example is a fisheye lens, which has dramatic levels of distortion (specifically barrel distortion). If you photograph the horizon or any other flat line in your photo, a high distortion lens will show noticeably curvature or waviness.The three main types of distortion are pincushion, barrel, and mustache. A depiction of each is below: Although it’s not great to have a high-distortion lens (aside from fisheyes), this is hardly the most concerning image quality issue out there. Most photography software has built-in distortion correction that can fix the problem in one click. This can harm corner sharpness a bit, and change your composition slightly, but that’s a small price to pay.6.2.1. Perspective DistortionOne type of distortion you’ll hear about is called perspective distortion, but it’s not the same as the distortion above. This one is not an image quality issue; it has to do with stretched-out proportions in your subject that can happen if you get too close. It’s especially visible if you use a wide angle lens, since you need to get much closer to your subjects than with a telephoto:NIKON D3S + 14-24mm f/2.8 @ 14mm, ISO 200, 1/125, f/8.0This is why most portrait photographers prefer an 85mm lens rather than a 24mm lens for headshots. You can fill the frame with your subject in either case, but you need to get far closer to your subject with the 24mm. This introduces a lot of perspective distortion.6.3. Chromatic Aberration. Despite the intimidating name, chromatic aberration really does just mean “color problem.” It refers to color artifacts a lens introduces, like red and blue fringes in the corners of your image. Here’s an obvious example:The example above is called lateral chromatic aberration. There is also such a thing as longitudinal chromatic aberration. In that case, out-of-focus regions are the ones changing colors. Specifically, they get greener behind the subject and purpler in front of it:NIKON D3S + Zeiss Distagon T* 2/35 ZF.2 @ 35mm, ISO 200, 1/200, f/2.0It is easy to correct lateral chromatic aberration (the first one) and harder to correct longitudinal chromatic aberration. Most photography software will have some tools to help minimize it, however.6.4. Bokeh. If you shoot shallow focus photos, bokeh will be an important concern for you. This is simply the quality of a photo’s out-of-focus blur. It was once a very specific photographer in-group term, then Apple used it in a commercial, and now it’s pretty widespread. Nevertheless, you may want to check out our full article on the subject.NIKON D810 + Noct-NIKKOR 58mm f/1.2 @ 58mm, ISO 64, 1/5000, f/1.2Some lenses have better bokeh than others. You’ll read about it in any reviews of those lenses, no doubt. Bokeh is generally considered to be good when it has minimal texture and soft transitions, although all photographers have their own preferences.6.5. Flare. When you point your lens at the sun, it has the potential to create internal reflections or flare that shows up as blobs in the photo. Bright sources of light can also reduce the photo’s overall contrast and make it look too hazy.The best lenses will have high-quality coatings that minimize flare. It doesn’t apply to every photo, but it’s a big deal when you’re working in a backlit environment. As a landscape photographer, this is definitely one of my main concerns when considering a new lens.The sun doesn’t actually need to be in your photo in order to introduce flare. Sometimes, you can get dots of flare just by pointing the lens vaguely toward the light. Although this is a good reason to use lens hoods, it’s also a good reason to buy a lens with minimal flare.Real flare in an infrared photo. IR images often have more flare, because lens coatings focus on eliminating flare from the visible spectrum.6.6. Sample Variation. Another component of image quality is sample variation – the idea that all copies of a particular lens fall within a similar range of image quality. It would be very frustrating to read a good review of a lens online and find that yours isn’t nearly as impressive.Some lenses have smaller sample variation than others. This is something we try to include in our lens reviews by testing multiple copies of the same lens, but there is also plenty of luck involved. If one in ten copies of a lens is bad, most reviewers will never notice, but a high percentage of users will.There’s no great way around sample variation, aside from testing your lenses. If you find that one or two corners are significantly less sharp than the others, that’s the best indication of a bad copy of your lens. See our articles on what to do when you get a new lens and on lens decentering.6.7. Other Image Quality Concerns. Along with the list above, there are plenty of more specialized image quality concerns when you get a new lens: focus shift, field curvature, starburst performance, astigmatism, and so on.However, the more you concern yourself with incidental image quality differences between lenses, the farther you move from real, practical concerns. It is not that these features are unimportant, but that they are only worth worrying about if a lens is far outside the norm on any of them.A high-quality starburst effect at a small aperture of f/167. Third Party vs Name Brand Lenses. Alongside lenses made by camera manufacturers like Nikon, Canon, Sony, and so on, countless third-party companies make lenses, too. Are these ever worthwhile choices?On one hand, if a third-party company makes a lens that your camera company does not, it obviously is worth considering. For example, Sigma makes an 18-35mm f/1.8 zoom lens – note the wide maximum aperture of f/1.8 – for APS-C cameras. It has no equivalent from the camera manufacturers.But many third-party lenses are similar or identical in focal length and maximum aperture to lenses from camera companies. In that case, the third party lens is usually (though not always) less expensive. Is it worth saving that money, or are you paying for third-party lenses another way – through their lack of quality?In this case, it very strongly depends on the lenses in question. In general, third party lenses have a bit more potential for autofocus issues than name-brand lenses. They also do not always have immediate compatibility with new cameras, or camera firmware updates (although their manufacturers usually release compatibility as soon as possible).To me, these issues are relatively minor. I generally ignore them and compare the lenses on other features instead.For example, how good are reviews for each lens? Does either choice – name brand or third party – have poor sharpness, flare, distortion, or other issues?Although a lot of third-party lenses several years ago had the reputation of low manufacturing standards and bad image quality, that has largely changed today. My favorite wide angle zoom is a Tamron lens (the 15-30mm f/2.8), and my sharpest lens is a Sigma (the 50mm f/1.4 A).You still need to do your research. There are some bad third-party lenses floating around, just like there are some bad name-brand lenses. Most – but not all – will be the companies’ older offerings.But I’ll go ahead and say that the average, new third-party lens is no better or worse than its equivalent name-brand lens. Some are better, some are worse. You don’t have anything to fear by going this route, if it suites your budget and your photographic needs.8. Conclusion. Hopefully this article gave you a good understanding of lenses – how they work and what to look for when you buy one. There’s a lot of information to digest, but lenses are worth learning. In many cases, they really are the most important piece of camera equipment you can buy.If you have any questions or comments, feel free to let me know below and I will try to get back to you!About Spencer Cox. I'm Spencer Cox, a macro and landscape photographer based in Denver. My photos have been displayed in galleries worldwide, including the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History and exhibitions in London, Malta, Siena, and Beijing. These days I'm active on Instagram and YouTube.Footer. Site Menu. About Us Beginner Photography Lens Database Lens Index Photo Spots Search ForumReviews. Reviews Archive Camera Reviews Lens Reviews Other Gear ReviewsMore. Contact Us Subscribe Workshops Support Us Submit ContentInsert
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                                            [title] => LENS BASICS - A Beginners Guide to Camera Lenses ...
                                            [url] => https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=woYIB69_egI
                                            [thumbnail] => data:image/jpeg;base64,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
                                            [parsed] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [source] => YouTube
                                                    [date] => 22 Aug 2021
                                                    [channel] => Photo Genius
                                                )

                                        )

                                    [1] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [title] => Camera Lenses Explained For Beginners (What Do The ...
                                            [url] => https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hvXWSSNsn-g
                                            [thumbnail] => data:image/jpeg;base64,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
                                            [parsed] => stdClass Object
                                                (
                                                    [source] => YouTube
                                                    [date] => 4 Aug 2021
                                                    [channel] => Think Media
                                                )

                                        )

                                    [2] => stdClass Object
                                        (
                                            [title] => ULTIMATE Beginner's Guide To CAMERA LENSES!
                                            [url] => https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c74B2OHIJKc
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                            [description] => The focal length range of a lens is expressed by a number, and that number tells you how much of the scene your camera will be able to capture.
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                            [title] => Camera Lens Guide (Parts, Functions and Types Explained!)
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                            [description] => If the camera is the 'brain', the camera lens is the 'eye', letting us view and capture our environment. Read our complete guide to camera lenses here!
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                            [serp_description] => The numbers you will find on a lens are all very important. The first number is usually the lens' focal length. This number is represented in millimetres. If ...
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                                    [0] => Is a Camera Lens More Important than the Body?
                                    [1] => The Anatomy of a Camera Lens
                                    [2] => What Is Focal Length?
                                    [3] => How Do Crop Sensors Affect Camera Lenses?
                                    [4] => Difference Between Zoom and Prime Lenses
                                    [5] => Lens Aperture
                                    [6] => Camera Lens Markings
                                    [7] => What Is Lens Focusing?
                                    [8] => What Are Lens Mounts?
                                    [9] => What is Image Stabilisation?
                                    [10] => What Filters Are Good for?
                                    [11] => Lens Hoods
                                    [12] => Teleconverters
                                    [13] => How Can You Focus on Close Subjects?
                                    [14] => What You Need to Know about Aberrations & Distortions
                                    [15] => What Can Affect Sharpness?
                                    [16] => Special Lenses
                                    [17] => Conclusion
                                    [18] => Related Articles
                                    [19] => How to Never Take a Blurry Photo Again (With These 7 Simple Steps)
                                    [20] => How to Never Take a Blurry Photo Again (With These 7 Simple Steps)
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                                    [2] => How Do Apertures Affect Lenses?
                                    [3] => What is Variable Aperture?
                                    [4] => What Other Markings Can You Find on Your Lens?
                                    [5] => How Does Autofocus Work?
                                    [6] => How Does Manual Focus Work?
                                    [7] => How to Use Autofocus with Manual?
                                    [8] => What are Internal and External Focusing?
                                    [9] => What Are Distance Indicators?
                                    [10] => What Are Depth of Field Indicators?
                                    [11] => Filter Threads
                                    [12] => Drop-in Filters
                                    [13] => Rear Filters
                                    [14] => How to Use Macro Filters
                                    [15] => How to Use Extension Tubes
                                    [16] => How to Reverse Your Lens
                                    [17] => Aberrations
                                    [18] => Distortions
                                    [19] => Centre Vs. Edges
                                    [20] => Zoom Range
                                    [21] => Aperture Range
                                    [22] => What is a Tilt-Shift Lens?
                                    [23] => What is a Fisheye Lens?
                                    [24] => What to Know About Macro Lenses
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                            [body] => Beginners Guide to Camera Lenses: Parts, Functions and Types By ExpertPhotography A- A+ Download as PDF Subscribe Below to Download the Article Immediately. You can also select your interests for free access to our premium training: Without a lens, your camera body would not be able to capture images. Choosing the right lens is important because it helps you to reach the maximum capacity of your camera. Without a good camera lens, you will see a loss in image resolution and quality. Read our camera lens guide to find out all the information you could know about lenses. Is a Camera Lens More Important than the Body? Camera lenses, like it or not, are the most important part of your kit. A camera lens denotes the aperture range you can use, the possible depth of field, and the focusing distance. Camera bodies allow other settings such as ISO and shutter speed. They influence the quality of the image through resolution. But they are not as important as lenses. Usually, your lens is not able to resolve as much information as your camera can provide. The quality of the lens determines how much detail it can manage. You can have a 40-megapixel camera and still not be able to take advantage of it. Generally, it’s better to buy an expensive lens for a not-so-expensive body. This way, you can maximise the image resolution. The Anatomy of a Camera Lens. Lens elements are shaped glass pieces that bend light in specific ways. Each element has a different function, and they work together in harmony. Some of these pieces are fixed to the barrel of the lens, and others are movable. These allow you to zoom, focus, or assist in image stabilisation. What Is Focal Length? When light travels through your camera, the image is flipped upside down. This is the same way our eyes see the world. In our case, our brain rotates the image. Inside the camera is a pentaprism that flips the image the right way up. As you can see, there is an intersection inside the lens. This intersection is the convergence between the lines of light that we get from our subject. In optics, this crossing point is called the ‘point of convergence’. The distance between this point of convergence and your image sensor or film is the focal length. Why Is Focal Length Important? The focal length of a lens determines its field of view. This is what makes a lens wide, standard, or telephoto. Consider the placement of the point of convergence. The closer it is to the imaging sensor, the smaller the object appears. Imagine the point of convergence was much farther away from the imaging sensor. This would make the subject seem much larger. As you can see, a short focal length creates a wide field of view. Lenses with a shorter focal length are known as ‘wide angle‘ lenses. The opposite is also true. A long focal length creates a narrow field of view. These lenses are known as telephoto lenses. How Do Crop Sensors Affect Camera Lenses? The film plane in 35mm film cameras came in one size. This 24x36mm hole allowed the film to be exposed correctly. Nowadays, with digital cameras, these sensor sizes have quite a range. Here, we will be talking about how the size of the camera’s sensor affects the cropping of your scene. What is the Crop Factor. You may hear the terms full-frame, 35 equivalent, APS-C, or cropped sensor thrown around. The big difference is what you are actually capturing from your scene. A full-frame or 35mm equivalent is the same thing. If a camera is listed as a full-frame, it has the same size sensor as 35mm analog cameras: 36x24mm. APS-C,  Micro Four Thirds, and 1” sensors are all cropped when compared to a full-frame sensor APS-C (except Canon) has a size of 25.1×16.7mm. To get to 36x24mm, you need to multiply the number by 1.5. This gives APS-C a crop factor of 1.5x. APS-C (Canon) has a size of 22.5×15mm. To get to 36x24mm, you need to multiply the number by 1.6. This gives APS-C a crop factor of 1.6x. Micro Four Thirds (MFT) has a sensor size of 18×13.5mm. To get to 36x24mm, you need to multiply the number by 2. This gives Four-Thirds systems a crop factor of 2x. The way a crop sensor works is that it magnifies the focal length of the lens. A 35mm lens becomes 50mm with a Nikon 1.5x crop factor. Difference Between Zoom and Prime Lenses. Whether wide-angle, standard, or telephoto—every lens falls into one of two categories; zoom or prime. Zoom lenses allow the point of convergence to move closer or further away from the sensor. A lens with a fixed focal length is a prime lens. The complexity of zoom lenses results in quality loss. Also, they do not allow you to open your aperture as wide as prime lenses. You must spend more on a zoom lens with the same image quality and brightness as a prime lens. Lens Aperture. Aperture is another reason why photographers choose one lens over others. The word aperture means opening, hole or gap, and describes the size of the aperture ring of a lens. This is where the light passes through, making its way to the camera sensor. Aperture works like the pupil in our eyes. They both control the amount of light getting into the camera or the eye. Aperture numbers are a fraction of the aperture diameter and the focal length of a lens. We see f-stops written as f/2 or f/11. If you are capturing a scene with a 100mm focal length lens at f/2, the diameter of your lens is 50mm across. The f-number gets bigger, but the aperture gets smaller. An f/2 value is bigger than f/4, which is two stops brighter than an f/8. How Do Apertures Affect Lenses? When it comes to choosing a lens, the most important factor is the maximum aperture. This number is written on the lens and included in its specifications. The biggest-size aperture is an expression of how ‘bright’ the lens is. Brighter is better. Often, a lower f-number means a better image quality. For instance, you can expect an f/1.2 lens to outperform an f/1.8 lens in terms of resolving power. What is Variable Aperture? Variable apertures are different maximum apertures (smallest f/stop) that your lens will use. It depends on the amount of zoom you use. Aperture can cause some obstacles when it comes to zoom lenses. Let’s use a 70-300mm f/4-5.6 lens as an example. At 70mm, you can use the f/4 aperture. 70 divided by 4 is 17.5mm. By zooming all the way in, we go from a 70mm to 300mm focal length. The images you capture are magnified by 4.3%. At 300mm, your maximum aperture is f/5.6, where the diameter is 5.4mm. But why cannot the lens be f/4 throughout the zoom range? At 300mm, an f/4 aperture would be 75mm. This is too big to fit into the slim body of the lens. Many photographers see these lenses as inferior and avoid them. These lenses offer more variability, but they have their disadvantages too. Generally, you sacrifice image quality. Non-variable aperture lenses offer some significant advantages. They have a better image and build quality than their counterparts. Camera Lens Markings. The numbers you will find on a lens are all very important. The first number is usually the lens’ focal length. This number is represented in millimetres. If you see one number rather than a range, it means its a prime lens. It could say 24mm, 50mm, 85mm, or something similar. A focal length range will have two numbers separated by a dash. 24-70mm is a good example. The second number you will find on a lens is usually the lens’s maximum aperture. If you have one number, it means your zoom lens has a fixed maximum aperture. Prime lenses do not have a variable maximum aperture. If you have two numbers separated by a dash, it means your zoom lens has a variable maximum aperture. It will look something like this ‘f/4-5.6’. What Other Markings Can You Find on Your Lens? ∞ – 0.5 m – Sometimes, you may find an infinity symbol, then a dash, and then a distance indicator. This is the focusing range of the lens. This indicates the closest focusing distance of the lens. IS (Canon) / VR (Nikon) / OSS (Sony) – These stand for Image Stabilisation, Vibration Reduction, and Optical SteadyShot. This means that your lens has a built-in floating lens element, along with motors and electronics. These lenses sense and counteract any movement or shake. Ø – The ø symbol on a lens is usually followed by a number. This is the diameter of the front of the lens. It also marks the filter size you can use on the lens. It’s necessary to know this number when purchasing screw-in filters. Asph / ASP – This stands for Aspherical. It shows that the lens has non-circular lenses inside. These lens elements can be used to reduce spherical aberrations. Macro / CRC (Close Range Correction) – This marking means the lens is specifically designed to be sharp at close range. USM/HSM/SWM – Ultrasonic Motor, High-Speed Motor, and Silent Wave Motor are ultrasonic vibration motors that allow you to autofocus faster. The ones used in higher-end products are much quieter than those in cheaper lenses. DX (Nikon) / EF-S (Canon) / E (Sony) – These lenses were explicitly created for camera bodies that are smaller than full-frame. APS-C size sensors have a crop factor. These lenses give you a focal length, taking the smaller sensor into account. These are smaller and lighter than their siblings but cannot be used on full-frame cameras. Other – Lens manufacturers use a slew of markings on their lenses. Canon likes to mark their professional lenses with a red ‘L’, and Sigma uses EX for their professional and exclusive lenses. What Is Lens Focusing? Lenses have a point where the light rays going through them converge. It is called the focal point. Focusing happens within the lens. This happens by moving one or more lens elements closer to or farther away from your camera’s imaging sensor. The lens ‘bends’ the light and forces it to converge at different distances from the sensor. The ideal convergence needs to fall exactly on your sensor. When you achieve that, you have a perfectly focused image or subject. How Does Autofocus Work? Autofocusing is just one way to gain a sharp focus. With this mode, the camera signals the lens, forcing it to change its focal placement. How much of your scene is in focus falls on three different things—aperture setting, the distance between you and the elements in the scene, and their spatial relationship. Many modern cameras have tons of focus points spread over your viewfinder. They can be moved or even work in groups to select a more progressive focus blanket. Nowadays, you can choose between in-camera focus modes, which affect the alignment of the focus points and the speed of focusing. How Does Manual Focus Work? Apart from leaving the focusing to the camera, there is the manual focus option. Refocusing is a waste of time when capturing a subject on the same focal plane and not moving closer or farther away. Your camera might also have trouble autofocusing in other situations, like very low contrast or low light scenes. Shooting through glass is an excellent example of autofocus issues. In these times you are going to need to set the focus manually. Older cameras had a focusing screen that helped the manual focus. Modern cameras place a red halo around objects when they are in focus. This is called focus peaking. In mirrorless systems, you can do it in the electronic viewfinder too. DSLRs let you focus in live view mode, which means you can zoom into the picture on the LCD screen. How to Use Autofocus with Manual? Many lenses have a special feature, allowing you to autofocus the camera, then modify the result manually. Some lenses will not let you manually adjust the focus when in autofocus mode. Read the user manual to see if your lens is capable of that. You can break the focus ring if you force it. What are Internal and External Focusing? There are two different types of focusing—internal and external. You will know if you have external focusing since the lens’s front element will extend when you focus. This is handy to know for filters, especially polarising filters. If your lens turns when focusing, you will need to focus before setting your filters to their desired effect. What Are Distance Indicators? Lenses, especially analogues, have built-in distance indicators. These are to focus, especially when you need to focus to infinity. They are not exactly precise. But they are a good guide for knowing which way to turn the lens to focus at a particular distance. What Are Depth of Field Indicators? The lenses that have distance indicators usually have depth of field indicators too. These are marked as ’22’, ’11’ and ‘8’. These numbers may differ depending on the lens, its design, and its properties. What these markings designate is how much of your scene will be in focus at a particular aperture. These are always in relation to the distance indicators and the aperture ring. So always check these together. What Are Lens Mounts? Your lens connects to your camera body via lens mounts. There are three main types of mounts—screw (in analogue cameras), in medium format analogues they use a lock ring, and the third is bayonet fitting. The first two is very rarely used these days, yet you may encounter them on vintage lenses. The benefits of bayonet fittings allow lenses to be changed faster. They secure on the camera body in a much safer way. Bayonet fittings also allow electronic connections between the camera and the lens. This is what allows autofocusing and electronic control of the aperture. Each camera manufacturer has their own lens mounts. This is except for the Four-Thirds mount, which is backed and used by several manufacturers. It is also possible to buy adapters so that lenses from one manufacturer can be used on other manufacturer’s camera bodies. What is Image Stabilisation? Many modern camera lenses have built-in image stabilisation. This feature allows you to capture scenes handheld that was previously challenging. This technology utilizes the latest gyroscopic sensors and motors to stabilise any movement in the lens elements. Telephoto lenses are the ones that feature image stabilisation. This is because longer focal lengths suffer worse from camera shake than from shaky hands. Your images might be blurred. The rule is to shoot at a shutter speed no lower than your focal length. A 50mm lens has a limit of 1/60th of a second, and a 300mm lens has a 1/250-1/300 range. IS allows you to bring this setting down to something more friendly. Some cameras have built-in image stabilisation. This turns every one of your lenses into a stabilised eye. Not all vibrations are reduced by image stabilisation. There is a limit to how far this floating lens element can move. On top of this, camera movements that you would like to keep might be removed. For example, panning shots would not work so well. Image stabilisation is quite power-hungry. Your batteries might not last as long as they would normally. Turn it off when not using it. What Filters Are Good for? Most lenses have a filter thread in the front bezel. The filters cover a range of different options, including adding tints or darkening a scene. Filter Threads. Every threaded filter has a different size, so it is crucial to choose the right one. On the filter, you will see the threading size that will look something like Ø=68mm. The significant benefit here is you can use these filters as lens protection. Many photographers add a skylight or UV filter at the front. This stops any scratches, paint, dirt, or bumps affecting the front lens element. Circular polarising lens (CPL) and Neutral Density (ND) filters are the other two most commonly used filters. Drop-in Filters. Drop-in filters or square filters fit into a holder—the holder screws into the lens bezel. The benefit here is that each filter you use does not have to be screwed into the lens. This is a cheaper option but less versatile than filter threads. Rear Filters. Some lenses do not accept filters at the front of the lens. This is especially true for specialty lenses, such as extreme wide-angle/fisheye lenses. The front of these lenses is rounded, which leaves no space for a traditional front filter. Some of these lenses have a slot at the rear of the lens where a filter can be added. Lens Hoods. When direct sunlight hits your lens, it creates ‘flares‘ or ‘hot spots’. The sun could be hitting at an angle because you photograph the sun straight on. The lens hood stops the direct ambient light from ruining your images. Something like this is tough to control when using a wide-angle lens with an 84° field of view. Some ultra-wide lenses have the lens hood already built-in. Teleconverters. Teleconverters modify the behaviour of the lens you are using. These secondary lenses sit between a camera body and a lens. They have an optical element within them, which refocuses the light. By refocusing the light, they effectively extend the range of your focal length. The most common teleconverters are 1.4x and 2x. A 1.4x teleconverter on your 70-200mm lens would give you an effective focal length of 98-280mm. The downside is you lose some light as the aperture minimum also increases at the same ratio. The f/2.8 becomes f/4 and f/5.6, respectively. This results in quality loss too. How Can You Focus on Close Subjects? Every lens has a minimum focus distance. This means that you can only place your lens at a certain distance to your subject before you can no longer focus. Using macro lenses are just one way you can get closer to your subject. There are three other ways you can capture small objects at a ratio of 1:1 and closer. How to Use Macro Filters. A close-up lens (also known as a close-up filter or macro-filter) is a way you can get close to your subjects. This secondary lens enables you to capture macro shots without the need for a special lens. Close-up lenses work the same way as reading glasses. They allow the lens to focus more closely than it would normally. These are easy to use. Just screw on the thread at the front of the lens, and away you go. The benefit here is that you can stack them and use multiple filters together. A +1, +2, and +4 will give you +7 steps of closeness. How to Use Extension Tubes. Macro extension tubes are lens spacers. They do not have optical elements inside them like the teleconverters do, which is a cheap option. They usually come in three different sizes, 7mm, 14mm, and 28mm. You can stack them together. 7mm + 14mm + 28mm = 49mm extension spacer. Extension tubes work by reducing the focusing range of the lens you are using. You can bring your subjects much closer to your camera. However, you lose the possibility of focusing to infinity. How to Reverse Your Lens. The other cost-effective option is to reverse a lens you already own. This might be strange, but it works well. Take the lens off and turn it around, so the front lens element is facing the inside of your camera. Now, you will be able to focus on items very closely. There are lens reversing rings, allowing you to connect your camera mount to your reversed lens. What You Need to Know about Aberrations & Distortions. Aberrations. When light travels through a lens, it hits and bends when encountering the glass inside. Not all light bends the same way. Some colours are affected more than others. They could be down to minor imperfections, diffractions, or refractions of the light. Aberrations fit into two concepts. Those that work with colour (chromatic aberrations) and with single points of light (monochromatic aberrations). Also, vignetting means that the brightness and saturation of an image decrease towards the edges of the image. Distortions. Every lens has a varying degree of distortion. Generally, you will find smaller amounts when using prime lenses. This is down to fewer elements needed for the lens to work. Constantly improving technology helps to keep distortions to a minimum. Tilt-shift lenses are also great solutions to these problems. There are two main types of distortions. Barrel distortion makes the centre of the image appear closer than the edges. Pincushion distortion makes the centre appear much further away than the edges do. Wide-angle lenses are plagues with distortion. Their wide field of view needs to fit on a small, rectangle surface. You will notice the centre seems unaffected. But, expect straight lines to curve as you extend to the edges of the frame. And if you have a mixture of the two aforementioned, you will end up with moustache distortion. What Can Affect Sharpness? Sharpness is crucial when you want to have quality photographs. This is why it’s important to know what and how can affect it. Centre Vs. Edges. The sharpness of your images comes down to how good your lens is. Also, for optimal sharpness, you need to use your lens correctly. Lenses tend to be sharper in the centre. The edges and corners are furthest away from the sensor and can suffer some loss. The greater edge sharpness often appears in more expensive lenses. Zoom Range. One of the biggest problems with variable focal length or zoom lenses is their sharpness range. A zoom lens has to compromise between many features, so versatility pushes the sharpness from the top spot. It is not always clear where the optimal sharpness lies. Some lenses are sharpest at the extremes of their range. Other lenses can be sharper around the centre of the range. There are a few lenses whose sharpest areas come and go throughout the focal length range. To find out if your lens does this or not, you need to get used to reading MTF curves. Aperture Range. The other big thing you need to understand is that a lens curve of sharpness changes with its aperture range. Shooting wide open, your area of focus is smaller. Go down a few stops, and you will notice a huge difference. After the peak, your lens becomes less and less sharp, but it’s a gradual change. We have to mention lens diffraction here as well. A smaller aperture can cause it, resulting in loss of sharpness when light waves meet a barrier on their way, their behaviour changes. This happens when they hit a small hole. The aperture breaks their way. Special Lenses. Apart from zooms or prime lenses, even stepping out of the wide-angle, standard, or telephoto lens realm, there are other lenses we need to talk about. These specialty lenses have been created for specific reasons. What is a Tilt-Shift Lens? A tilt-shift lens is a lens created to mimic the possibilities a large format camera gave us. Perspective distortion is created because a large building is at increasingly different distances away from your camera. The top is farther away from you than the bottom is. A parallax error is created. These lenses let you change the focal plane to match the relative distance of the building from the camera. This change from a perpendicular focal plane to a parallel one fixes the problem. What is a Fisheye Lens? Fisheye lenses are ultra-wide-angle lenses. They fall into the focal length category of anything below and including 14mm. These lenses create a very unusual perspective in photography, usually resulting in a circular image. When we use lenses that cause barrel distortion, we correct them to create a more realistic image. We embrace the distortion and use them to create something creative. You can use them, for example, for sports, parties, or real estate photography. What to Know About Macro Lenses. Macro lenses are specific glassware that allows you to capture small subjects and blow them up to bigger-than-life size. Macro lenses are telephoto lenses that have a close near point. The near point is the closest point to the lens where the subject is in focus. This is why they can focus from 1cm to infinity. These lenses have their price, but luckily you cannot only use them for shooting macro images. They function as standard lenses. Conclusion. Camera lenses are essential parts of your gear. They might be some of the most expensive too. It’s worth knowing what kind of lenses you need and what features to pay attention to. Sometimes you can use filters or converters to save money and make your lens more versatile. Learning a few tricks from our camera lens guide will pay off. Get off Auto-Mode and take Stunning photos for life with our Photography Unlocked course! Share with friends Share Share Share Show Comments (2) Hide Comments Related Articles. What is the Camera Viewfinder? (And How Does it Work?). A viewfinder is a simple camera tool we often take for granted. In this article, we will help you understand your camera viewfinder better. We… When to Use a Fast Shutter Speed. Shutter speed dictates the character and atmosphere of an image. It plays an important role in freezing or blurring motion. A fast shutter speed will let you… Photzy Snap Cards Review & 87% Discount: 44 Photography Training Cards. We know it isn’t always easy to stay motivated with photography. And even if you are motivated, it can be difficult to find the information… See all articles in Photography Cheat Sheets How to Never Take a Blurry Photo Again (With These 7 Simple Steps) . Here are 3 of the 7 steps we uncover in this 21 minute video: 3 Focus Modes Easily the most common reason for poor focus and blurry images Focus Selection Points  Leaving your camera on its default settings will produce blurry results Shutter Speed Post processing won’t fix a blurry image from a slow shutter Where should we send the video? . Your privacy is safe! We will never share your information. How to Never Take a Blurry Photo Again (With These 7 Simple Steps) . Here are 3 of the 7 steps we uncover in this 21 minute video: 3 Focus Modes Easily the most common reason for poor focus and blurry images Focus Selection Points  Leaving your camera on its default settings will produce blurry results Shutter Speed Post processing won’t fix a blurry image from a slow shutter Where should we send the video? . Your privacy is safe! We will never share your information.
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                            [description] => Without our eyes we can't see and cameras are the same without their lenses. This article will look at the different types of lenses there are and tell you how they can be used
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                            [body] => How To Choose A Lens: Camera Lenses Explained For Beginners Features / How To Choose A Lens: Camera Lenses Explained For Beginners Without our eyes we can't see and cameras are the same without their lenses. This article will look at the different types of lenses there are and tell you how they can be used.  2 Jul 2021 10:00AM by ePHOTOzine |  Lenses and Optical Items Like0  Add Comment ADVERTISEMENT   Lenses are the eyes of a camera used to project an image of the subject onto the recording material (sensor in digital cameras and film in older cameras). Lenses are either built into the camera (fixed) or they can be removed (interchangeable). They'll also either have a fixed focal length (prime) or will have the ability to zoom.  Lenses with fixed focal lengths can be smaller, lighter and sometimes cheaper than zooms, but if you plan on buying several fixed focal length lenses, this can often become rather more expensive than purchasing a couple of zoom lenses. Also, fixed focal length lenses generally work better in low light conditions (photographing indoor sporting events or at a football match in winter) and are also more useful when you want to blur the background of an image and leave your subject in focus. For more detailed information on the differences between primes and zooms, we actually have an article that covers the pros and cons of both types of lenses that's well worth taking a look at.  As well as prime and zoom lenses, there are also a wide variety of lens types that are tailored towards specific shooting needs. Below you'll find the different lens types that are available along with descriptions which explains what they're mostly used for.    Standard Lens. A standard lens will let you create an image similar in perspective and scale to what the human eye sees. A standard lens doesn't change the size of an object or add distortion to the subject in an image. Standard lenses for 35mm film cameras were 50mm while standard lenses for digital cameras with a smaller APS sensor have a 35mm focal length. Medium format cameras have standard lenses that are between 75mm and 105mm. Best Standard Prime Lenses   Best 50mm Prime Lenses   Short Telephoto Lens. Short telephoto lenses also see an image in a way similar to what the human eye sees and they're great for portraits. If you're shooting close-ups of people's faces, the lens won't make them appear distorted and will produce a more flattering image. A short telephoto lens will also let you take photographs further back, keeping a comfortable distance between you and your subject.  . Long/Telephoto Lens.   These lenses are good at magnifying distant objects. They make objects appear larger/closer to you than they really are. It means you can take an image of a bonfire, for example, that appears to be just in front of you when really it's far enough away to not get your fingers burnt. These longer lenses can be rather large and if you plan on using them without a tripod, you won't need that gym membership for much longer! Mirror lenses fall under this category and can offer even longer focal lengths (bring the subject even closer). Widely used for astronomic purposes, mirror lenses are made up of mirrors rather than the glass usually found in lenses. Light bounces off the mirrors and is 'folded' which is why these lenses can produce a longer focal length but still remain small. However, these lenses do have a few problems and can produce poor quality images.   Best Telephoto Zoom Lenses   Best Telephoto Prime Lenses   Ultra/Wide Angle.   Ultra/wide-angle lenses are good for capturing a large scene. It can exaggerate depth in an image and they often cause you to move closer to your subjects which means you give emphasis to the front while still capturing the background. For example, if you're photographing something such as a field full of flowers, by getting as close to the flower nearest to you as possible will exaggerate the size but you'll also be able to see the rest of the field. Wide-angle lenses are also good for architectural photography as the wider the view you have available for this sort of work, the less distortion there will be. You can also use this lens for portraits to add an interesting, unique angle to your work but be careful, as it can make parts look extremely large and distorted. Best Wide-Angle Landscape Lenses   Fisheye.   A fisheye lens makes everything you take look like it's in a Goldfish bowl. A fisheye lens creates an extremely wide-angled image that appears convex/circular. It's a useful tool for getting in close to something and still retaining the detail of the surroundings. It's also great for creating unique looking images.   Macro Lens.   Macro lenses are all about close-up photography. You can get in close to photograph details of larger objects and you can also capture sharp, life-size images of small subjects such as flowers and insects. They're also useful for product photography and for capturing other small objects. Macro lenses have a limited depth of field (how much of the image is sharp and in focus) so it is important you frame and focus on the most important part of your image. Best Lenses For Macro Photography   Which Type Of Lens Should I Choose? While any lens can be used to record any subject, some are better at certain jobs than others. This table rates each type of lens out of three stars to indicate how useful they are for various photographic scenarios (3 stars = most suited).      50mm Standard lens Short telephoto lens Long/Telephoto lens Ultra /Wide Angle Macro lens Portraits Landscapes Architecture Product photography/ close-up work. Wildlife Sports/action   For more help on choosing a lens that's right for you, have a look at our 'Review' or 'Best Gear' sections of the site.  Support this site by making a Donation, purchasing Plus Membership, or shopping with one of our affiliates: Amazon UK, Amazon US, Amazon CA, ebay UK It doesn't cost you anything extra when you use these links, but it does support the site, helping keep ePHOTOzine free to use, thank you. ADVERTISEMENT Other articles you might find interesting... Nikon Is Developing The NIKKOR Z 800mm f/6.3 VR S, A Super--... Nikon Adds A New Full-Frame Standard Zoom Lens To The Nikon... Tamron 11-20mm F/2.8 Di III-A RXD Lens Announced For Sony AP... Fujifilm Fujinon XF 10-24mm f/4 R OIS WR Announced, Updating... Meike 85mm F/1.8 Full Frame AF Lens Announced New Nikon Z Teleconverters Extend Reach Of Nikon Z Lenses Tokina Announce Sales Start Date For atx-i 11-16mm f/2.8 CF Wide Lens Tamron Lenses Awarded With Two Prestigious 2019 EISA Awards Comments. Sign In. You must be a member to leave a comment. ePHOTOzine, the web's friendliest photography community. Join For Free Upload photos, chat with photographers, win prizes and much more. Reach 1.6 million Photographers; Advertise on EPZ ADVERTISEMENT ADVERTISEMENT Things to do... Get the latest photography news straight to your inbox by signing up to our newsletter. Newsletter Signup Visit our Competitions Forum, where you'll find our monthly competition and other external competitions to enter. Photography Competitions Top Reviews. Nikkor Z DX 16-50mm F/3.5-6.3 VR Lens Review . 16 Sep 2021 Nikkor Z 28mm F/2.8 SE Lens Review . 21 Sep 2021 Panasonic S 85mm F/1.8 Lens Review . 22 Sep 2021 ADVERTISEMENT Directory Pages. Search for all the latest photography gear and services in our dedicated photography directories. Home News Reviews Cameras Lenses Phones Photos Forums Competitions Community The Team Vacancies Support Us Advertise Contact Support Contact Us Terms Of Use FAQs Site Map RSS Calibrate your monitor so you can see 16 different shades : ©2022 ePHOTOzine. Magezine Publishing | Top × Login. Can't access your account?New to ePHOTOzine? Join Today! ×
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                            [body] => What you need to know before buying your first lens Published Jun 27, 2021 | dpreview staff Share Tweet Updated June 2021 A camera is nothing without a lens, and while the bundled 'kit' lenses sold with many interchangeable lens cameras (ILCs) are good enough to get started, they're quite limiting. If you want to explore the full potential of your camera – and your own creativity – you should consider adding another lens or two to your collection. But with a bewildering variety of lenses out there, how do you know which ones are right for you? In this guide we'll lead you step-by-step through the process of understanding the different kinds of lenses available, and choosing the right one for your needs. Lenses and sensors. Lenses themselves know nothing of the sensor mounted behind them, but different sized sensors change the visual impact of the lens (specifically the focal length and aperture) on the final image. Among interchangeable lens cameras today there are three commonly-used sensor sizes: Four Thirds, APS-C and full-frame. The examples given in the rest of this article are lenses designed for full-frame bodies but we'll also discuss what impact sensor size will have. How are lenses named? Looking at the lens pages on manufacturers' websites can be a little intimidating for a budding photographer. Lens names often include long lists of letters and numbers, which certainly sound impressive but can also be thoroughly confusing. Luckily you can safely ignore most of them to start off with, and concentrate mainly on just a few factors: Focal length - this defines how wide or zoomed-in a view the lens provides Aperture - expressed as 'F' or 'f/' this describes how much light the lens can gather and its ability to blur the image background Image Stabilization - some lenses include optical stabilization units to counteract the blurring effects of hand shake Format - describes the sensor size the lens is designed to work with Lens mount - determines whether the lens will physically fit your camera We'll look into each of these in more detail below. Focal length. The first number used to describe a lens is its focal length; in combination with the camera's sensor size, this defines the angle of view covered by the lens, with smaller 'mm' numbers indicating a wider angle or more 'zoomed out' view. Zoom lenses are named using two numbers which indicate the extremes of the range, for example 24-70mm for a typical kit zoom lens. Fixed focal length lenses which don't zoom (also known as 'prime' lenses) just have a single number (e.g. 50mm). Here, we can see this lens' key specifications expressed in terms of its focal length span ('zoom range') which is 18-35mm, and its minimum aperture range, which is F3.5 at 18mm, and F4.5 at 35mm. The image below shows how the angle of view varies with focal length. In this instance it shows the effect of these lenses mounted on a full-frame camera. The same focal length lenses, mounted on a smaller, APS-C sensor would give a narrower, more cropped-in angle of view, and an even narrower coverage if mounted on a Micro Four Thirds format camera. The effect is as is as though you've 'zoomed' the lens, but instead you've only magnified a smaller portion of its projected image. As a result, the focal lengths that are useful on one sensor format will differ from those that you'd use for the same purpose on another sensor. Illustration showing the coverage given by a series of popular focal lengths. These are shown for a full-frame sensor; each would cover a smaller area if used with an APS-C or Four Thirds sensor. Lens type 35mm 'full-frame' APS-C Four Thirds Ultra wide angle 24mm and wider 16mm and wider 12mm and wider Wide angle 28mm 18mm 14mm Standard (Normal) 50mm 30mm 25mm Telephoto 80mm and longer 55mm and longer 42mm and longer For the sake of convenient comparison, lenses are often referred to by their '35mm equivalent' focal length; for example a 18-55mm kit lens for APS-C may be described as a 28-90mm equivalent. This means simply that an 18-55mm lens on an APS-C format camera covers the same angle of view as a 28-90mm lens does on a full-frame camera. Aperture. The aperture specification of a lens describes how much light it is capable of gathering. Aperture simply means 'hole'; in this context, the hole that lets light pass through the lens and onto your camera's sensor. Lens apertures can be expressed in several different ways, with F4, f/4, 1:4 all meaning the same thing. Confusingly, a smaller number means the lens has a larger maximum aperture – a bigger hole – and therefore can gather more light; an F2.8 lens collects twice as much light as an F4, for example. 'Whole stop' Aperture values F1.4 F2.0 F2.8 F4.0 F5.6 F8.0 F11 F16 This table lists the common aperture values that are one 'stop' apart: each value lets in twice as much light as the one to its right. A lens with a larger maximum aperture allows you to shoot in lower light, and (for example) take pictures indoors without using flash. Wide apertures also give decreased depth of field (i.e. how much of the picture in front of and behind the focus point appears sharp), which is an important aspect of creative photography. Longer lenses give less depth of field for the same aperture, when focused at the same distance. And, because you need a shorter focal length to get the same image framing on an APS-C or Micro Four Thirds camera, you'd need a larger aperture if you want to achieve the shallow depth of field you'd get on a full-frame camera. A large aperture such as F1.4 gives a shallow depth of field, blurring backgrounds and foregrounds to isolate a subject in a picture. The 24mm F1.4 used to take this picture also allows you to shoot indoors in low light without having to resort to flash. It's worth noting that lenses are usually described by their maximum aperture value. When you see an aperture range written on the side of a lens (e.g. F3.5-5.6), those are the maximum aperture values at the wide and long ends of its zoom range, respectively. You can usually reduce the size of the aperture if you need more of your image to be in focus. Image stabilization. Image stabilization increases the amount of sharp images you get by correcting vibration caused (usually) by natural hand-shake when shooting without a tripod. In-body stabilization (where the camera's sensor moves to counteract accidental movement) is increasingly common, but many lenses offer their own stabilization mechanisms to compensate for shake. In-lens stabilization is especially effective when using long telephoto lenses, where in-body stabilization is generally not as effective. Many cameras can use in-lens stabilization in conjunction with their in-body systems, to provide a greater degree of correction. Image stabilization systems reduce the blur caused by camera shake, allowing sharp pictures to be taken even in low light, at long focal lengths or at high magnifications. If you own a camera that doesn't have stabilization built into the body, you'll probably want to consider buying stabilized lenses, especially when it comes to telephotos. The various lens manufacturers all call lens-based optical image stabilization by different names, with corresponding initials in the lens names, so here's what you need to look out for when buying: Canon - Image Stabilization (IS) Fujifilm and Panasonic - Optical Image Stabilization (OIS) Nikon - Vibration Reduction (VR) Sony - Optical Steady Shot (OSS) Sigma - Optical Stabilization (OS) Tamron - Vibration Control (VC) Format coverage. Having said that sensor format has a significant impact on the way lenses behave, it's also worth considering that some lenses only work on certain sensor formats. In several instances, camera makers use the same mount for their APS-C and full-frame cameras. In most of these situations, full-frame lenses will work on the smaller APS-C models, but APS-C lenses end up restricting full-frame cameras to a cropped APS-C mode. Some photographers start with an APS-C camera and then buy full-frame compatible lenses for it, to lower the amount of money they have to spend if they later buy a full-frame camera that uses the same mount. In general, we'd advise buying lenses that suit your needs now, rather than ones that may better suit a camera you don't yet own. Lens mounts. Each camera maker uses its own proprietary lens mount, meaning that lenses can't be swapped across brands; a Canon lens won't fit on a Nikon body, for example, and you'll cause damage to both lens and camera if you try. The two exceptions are Micro Four Thirds, which was developed jointly by Panasonic and Olympus, and L-mount, a full-frame collaboration between Leica, Panasonic and Sigma. Most companies are now focusing their efforts on their Mirrorless camera mounts, so this is where the newest and most advanced lenses are emerging. Many DSLR-mount lenses can be adapted to work on the mirrorless cameras made by the same brand (older designs are less likely to offer a full range of functions) but lenses for mirrorless cameras cannot be used on DSLRs. Mount Mount type Sensor formats Notes Canon EF DSLR • Full-frame EF-S DSLR • APS-C Canon EF-S lenses cannot be mounted on full-frame DSLRs but other brands' EF-mount APS-C lenses can. EF-M Mirrorless • APS-C EF and EF-S lenses can be adapted to work on EF-M cameras RF Mirrorless • Full-frame Most EF-mount lenses work well on RF mount via an EF/RF adapter. Four Thirds • Olympus• Panasonic Micro Four Thirds Mirrorless • Four Thirds Fujifilm X Mirrorless • APS-C L-Mount Alliance• Leica • Panasonic• Sigma L Mirrorless • Full-frame• APS-C (TL) Only Leica has made TL-mount (APS-C) cameras and lenses. Nikon F DSLR • Full-frame• APS-C (DX) F-mount was modernized over many decades but only relatively modern 'AF-S' designs offer AF when adapted onto Z-mount cameras Z Mirrorless • Full-frame• APS-C (DX) Pentax K DSLR • Full-frame (FA)• APS-C (DA) As with Nikon, there are variants of the K mount, but most lenses work with the latest DSLRs Sony E Mirrorless • Full-frame (FE)• APS-C (E) Other lens makers use 'E' for both APS-C and full-frame lenses, so it's worth checking which format they cover A number of third party manufacturers, including Tamron, Tokina and Sigma make lenses for other makers' lens mounts, with the older DSLR mounts benefiting from the widest support. Sony allows some third-parties to make lenses for its mirrorless E-mount system but Nikon and Canon have, so far, been protective of their new Z and RF mounts, meaning there are fewer third-party options available. Zoom vs. Prime. Zoom lenses have become almost ubiquitous over the past few years, and at first sight buying a lens which is restricted to a single angle of view might seem pointless. But prime lenses still have some very real advantages; compared to zooms they tend to be smaller and lighter, have faster maximum apertures, and give sharper, cleaner images. These factors make them extremely useful for specific purposes, for example low light shooting or blurred-background portraiture where a large maximum aperture is advantageous. Almost counterintuitively, the restrictive nature of using a single focal length can encourage creativity by forcing you to visualize your composition before you shoot. Shooting with primes forces you to think more about what you want to include and exclude from your photo and also makes you consider where you’re standing, and the impact this has on perspective in your image. For instance, a long focal length, shot from a distance can compress your subject and the background, whereas a wide-angle lens placed near your subject will exaggerate the distance between it and the surroundings. Fixed focal length 'prime' lenses are often much smaller and lighter than zooms covering the same angle of view. This is Nikon's Z-mount 35mm F1.8 lens alongside its standard 24-70mm F2.8 zoom - the size advantage is obvious. Some popular lens types. Standard zoom. A standard zoom is a general-purpose lens that covers a range of focal lengths from wide-angle to moderate telephoto. The most obvious example is the kit lens that came with your camera (generally something like an 18-50mm for APS-C or a 24-70mm for full-frame). It offers versatility but can become limiting when you find yourself wanting to get more creative. The kit lens can be upgraded to an optic with more range or a faster F2.8 maximum aperture, with better optical performance, like the Canon RF 24-70mm shown F2.8 below. Most manufacturers offer general-purpose upgrades to their kit lenses with expanded zoom ranges suitable for a wide range of subjects, such as this Canon RF 24-70mm F2.8. Telephoto zoom. Often the second lens that photographers buy, a telephoto zoom effectively allows you to 'get closer' to your subject by enlarging it within the frame. It's therefore useful for photographing such things as sports, wildlife, distant nature scenes, or children running around playing. By narrowing your field of view, a long lens can have the effect of compressing your subject and background, often making it appear as though the background is magnified and closer to your subject. Telephoto zooms such as this Nikon Z 70-200mm F2.8 S allow you to zoom in on your subjects and compress them against the background. Superzoom. Superzooms are all-in-one lenses which cover a full range of focal lengths from a moderate wide-angle to long telephoto. In one package they combine the range of the kit zoom that came with the camera, plus that of a telephoto zoom, and therefore make perfect general purpose travel lenses. The technical image quality is often not quite as good as two separate lenses, and the maximum aperture tends to be small (a higher F-number), meaning worse low light performance and less ability to achieve shallow depth of field. However, for many users this is more than made up for by their convenience. Superzoom lenses such as the Tamron 28-200mm F2.8-5.6 Di III RXD encompass a wide range focal lengths from wide-angle to telephoto, in a relatively compact single lens. Wide-angle zoom. A wide-angle zoom extends the angle of view out beyond that captured with the standard zoom, allowing you to capture broad sweeping vistas or architectural wonders. It's therefore a popular choice for landscapes, cityscapes, architecture, interior shots, and night- and astro-photography. Wide zooms such as the Sony 16-35mm F2.8 pictured here let you fit more in the frame. Macro lens. 'Macro' is used to describe a lens with extreme close-focusing ability, which allows you to take photographs of small objects such as insects or flowers. Some zoom lenses use 'macro' in their name to indicate closer-than-usual focusing ability, but true macro lenses tend to have fixed focal lengths. In general, the longer the focal length, the further away you can be from your subject. (Nikon calls these lenses 'Micro' or 'MC' lenses instead, which is technically more accurate.) Macro lenses like the Sigma 105mm F2.8 DG DN Macro allow you to shoot closeups in fine detail. Fast prime lens. Fast prime lenses come in all focal lengths, from wide angle to ultra-telephoto, but what they share in common is the ability to capture a lot of light, blur backgrounds and offer high optical quality. We've traditionally found 35mm (or the equivalent 23mm or 17mm on APS-C or Four Third sensors) to be a pretty good do-everything focal length, in terms of not being too wide or too zoomed-in. An F1.8 maximum aperture can give shallow depth of field and lets you work in low light without the need for flash, while remaining compact and lightweight. Wider-angle and longer focal length primes are also available, as are lenses with even faster maximum apertures (F1.4 and brighter) that typically offer higher quality optics, let you work in lower light and give even shallower depth-of-field to help isolate your subject. A 'fast' prime, such as this Canon 35mm F1.8, can let you shoot in low light without flash, while isolating your subject against a blurred background. They are also typically smaller than zoom lenses. Other lens features. There are a few other aspects of build and operation which you may wish to consider when buying a lens: Autofocus. Autofocus performance can vary significantly between lenses, and autofocus performance can make a huge difference between capturing the perfect moment at a sports event or social occasion and having a frustrating photographic experience. Mirrorless camera systems are still relatively new, and there's a subtle interplay of optical design and focus motor that effects performance. For instance the ring-type ultrasonic motors that were great for focusing on DSLRs aren't as well suited to focusing on mirrorless cameras, particularly for the smooth, subtle movements required for video autofocus. As such, it's difficult to make generalizations, so it's worth checking reviews of the lens you're planning to buy. Electronic manual focus ('focus by wire'). Many modern lenses have no physical connection between the focus ring and the focusing lens elements, as was the case in older SLR and DSLR lenses. Many cameras use this to provide speed-sensitive manual focus, where a quick turn of the focus ring results in a bigger focus jump than a slow movement. This lets you jump quickly to the part of the focus range you want, but can be awkward if you're trying to manual focus while shooting video. To get round this, some cameras offer a 'linear' focus response mode, where the focus always moves by the same amount in response to how much you turn the focus ring: letting you practice and anticipate the amount by which you need to turn the ring. Manual focus lenses. Although modern autofocus is excellent, there is still a huge number of manual focus lenses on the market. These include designs optimized for shooting video and traditional, high-quality designs, through to unusual, specialist lenses that would be near-impossible to make autofocus along with the creations of small companies without the experience (or access to lens mount protocols) to manufacture AF lenses. Ultra-wide angle lenses, tilt-shift lenses and some very expensive lenses designed to be mechanically simple but optically excellent are out there, and are worth considering. Build quality and weather sealing. Premium lenses often include weather sealing. This can extend from an o-ring around the mount through to a series of seals at every joint, as with this Panasonic lens. As a general rule, the more expensive a lens is, the better built it is likely to be. The kit lenses that come with cameras tend to rather lightweight and plastic in construction. If you spend a bit more, you can get something more durable. Some lenses incorporate environmental seals against dust and water; in general this tends to be towards the top end of the price spectrum, but Pentax and Olympus in particular offer a decent range of mid-priced sealed lenses. System addict... One last word. When choosing a camera system to invest in, it's important to appreciate that the lens has just as great an impact on the image quality as the camera. Lenses tend to last longer than cameras too, becoming obsolete less quickly than bodies, so it can be worth spending a little bit extra to get the quality or flexibility you really want. But, while DSLR systems are much more extensive, most new lens development is focused on Mirrorless cameras, so these may prove more future-proof. Bear in mind that most mirrorless lens systems are still only a few years old, so they may be missing the type of lens you want, for now. That said, the system with most options isn't inherently any better than a smaller system that includes all the lenses you need.Even if you don't have a very specific application that needs specialized lenses (or other accessories) in mind, it's worth doing some research before committing to one system or another. Oh, and once bitten by the lens buying bug, many enthusiasts find it hard to stop; you have been warned... Glossary. Angle of view - Describe the view offered by a lens, measured as the angle between the furthest extremes of the lens's coverage. If this is confusing, imagine the view in front of you as a semicircle of 180 degrees: a 'wide-angle' lens can see a bigger segment of the semicircle than a 'long' (telephoto) one. Depth of field - This describes how much of the scene in front and behind the point of focus appears acceptably sharp. An image with shallow depth of field leaves the background (and foreground) appearing blurry and out-of-focus. An image with deep depth of field contains a greater amount (depth) of sharp detail. Fast / slow lens - An informal way of describing a lens' aperture in terms of its relation to exposure time. 'Fast' lenses have large maximum apertures (low F-numbers), which allow the use of shorter, 'faster' shutter speeds. 'Slow' lenses have smaller maximum apertures, and typically require longer, 'slower' shutter speeds. Focal length – Expressed in millimeters, focal length describes the angle of view of a lens. Telephoto lenses have a long focal length, and wide-angle lenses have a short focal length. The longer the focal length, the narrower the angle of view and the more zoomed-in it appears. Long / wide lens - A way of describing the field of view offered by a lens. Long lenses are more zoomed-in, while wide lenses are zoomed-out and capture a wider angle of view. Micro Four Thirds - A mirrorless system founded by Panasonic and Olympus, based around a 17.3 x 13mm sensor (224 sqmm) format known as Four Thirds. The system allows some very compact camera/lens packages, particularly for very long telephoto lenses. This system includes some high-end video cameras. APS-C - A common sensor format used by interchangeable lens camera manufacturers. APS-C format sensors measure around 24 x 15mm (~360 sqmm), and this format offers a balance of image quality, size and price in between Four Thirds and 'full-frame.' Full-frame - A sensor format the same size as a frame of 35mm film - the dominant film format of the 20th and early 21st Centuries. Measures 36 x 24mm (864 sqmm), giving a significant image quality benefit compared to smaller formats, but resulting in larger, more expensive camera/lens combinations. Despite the name, sensor larger formats do exist, in sizes known collectively as 'medium format'. Prime lens - A lens with a fixed focal length, which cannot zoom in or out. A technical term not to be confused with Amazon Prime. Zoom lens - A lens whose field of view (described in terms of focal length) can be adjusted, allowing you to zoom-in or out on a subject, to achieve a different composition without changing your position. 35mm / full-frame equivalent - A way of understanding the characteristics of a lens when used on a non-full-frame camera by relating it to the 35mm film format that’s familiar to many photographers. Most commonly used in reference to focal length: e.g a 28mm lens on an APS-C camera is equivalent to a 42mm lens on a full-frame camera. Tags: buying-guide, lenses You may also like. 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Packing this much technology into such a tiny form factor is an impressive feat, but it comes at a cost. Read our review to get all the details. Read more reviews » Latest buying guides. Best cameras for landscape photography in 2021Dec 9, 2021 at 18:15What's the best camera for shooting landscapes? High resolution, weather-sealed bodies and wide dynamic range are all important. In this buying guide we've rounded-up several great cameras for shooting landscapes, and recommended the best.Best drones in 2021Nov 19, 2021 at 14:00If you're looking for the perfect drone for yourself, or to gift someone special, we've gone through all of the options and selected our favorites.Best cameras around $2000 in 2021Aug 11, 2021 at 23:39What’s the best camera for around $2000? These capable cameras should be solid and well-built, have both speed and focus for capturing fast action and offer professional-level image quality. In this buying guide we’ve rounded up all the current interchangeable lens cameras costing around $2000 and recommended the best.Best video cameras for photographers in 2021Aug 11, 2021 at 21:16Most modern cameras will shoot video to one degree or another, but these are the ones we’d look at if you plan to shoot some video alongside your photos. We’ve chosen cameras that can take great photos and make it easy to get great looking video, rather than being the ones you’d choose as a committed videographer.Best cameras for Instagram in 2021Aug 5, 2021 at 00:41Although a lot of people only upload images to Instagram from their smartphones, the app is much more than just a mobile photography platform. In this guide we've chosen a selection of cameras that make it easy to shoot compelling lifestyle images, ideal for sharing on social media. Check out more buying guides » Buying guidesMore for your moneyBest BargainsBest camerasUnder $500Best camerasUnder $1000Best camerasUnder $1500Best camerasAround $2000Best camerasOver $2500Best lenses forCanon DSLRBest lenses forNikon DSLRBest lenses forSony MirrorlessBest lenses forFujifilm MirrorlessBest lenses forMicro Four ThirdsFull-Frame MirrorlessSystems ComparedBestCompact ZoomEnthusiastLong ZoomBestFixed Prime LensBestWaterproof CamerasBestDSLR CamerasBestMirrorless CamerasBestInstant CamerasBestVideo Cameras for PhotographersBestCameras for VideographersBest cameras forTravelBest cameras forLandscapesBest cameras forVideoBest video cameras forPhotographersBest cameras forSports & ActionBestEasy-to-use CamerasBest cameras forFamily & Friends PhotosBest cameras forPortraitsBest cameras forInstagramBest cameras forVloggingHow to buy yourFirst digital cameraHow to choose yourNext lensHow to buy aCamera for videoHow to buyYour next smartphone www.dpreview.com Follow us Mobile site About About us Work for us Advertise with us FAQ Feedback / Contact us Interest-Based Ads Privacy Legal Editorial content News Camera reviews Lens reviews Printer reviews Buying guides Sample images Videos Editorial enquiries Cameras & Lenses Cameras Lenses Camera search Camera comparison Lens search Product timeline Browse all products Community Community Guidelines Forums Challenges Galleries My Profile My Settings My GearList All content, design, and layout are Copyright © 1998 - 2022 Digital Photography Review All Rights Reserved. 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                            [body] => The Beginner’s Guide To SLR Camera Lenses Fracture Team Behind every great photograph is a sturdy piece of glass. A few pieces, actually. Ever since the advent of the first camera lens in 1839, these cylindrical contraptions have served as the essential connection between the world around us and the images we make of it.  Lenses are vital. Your camera or smartphone’s lens acts as a passageway for light (the word “photography” literally means “writing with light”), which is focused and passed through the glass elements of the lens in whatever amount the tiny hole (or aperture) allows before being captured as an image on light-sensitive film or a digital sensor, creating what we know as a photo. Without a lens, you couldn’t have a photograph—at least, not a very good one. If you own an SLR camera (whether a DSLR or film camera), your photography capabilities have a superpower: interchangeable lenses. Being able to swap lenses means you can take photos with a range of visual quality, different apertures (like very large f-stops for low-light photos), and different focal lengths. SLR camera lenses may be powerful and versatile, but with those qualities also come confusing jargon and big price tags.  So where to begin? Right here. Whether you’re buying your first DSLR or want dust off that 35mm film camera and expand your creative horizons, this handy beginner’s guide to SLR camera lenses has all the basic intel you need to get started.  An example of an SLR kit lens, this one a 16-20mm lens for Nikon DSLR cameras. The Kit Lens. A kit lens is the default “starter” lens that comes bundled with an SLR camera body so you can start shooting without purchasing a separate lens. Kit lenses truly do not get enough credit. They’re great for getting started because they can act as several lenses in one, covering most of the basic photography bases. Although seemingly basic, the kit lens is a versatile one. If you’re a beginner, you’ll have no problem shooting landscape photos zoomed all the way out or making portraits way in, all without swapping lenses. The prices of kit lenses vary based on the camera brand, but they tend to be among the more inexpensive ones. Kit lenses do have their limitations, of course. Because the f-stop is a range and is not fixed, the depth of field is limited. This means that if you zoom in all the way, your aperture will automatically adjust and allow less light to enter the lens. No need to worry though, you can compensate with a slower shutter speed or by adjusting the ISO. Kit Lenses: Canon Nikon Sony A telephoto zoom lens for DSLR cameras that ranges from 70-200mm in focal length. Zoom Lens. Zoom lenses can get to be a bit pricier, but the focal range they enable is remarkable. Most notably, telephoto lenses and other zooms allow you to take crisp, clear photographs of subjects that are far away–sometimes very far. If you’re a parent looking to take action photos from the bleachers of the baseball game, or want to take close-up photos of the animals at the zoo, this is the lens for you. Because the typical zoom lens also has an f-stop range and is not fixed, you will lose the capability to allow more light into the lens when you zoom in closer. If you’re looking for a wider range of zoom and don’t want to lose any depth or light, there are great telephoto zoom lenses with a fixed f-stop. Some examples of these include the 18-200mm f/2.8 lens. The upgrade in glass won’t come without a hefty price tag though. Depending on the quality, these lenses can be anywhere from $400 to over $1,000. Zoom Lenses: Canon Nikon Sony Wide angle lenses like this 12-24mm Sigma lens allow for wider, more expansive images. Wide Angle Lens. If you find yourself photographing outdoor scenes or architecture and want to get as much of the view in your frame as possible, the width of a kit lens’ angle of view won’t cut it. Instead, you’ll want to find a wide angle lens, which are typically defined as having a focal length of 35mm or lower, but can be as wide as 12mm or even 8mm for ultra wide “fish eye” lenses. Wide angle lenses are great for landscape and architectural photography and work especially well for taking large group shots. Wide Angle Lenses: Canon Nikon Sony Prime lenses offer a fixed focal length, in this case 58mm. Prime Lens. This simple lens tends to be the least expensive. Although the standard 50mm prime lens lacks the ability to zoom in or out due to its fixed focal length, it allows for beautiful depth to achieve that blurry, dream-like background. The images you take will often be sharper and crisper than those taken with your kit lens. They also tend to work well in low light. This is lens is definitely a go-to, especially for portrait photography. Prime Lenses: Canon Nikon Sony You’d be surprised at the different kinds of images one camera can take with a set of different lenses. Despite this, know that while the lenses may make the camera, the camera doesn’t make the photographer. Photography is all about your eye, style and how you combine them. About The Author. Fracture Team More From This Author Related. Comments. Stay focused on what matters. Life moves fast. Sign up to get updates with more stories and content to help you live intentionally, joyfully, and well.
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                            [body] => What Lens Should You Buy First? – The Beginners Guide What Lens Should You Buy First? So you’ve just bought your first camera, but you aren’t sure what lens to go with. With so many options on the market, how are you supposed to choose? When it comes to what lens you should buy first, the answer is more straightforward than you might expect. As a beginner, the best first lens to buy is the kit lens for your camera. For many entry-level cameras, this lens would be the 18-55mm lens. With a moderate zoom range and an affordable price tag, the kit lens is by far the most versatile for anyone just getting starting in photography. As you start to get more advanced, you might want to expand your gear beyond the kit lens. To help you figure out which direction to look, use this guide to decide which lens you should buy first. What Lenses Are Good For Beginners? There are various lenses that are “good” for beginners, but that doesn’t mean that they’ll be perfect for you. Before you decide what lenses are best for you, you should first consider what types of photography interest you. Now, if you’re a total beginner, you might not have any idea what types of pictures you want to take. You want to take pictures of everything and see where you end up. That’s how a lot of people start, including myself. It’s a great way to get a feel for different genres before committing your energy to a single one. A philosophy I like to use when considering lenses for beginners is what will be the most versatile. Especially if you’re just a hobbyist, you want to have a single lens that captures everything. What provides the best bang for your buck while still capturing photos exactly as you imagine? Let’s go over a few lens suggestions to get you started. – A Kit Lens. You may be skeptical about the kit lens because it “must not be as good” as other lenses. The truth is, the kit lens for a camera usually offers the best starting lens for a beginner photographer. That’s particularly true with the 18-55mm kit lens. With a good focal range and a variable aperture of F/3.5-5.6, you can still get wide angles or close-ups, even with a blurry background! The 18-55mm kit lens was the only lens I used for years, and I could capture a ton of great images with it. You can still get creative with filters, long exposures, and night photography while using a kit lens. This lens can take both wide-angle and zoom photos ranging between 18mm and 55mm. To give you a frame of reference, 50mm is near equivalent to what your eyes see. So 18mm is plenty wide to capture an entire scene, with a limited amount of lens distortion. Considering a kit lens only costs around a hundred dollars to go along with your camera body, it’s well worth the price. If you aren’t sure where to begin when buying your first lens, the kit lens is the perfect start. – The 50mm Lens. There are a lot of 50mm lenses on the market, but the one I recommend for beginner photographers is the Canon 50mm F1.8 lens. This lens is just over $100 and is one of the best fast lenses for the price. With that wide of an aperture, you won’t find a lens this affordable elsewhere. This Canon 50mm is a good lens for beginners because it allows you to experiment with shallow depths of field. With a moderate focal length of 50mm, it’s an ideal combination to create smooth background blur around your subject. Since it has such a wide aperture, this lens is ideal for shooting in low light and will help you get a bit more out of your camera. Considering the price, it shoots tack-sharp images, and work’s great for a variety of purposes. Unlike a kit lens, the 50mm lens is a prime, meaning it has a fixed focal length. Rather than having the luxury to zoom in and out of your photo to recompose, you have to physically move the camera. Since you have to think a little more about where you’re shooting from, prime lenses are a great tool for beginners to improve their photography with. Particularly if you want to take portrait-style photos, the 50mm is an amazing lens worth buying for any photographer especially if you’re a beginner! If you aren’t a Canon shooter, there are similar 50mm lenses for Nikon and Sony cameras. – A “Do It All” Zoom Lens. Especially when you aren’t sure where you want to go with your photography, getting a versatile lens is fantastic. With a wide-angle zoom lens, it can’t get much more versatile than that. These lenses are perfect for traveling when you don’t want to pack around a bag full of different lenses. Instead, you can use one lens that will capture every type of shot you could imagine. These lenses cost a bit more compared to other lenses for beginners in terms of price, but it’s a one and done type purchase. Once you have a wide-angle zoom, you’ll be set for years to come. Assuming you’re just a casual shooter of course! One of the top-rated “do it all” lenses is the Tamron 28-300mm lens. This lens is compatible with any of the major camera brands including Canon, Nikon, and Sony. The reason this lens is so useful for beginners is that you can shoot any type of photo with this lens. If you want a wide-angle landscape shot, using 28mm will get the job done. If you decide you want to zoom in close to an eagle sitting in a tree, this lens still has you covered. In terms of ease of use, there aren’t many lenses that can beat this. As a beginner who isn’t sure what lens to buy first, this is a solid option to consider. – A Wide-Angle Zoom Lens. Another great lens for you to look at is something that sits in the mid-range of focal lengths. Something that isn’t too wide, or too zoomed in. A lens that is versatile across any mid-range focal length. Something like a Tokina 24-70mm lens! A wide-angle zoom is one of the most popular camera lenses amongst photographers because it can shoot anything. Whether you want to capture landscapes, portraits, wildlife, interiors, or night photography, this lens has you covered. In fact, the Canon 24-70mm lens has been my go-to for a number of years now. The advantage to the 24-70 compared to the zoom lens is that it has a wider aperture. With an aperture of f/2.8 on the Tokina lens, you can capture low light or night photos without any worries. Although it does sit at a slightly higher price point than other beginner lenses, it’s definitely one worth looking in to. What Makes A Good Camera Lens? With a few ideas in your head, you might be wondering what actually makes a lens “good” or “bad”. The answer all depends on each of the aspects below. 1. Versatile Focal Lengths. Focal length is essentially the zoom capabilities of a lens. With a wide-angle lens like 18mm, it has a “shorter” focal length and a wider field of view. This is a huge advantage if you want to capture everything around you, even in a tight scene. On the other hand, you can have a “longer” focal length like 200mm, which has a much narrower field of view. The advantage here, however, is that you can zoom into objects that aren’t anywhere near your camera. Whether you’re taking photos of mountains on the horizon or your kids playing soccer, a longer focal length will be advantageous to you. Fortunately, you don’t need to decide between wide-angle or zoomed focal lengths because there are plenty of lenses that do both! For most beginner photographers, it’s a smart choice to get a lens with zoom capabilities so you can easily change focal lengths as you shoot. If you decided to only go with prime lenses (that have fixed focal lengths) you’d have to constantly change lenses to get the shot you want. When you’re just starting out, you won’t know which lenses will work for the shots you need. Hence why having more focal length versatility with a zoom lens is a smart idea for beginner photographers. 2. A Wider Aperture. The aperture is a small hole inside of your lens that can adjust in size to change the effect on your images. With a wide aperture, there’s more light able to pass through your lens which means you’ll get a bright image. However, when you use a wide aperture you also end up with a shallow depth of field, meaning less is in focus at once. For most photographers, having the option for a wide aperture is always ideal. It’s nice to have the choice in case you find yourself in low light or wanting to take photos at night. After all, just because a lens has a fast aperture, doesn’t mean you need to use it! In an ideal world, the aperture on your lens will be the same between all focal lengths. On a lot of beginner camera lenses, you’ll see an aperture of F/4-5.6. This means that when the lens is at it’s widest focal length, you can use an aperture of F/4. However, once you start to zoom in, your widest aperture becomes F/5.6. For most photographers, this is a big deal-breaker when trying to figure out what makes a lens good or bad. When you have to change your camera settings just because you zoomed in the lens, it starts to get old fast. With that said, lenses with variable aperture are significantly cheaper making them a perfect lens to start with since they won’t cost thousands of dollars.  If you want to learn more about aperture and its importance in your photography, be sure to check out this guide to aperture for beginners. 3. Has Image Stabilization. Image stabilization is a feature some lenses will have that helps to keep the image sharp, even with a slow shutter speed. When you’re taking pictures handheld, your camera is constantly moving; even when you press the capture button. When you start to use too slow of a shutter speed, that movement begins to translate into motion blur. However, IS (image stabilization) can help to counter these movements and eliminate any motion blur from your photos. This isn’t to say that you can use any shutter speed while using IS, but it does allow a bit more flexibility than without. You can find image stabilization technology in a lot of camera bodies as well as lenses. With both, you’re an unstoppable stabilized Hercules. As awesome as stabilization can be, lenses with IS will have a higher price tag than those without. Since it plays such a big role in the capabilities of a lens, especially in low light, IS is another big factor in deciding if a lens is good or not. 4. Limited Amount Of Distortion. As light passes through your lens, it gets bent and reshaped to converge onto your camera’s sensor. With some lenses, the light can get bent too much to the point that the image begins to look distorted. This usually happens with wide-angle lenses where the edges of the frame might look slightly skewed compared to the middle. To see this effect for yourself, try using your widest angle lens and look around the room with it. Notice how the corners and edges of the walls don’t remain perfectly straight. This is lens distortion at work. Although there are heaps of lenses out there, some of them have far less distortion than others. Lens distortion can end up being slightly distracting from your photo and start to change the look of a scene. For most photographers, it’s preferred to have as little lens distortion as possible. That way the scene looks more true to real life. With this in mind, you could read and compare different lenses and their distortion for the rest of your life. Rather than getting too hung up on this, try to find a lens that has limited distortion, and doesn’t make your entire photo look out of shape. If there’s a little bit of lens distortion, it’s not the end of the world. 5. Limited Amount Of Chromatic Abberation. One of the biggest factors in what makes a good camera lens comes down to chromatic aberration. Every ray of light that enters your camera is made up of a series of colors. As light passes through the glass elements in your lens, the camera focuses the light to a single point on your sensor. With some lenses, they can have a hard time focusing all the colors of light leaving a certain color range out of focus. The result is a colored highlight (often blue or magenta) that’s visible around edges in your photo. Chromatic aberration is a telltale sign of a low-quality lens. Although it can be fixed in post, it’s something that you want to avoid if you can. Many modern lenses have gotten better at dealing with chromatic aberration, but higher-end lenses tend to do a better job of eliminating it completely. Even if a lens checks all your boxes in terms of what you want, bad chromatic aberration may be a deal-breaker in deciding whether or not it’s a good lens. First Lens To Buy After Your Kit Lens. If you were like me, the first camera you bought came with a kit lens. Especially with entry-level cameras, it’s rare to see camera bodies sold on their own. Since you already have your basic kit lens covered (which is the best lens for beginners in my opinion), what’s your next option? What lens should you buy after your kit lens? I would narrow it down to one of two options: the wide-angle zoom or a telephoto lens. – A Wide-Angle Zoom. A wide-angle zoom lens offers a little more versatility than a kit lens with a longer focal range and (usually) a faster aperture. With better zoom capabilities and enhanced performance in low light, this is a no-brainer to fully replace your kit lens. The wide-angle zoom I recommend for beginner photographers is the Tokina 24-70mm F/2.8 lens because you can shoot anything with this range. From portraits to product photos, landscapes, astrophotography, and real estate, there’s nothing this type of lens can’t accomplish. I personally use a Canon 24-70mm and use it for everything; however, it’s heinously expensive, which is why I don’t recommend it to beginners. In terms of overall value and enhanced shooting performance, a wide-angle zoom is a great lens to buy after your kit lens. To give you some extra lens ideas, here are other great options to consider at a reasonable price tag: Tamron 28-75mm F/2.8 Lens Sigma 24-70mm F/2.8 Lens – A Telephoto Lens. A telephoto lens is a perfect addition to your kit lens since it doesn’t cover any of the same focal lengths. Instead, a telephoto only covers longer focal lengths, often above 70mm. One of my favorite telephoto lenses for beginners is the Tamron 70-300mm F/4-5.6 lens since it covers a monstrous focal range but remains extremely affordable as far as lenses go. If you feel content with what your kit lens does for you, a telephoto lens is a great way to expand what you can capture. Rather than being physically close to the action, a telephoto allows you to zoom in from far away. By adding this lens to your camera bag, you can now shoot everything from a wide-angle scene with a kit lens, to the moon rising over the horizon with a telephoto. To help get you started, here are a few other great telephoto lenses for beginners: Canon EF-S 55-250mm f/4.0-5.6 Lens Nikon AF-P DX NIKKOR 70-300mm f/4.5-6.3 Lens Trying to figure out what lens to buy first is an exciting time in your photography. Using the tips outlined here, I hope you can make a more confident decision in your buying process! – Brendan 🙂 Share: About The Author. Brendan Williams. Hey, I'm Brendan! I'm a professional photographer and photo retoucher who prefers dogs over cats. Around here my mission is to help you improve your photography, photo editing, and graphic design through easy-to-understand tutorials that maximize your creativity.
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                                    [7] => DOWNLOAD Settings Cheatsheets
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                                    [9] => FREE MINI PHOTOGRAPHY COURSE
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                                    [11] => Camera Lenses, DSLR Manual Shooting
                                    [12] => Learn How to Shoot Confidently in Manual Mode!
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                            [body] => The Ultimate Beginner’s Guide to Buying New LensesOne of the most common questions people ask when getting started in photography and want to expand on their beginner’s kit is “what lens should I buy next?” There’s no easy answer…  there’s so many options!  Why on earth isn’t there just one lens that can do it all? (no really, why? lol…) Lenses vary so much in quality, length, aperture, effects… and with a huge range in price points too! So it’s not surprising it can be confusing on where to start and knowing what is it that you really need?     The Camera or The Lens? Often as we progress in photography we start to desire better and better quality and effects, and when we can’t achieve it, we start to question if our gear is holding us back. “If only I had an awesome camera like hers, my photos would be better”   Does that sound familiar? Well here’s the thing… the lens has more to do with the shot that the camera body, so your camera body is only as good as your lens. In that regard,an awesome lens can help make up for an entry level camera body. So if you only have the budget for a new body or a new lens, and the only lenses you own are kit lens, we suggest upgrading your lens first. And we want to help you make an informed decision… we don’t want you throwing your hands up in frustration!   Where to Start? When choosing a new lens, the most important questions to ask yourself are: – What focal length and aperture do I want? – What do I want to photograph? – Is image quality or versatility more important to me? – What is my budget? – Which brand do I want? cloud-downloadCLICK HERE to download our lens buying guide to help you decide what's your next best purchase! 1. Focal Length and Aperture . These are the two most important numbers on a lens. Focal length is measured in millimetres Wide focal lengths get more in the frame (think landscapes), and long focal lengths (eg. 200mm) let you zoom in to photograph subjects that are far away (think sports or wildlife photography) Aperture is measured in f stops The wider your aperture (smaller f stop value eg. f/1.4) the better. You need these wide apertures to get a shallow depth of field, because this is what gives us those gorgeous blurry backgrounds.   So when looking at lenses, first check the focal length and the aperture. Some examples for you:  50mm f/1.4: the 50mm is the lens length and in this instance it’s a prime (meaning it’s a fixed focal length of 50mm), and the f/1.4 number refers to how wide open the aperture can go.  Low f-stop numbers mean you can let in more light, and create blurrier backgrounds. 24-70mm f/2.8:  the 24-70mm is a zoom (literally it can zoom in and out) and you can use it anywhere in the range between 24mm to 70mm.  It’s maximum aperture is f/2.8 meaning that’s how wide the aperture will go. In this instance the aperture is fixed, meaning it won’t change as you zoom in, unlike kit lenses. This is important if you want to take portraits, because you would generally shoot at a portrait at 50mm or longer, and you want a wide aperture for the blurry background. 18-55mm f/3.5-f/5.6: This is the standard kit lens that comes with most entry level cameras.  It zooms between 18mm to 55mm… and the widest the aperture can open varies.  At the widest 18mm it can open up to f/3.5 and then when zoomed all the way in to 55mm it can only open to f/5.6. This is very limiting because it means if you wanted to shoot at 55mm and f/3.5… you can’t.   2. What Do You Want to Photograph? So now you understand what the focal length and aperture means, you need to clarify for yourself what you want to photograph the most, because different focal lengths suit different genres of photography for varying reasons. Here’s a general guide on focal lengths and what they’re best suited for: 10-35mm – Landscape and architecture photography, street photography 35-50mm – Street photography, documentary style photography, lifestyle photography, portraits 50-135mm – Portrait photography 135mm-300mm – Wildlife and sport photography     3. Image Quality or Versatility? . This is not the no brainer you might think. Of course you want quality, or you wouldn’t be upgrading your lens. Once you go beyond kit lenses, zoom lenses get much better in quality. But then you have prime lenses, which are lenses with a fixed focal length such as 35mm, 50mm and 85mm etc. Good quality prime lenses will generally take better photos than a good quality zoom. So this is the choice you’re now faced with: Zoom lens – multiple focal lengths (can shoot multiple genres without needing to change lenses) and will produce very good quality images Prime lens – fixed focal length (will need to change lenses whenever you want a different focal length) and produces super sharp, creamy images   4. Budget. Beyond kit lenses, good lenses can start anywhere from $3-400 and go up into the thousands. The only exception to this is the nifty fifty, a 50mm f/1.8 which is a versatile prime lens and produces reasonably good quality sharp images for its price (which at the time of publish is around $100-$120). 5. Brand. If the lens you lust after is beyond your budget, look beyond the big names to brands like Sigma, Tamron and Tokina. It varies from lens to lens, but in many instances their quality is on a par (and sometimes even better). Ready to Delve Deeper? So now you have an introduction to lenses, we’ve pulled together our favourite posts that cover all our most common questions relating to lenses, what they do, what all the numbers mean, and what types of lenses are best suited! Grab a cuppa, and dive in! Lenses – Focal Lengths & What they do best! What to consider BEFORE you buy a new Lens Lou’s Favourite Lens Have FUN with a Wide Angle Lens Best Lenses for Flattering Portraits The Best $100 Lens you Can Buy Getting the most out of your Kit Lens   If you want to use your fancy DSLR in manual mode, let us show you how step-by-step, with fun challenges to practice on and feedback on your images… pop your name on the waitlist for our next Enthusiast Photography Course. If you’re already confident in manual mode, check out our Advanced Photography Course and let us help you elevate your photography skills to the next level!   Download Your Lens Buying GuideDon't know what lens you should buy next?Use these question prompts to follow our guide to help you decide what your next lens choice should be!  Pop in your details below to download the guide! Xx Spread the loveCamera Lenses, DSLR Manual Shooting. Our 8 Week Enthusiast Photography Course is starting again SOON! You'll learn how to get the most from your DSLR & take photos you LOVE!FIND OUT MORELearn How to Shoot Confidently in Manual Mode! Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Ready to fall in love with your. photos?Without Fumbling Over Your Settings & Missing The Moment!REGISTER NOWFREE ONLINE WORKSHOP. My Simple Steps For Taking Pro-Quality Photos of Your Kids & Family... So You Can Nail The Shot.... Everytime!ABOUT. click with us. love letters. contact. view the latest from our grads on instagramPRIVACY POLICY & SITE TERMS AND CONDITONS . CLICK LOVE GROW ™  Pty Ltd  - COPYRIGHT 2021 © close Lens Buying GuideUse these prompts to help you decide what your next lens choice should be!  Pop in your details below to download the free guide! Xx x
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                            [body] => Camera Lenses – A Beginner’s Guide Russell Campbell 0 2 years ago TweetPinShareShareBufferEmail The world would be bland without photographs, how else would you document a glorious sunset or have snapshots of your loved ones for eternity? Photography is an art that many have a knack for but, as with any skill, you need to be able to use the right gear and understand the basics of photography. Whether you’re just getting into photography or you’re looking to upgrade your camera for different types of photos, understanding camera lenses and how they will work will drastically improve your photo-taking skills. There are specific lenses for every type of moment and they’ll be able to help you capture it at its finest. Whether it’s a landscape, sports or action shots, close-ups and portraits, or even food or fashion, you need to be able to understand which lens works with which type of picture. Read on below for a quick beginners guide on camera lenses. IMAGE: PEXELS Photography Terms You Should Know. Before we delve deeper into the types of lenses, there are a few terms you need to familiarize yourself with to understand how a camera lens works: The Anatomy Of A Lens. Although modern lenses can look a little complicated, but each one serves a purpose. The filter thread allows you to attach lens filters to adjust the light that reaches your camera sensor. The lens hood thread lets you attach hoods to block out the sun and reduce flare. The focus ring can be either rotated manually to adjust focus or you switch on the autofocus feature. The zoom ring allows you to zoom in and out while the A/M switch lets you work on autofocus or manual focus. The Focal Length. Considered to be the primary characteristic of any lens, the focal length can be defined as the distance from the camera sensor to the center of the lens which basically means how far it’s zoomed in. The focal length is measured in millimeters; the shorter they are, the wider field they provide even though they offer less magnification. The longer the focal length, the shorter field of view they provide but with great magnification. Aperture. The aperture of a lens is the hole where light passes through the front element into the inside of the lens, some also call it the ‘pupil’. The size of the aperture can be controlled by a diaphragm to enhance or restrict lighting. It’s measured by dividing the focal length by the diameter of the aperture opening giving it the term “f/number.” Prime lenses have larger maximum aperture, which is why most of them prefer these types of lenses. Name Display. Now based on all of the above, you’ll find that the way the camera is displayed in any shop or online web store actually shows its features through the name. For example, you’ll find that it’s displayed in this format: Brand name, lens type, focal length in mm, maximum aperture (f/number), other lens features. Types Of Lenses. As a beginner, you should be able to understand which lens will suit the types of photos you’d like to take. Below are some of the most popular lens types: Zoom vs Prime. Some lenses come in variable focal lengths and they’re called Zoom Lenses while others come in single and fixed focal lengths known as Prime Lenses. The 50mm lens, for example, is very popular among photography beginners for its affordability and usefulness. Others have been appearing in the market and gaining popularity; the 35mm film cameras tap into the past in a world of advanced technology with the purpose of nostalgia. Many are opting for vintage cameras and lenses and they take great photos just as any camera. The average and most common lens is the 18-50mm and has a relatively wide angle. They’re versatile and ideal for any beginner. Standard Lens. Standard lenses always have a fixed focal length that comes in either a 50mm, 85mm, or 100mm. They produce almost exactly what the human eye sees in terms of angles and perspective. The higher the focal point, the better portraits you can take because the wide aperture will soften any background. Wide Angle Lens. Compared to a standard lens, a wide angle lens has a much shorter focal length that ranges from 10 to 42mm. Because it enables you to capture a much wider angle, it’s the perfect choice for new photographers who are into taking landscape or outdoors photos. Wide angles generally can capture the whole setting. Macro Lens. These types of lenses are used for “macro” photography which basically means that it’s used for close-ups of any object. Photographers can use it to take life-size images of anything small like butterflies, ladybugs, or flowers. They can capture sharper focus of subjects in a macro distance only as opposed to other distances. The focal point can range from 50-200mm. Telephoto Lens. These lenses are very long and their length allows them a much narrower field of view. The focal length ranges from 100mm to 800mm which enables you to compress distances and focus only on a far off subject even if you’re 100 feet away. They’re ideal for wildlife, sports, and documentary types of images. Snapshots For Life. In order to become a pro at a specific skill, one must master the art completely by learning everything about it. When it comes to photography, choosing the right lens can help you take the pictures you’ve always dreamed of. If you are interested in even more technology-related articles and information from us here at Bit Rebels, then we have a lot to choose from. IMAGE: PEXELS TweetPinShareShareBufferEmail RECOMMENDED FOR YOU. Loading... © 2021 Bit Rebels. All rights reserved. Reproduction without explicit permission is prohibited.
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                            [body] => A Beginner’s Guide to Buying a Camera (2021 Edition) A Post By: Jeremie Schatz ... ... Are you searching for your first real camera? Do you want to know what to look for and how to choose? In 2021, you have plenty of options, but talk of megapixels, mirrorless technology, viewfinder type, and other technical terms can get very confusing, very fast. That’s why, in this camera buying guide for beginners, I’m going to break it all down for you. Specifically, I’m going to cover the different types of cameras and the key features to look for, plus I’m also going to share some simple tips for getting the right model for your needs. Let’s dive right in. Price. Brace yourself: High-quality photography equipment often requires a significant investment. All cameras cost money, and sometimes lots of it – so determining your budget is a good place to start. In my experience, the easiest approach to camera budgeting is to come up with a narrow price window. If you think you want to spend under $1,000 USD, you’ll be overwhelmed with choices, but if you aim for the $800-$1,000 range, your options will be much more manageable. While you’re mulling over your camera budget, consider what other accessories you may need or want. Don’t blow your entire budget on a camera body with no lens. And depending on the type of photography you plan to do, you may want to acquire a tripod, external flash, extra batteries, and memory cards. Types of cameras. Now that you’ve (hopefully) determined your budget, it’s time to figure out which camera type is right for you. Generally speaking, you have four main options: Point-and-shoot cameras Bridge cameras DSLRs Mirrorless cameras Point-and-shoot cameras are compact and convenient. In general, they’re designed for beginners, and they feature automatic modes for easy, no-knowledge-required photography. Unfortunately, the lenses are built in and non-interchangeable, though they usually cover a wide zoom range. Quality-wise, point-and-shoots run the gamut from cheap and uninspiring to pro-level compacts. Bridge cameras take the point-and-shoot concept and kick it into high gear; while bridge cameras don’t offer interchangeable lenses, they do offer more control over camera settings, along with larger grips, improved ergonomics, and more rugged bodies. DSLRs are the classic, fancy-looking cameras with all the buttons and big lenses. Lower-end DSLRs offer good image quality and give users a ton of control, while higher-end DSLRs include an array of advanced features, such as lightning-fast continuous shooting, complex autofocus tracking, and an ultra-rugged frame. You’ll find a mind-boggling assortment of lenses and flashes, as well as a myriad of other gadgets for all sorts of creative effects. Mirrorless systems are all the rage these days, packing the features of DSLRs into smaller bodies. They offer a great compromise of quality and versatility, and thanks to advances in mirrorless sensor technology, many photographers view mirrorless as the future. Of course, at the end of the day, none of these camera types are obviously best – rather, they’re good for different users and different types of photography. Choosing a camera type is about recognizing what you want to photograph and how you want to photograph it, rather than grabbing the option with the flashiest features. So if you’re after an ultra-compact model designed for beginners, I’d suggest picking a point-and-shoot camera, especially if you don’t ever plan on moving past the basics. On the other hand, if your goal is to do serious photography, an entry-level DSLR or mirrorless camera is probably best; these cameras offer excellent image quality at a reasonable price. Of course, if money is no object, you might consider purchasing a high-level DSLR or mirrorless camera, though these models mainly distinguish themselves in terms of high-level features that you may not have much use for, so think long and hard before you spend thousands on a body like the Sony a7R IV. Sensor. Once you’ve picked the perfect camera type, you’ll need to understand how to compare different sensors, which vary in three key ways: Size Resolution (megapixels) High-ISO capabilities Let’s take a closer look at each characteristic in turn: Sensor size. The bigger the sensor, the better the image quality (all else being equal). For this reason, big sensors tend to be pricey, and they also tend to make their way into the hands of professionals rather than beginners. In fact, the largest consumer sensors are known as full frame and are the size of a 35mm film negative. But the majority of cameras on the market pack sensors smaller than full frame; these are usually referred to as cropped, or APS-C. Then there are smaller sensors still, known as Four Thirds, and even smaller sensors (though once you get below Four Thirds, you’ll be looking exclusively at compact and bridge cameras). If capturing sharp, clean images is your main goal, then I’d recommend purchasing a Four Thirds sensor at the very least (and I’d urge you to consider APS-C and even budget full-frame options). That said, larger sensors do correspond to larger camera bodies, so a smaller sensor is a tradeoff worth considering, especially if you plan to travel frequently or you like the idea of carrying a camera around in your pocket. Note that larger sensors often offer more megapixels, the importance of which I discuss in the next section: Resolution (megapixels). These days, high-megapixel cameras are all the rage. You have cameras like the Canon EOS R5 and the Nikon Z7 II packing 45 megapixels, the Sony a7R IV reaching to a whopping 61 megapixels, and talk of an 80+ megapixel model from Canon. But what do all those megapixels get you? Two things: big prints and cropping latitude. In other words, a 61 MP camera will let you produce gigantic prints with tons of detail, or it will let you crop in on your subject for a magnified view. Unfortunately, higher megapixel counts do come with several significant drawbacks. For one, more megapixels tend to reduce high-ISO capabilities so that you’ll capture noisy, messy images in low light. Also, resolution is directly correlated with file size, so you’ll fill up your memory cards and computer hard drive much quicker with a high-resolution camera. Before you go out and buy that 40+ megapixel camera, ask yourself: do I really need that many megapixels? Sometimes it pays to skimp! High-megapixel cameras come at a price: they eat up storage on your memory cards and hard drive. High-ISO capabilities. Some cameras can shoot at ISO 3200, ISO 6400, and beyond without producing significant noise, whereas others struggle to produce usable images past ISO 800. Here, the difference is partly a function of size, where larger sensors offer better low-light performance, but also a function of sensor technology, where certain sensor types (often found in the most expensive cameras) outperform others. Unfortunately, it’s difficult to determine a camera’s high-ISO capabilities from its specification sheet alone, so it’s important to read hands-on reviews before purchasing any particular model, especially if low-light photography interests you. Lens quality (and lens selection). A sensor is only as good as the lens you put in front of it. If your lens is blurry, then you could have the best sensor in the world, but your photos will turn out blurry, too. If you’re aiming to purchase a point-and-shoot or bridge camera, compare the zoom range of different models. Ask yourself: How much zoom do I need? Some lenses cover huge ranges and can therefore handle many genres of photography from landscapes to birds and everything in between. Other lenses feature more limited zoom ranges, which might be fine or might become an issue, depending on your interests. With DSLRs and mirrorless models, you must purchase at least one lens – otherwise, your camera can’t capture photos. Fortunately, the lens options are nearly endless, and there are lenses for pretty much every photographic genre, from portraits to street to wildlife and beyond. Many cameras are offered as kits that come with the camera body and lens. These “kit” lenses are usually lower quality but can certainly produce good results. Some lenses are more expensive than others, based on several main factors: they let in a lot of light, for one, and they produce very sharp, undistorted images. They also might feature longer focal lengths or large zoom ranges and are often built to more exacting and durable standards. Really, choosing the perfect lens is often as hard as choosing the perfect camera. As a beginner, though, it often makes sense to start with a kit lens, spend time developing your photographic interests, and then upgrade to more specialized lenses as needed. Additional key features. Up until this point, I’ve focused on the camera essentials – the characteristics that you should always think about before picking a camera. But there are plenty of additional features worth considering, depending on the genres that interest you. In this section, I’ll highlight a few of the big ones, starting with: Autofocus and drive speeds. If you want to photograph action – sports, wildlife, or birds – then you need a camera with advanced autofocus and high continuous shooting speeds. Look for models that feature complex tracking algorithms (e.g., human or animal eye AF). Also look for 10+ frames per second, as well as a deep (50+ frames) buffer. Durability. Some cameras are built to last, whereas others struggle to handle a light rain. If you plan to shoot most of your photos indoors, durability may not matter to you. But if you’ll be capturing landscapes, wildlife, sports, or even outdoor events, the more weather-sealed your camera, the better. Ergonomics and handling. Some cameras are comfortable to hold plus they’re easy to operate, thanks to helpful features such as fully articulating screens, touch functionality, and autofocus joysticks. For each camera you consider, make sure to look carefully at the specification list. If there’s a feature you desperately want – such as a fully articulating touchscreen – make sure you grab a camera that includes it! Other. Here’s a long list of other features worth considering: Wireless connectivity Built-in flash Hot shoe (for an external flash) Dual memory card slots Image stabilization RAW file support Video capabilities (HD, 4K, etc.) External microphone support Shooting modes (for creative effects) Battery life Weight Guide to buying a camera: final words. Buying a digital camera can be intimidating, and it often feels like the choices never end. Hopefully, this article has offered you some clarity – and you’re now ready to make your first camera purchase. Also, it’s important to remember: While camera choice does matter, pretty much every model out there is capable of great shots. So don’t stress too much! ... ... Read more from our Cameras & Equipment category. Jeremie Schatz is a freelance photographer, photojournalist, journalist, copyeditor and videographer for a variety of clients and companies in the United States and Thailand. Find his portfolio of colorful images and more of his writing at Exposed World Photography and on Facebook. I need help with... Landscape Photography Tips Portrait Photography Tips Photo Composition Tips Beginner Photography Tips Photo Post Processing Tips Get Started with Cameras and Gear Sign up to the weekly DPS NEWSLETTER Guaranteed for 2 full months Pay by PayPal or Credit Card Instant Digital Download Learn to Use It! Your email is safe with us. We won't share it with anyone Sign up to the weekly DPS NEWSLETTER All our best articles for the week Fun photographic challenges Special offers and discounts Learn to Use It! Your email is safe with us. 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                            [body] => Lenses Every Beginner Photographer Should Own by Rajib Mukherjee Updated December 8, 2020 Buying a second lens is always a big step forward for any photographer. It means they have finally grown out of the limitations of the kit lens, the lens which came along with the camera, and are willing to explore the creative possibilities that a new lens brings in. A new lens is always a fresh new perspective, a fresh new bouquet of possibilities and in my personal situation, a way to explore things that were hitherto not possible with the glasses that I already own. This article deals with this fundamental aspect of photography. The Spark. A couple of days ago, I was having a discussion with one of my nephews. The discussion was about lenses. He is (and still is) in the market for a new lens and was asking for my opinion on some telephoto lenses he has zeroed on. The discussion veered from one thing to the other. Finally, he asked me whether it was a wise decision to invest in a 50mm lens. Especially when he already owns a 35mm and an 18-55mm kit. There is no easy way to answer that question. The 35mm and the 50mm are both extremely good lenses. They give different angles of view and are both very sharp. I predominantly use the 50mm and even swear by it. But I am equally fond of the 35mm for a number of reasons. The answer to the question of whether a photographer should or should not buy either of these lenses will depend on the kind of work they do. Different Choices Based on Work. A professional doing street and portrait work would want to have both the 35mm and the 50mm, along with a 85mm prime and a 135mm prime. A photographer doing sports photography would want to have a fast zoom lens. Something like a 200-400mm f/4. Or at least a 70-200mm f/2.8. A wildlife photographer would have a different set of priorities. They would want to have even a longer focal length range and hopefully something that works with teleconverters. The 200-400mm by Canon comes with an integrated 1.4x extender. The Best Lens to Start With. This discussion is about the three lenses every beginner photographer should own. A beginner photographer usually shoots anything and everything that catches his / her fancy. There is usually no preferences, at least not at the very beginning. That means a general purpose lens is what every beginner photographer should start with. In this article, I would be recommending lenses from various manufacturers. It is understood that these lenses are to be paired with a camera system from the same manufacturer for optimum results. I am not recommending using lens adapters for cross-platform compatibility at this stage. 1. Kit Lenses. Kit lenses are the ones that are bundled with the camera when you buy one. There are a few choices in this department. Please note, sometimes the choice is not yours to make. You are ‘forced’ with a lens whether you like it or not. This happens mostly with the entry-level cameras. Some mid-range cameras also come with kit lenses. I have used somewhat of a strong sounding word (forced) to express the lack of choices. If you don’t want this kit lens or have a different choice you are free to look around for a deal that only involves the body. Notwithstanding, this kit lens is often a great piece of optic that helps you to extract the most out of your camera. 18-55mm Kit Lens. One of these starting out lenses or kit lenses is the 18-55mm. Canon EF-S 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 IS II SLR Lens Focal Length & Maximum Aperture - 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 IILens Construction - 16 elements in 12 groups, including UD-glass and aspherical lensesDiagonal Angle of View - 74 20' - 7 50' (with APS-C image sensors)Focus Adjustment - Gear-drivenClosest Focusing Distance - 1.48 ft./0.45m (maximum close-up magnification 0.24x) CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-04. We may get a commission. Most DSLR and mirrorless makers offer at least one 18-55mm lens in their brochure. Almost all of them make this lens for their crop sensor cameras. This versatile lens gives you the same effective focal length range as a 27 – 82.5mm lens mounted on a full-frame camera (Nikon) system. Nikon systems have a crop factor of 1.5x. On Canon systems, the focal length range becomes the equivalent of a 29-88mm lens mounted on a full-frame system. Related Posts 50mm vs 35mm (Which one to Buy?) Great Nikon Landscape Lenses Best Kit Lens Upgrades Best Pentax Lenses This is because Canon crop sensors have a crop factor of 1.6x. Pentax also manufacturers a similar lens for its crop sensor DSLRs. All of these lenses have a focal length range of f/3.5 to f/5.6. Thus, they are not the fastest of lenses that you can buy. But on the plus side, these lenses cover the most essential focal length range. It means with any of these lenses you would be able to shoot great quality everyday photos. Portraits, groups shots, family outings, vacations and so on. If you don’t want the 18-55m kit lens, you could look beyond and get something that is slightly upmarket and optically better. The Sigma 18-35mm f/1.8 D HSM Art is a great choice that you can look into. The 18-35mm lens covers a pretty wide angle reach. This lens is designed for the APS-C (crop sensor) cameras and will have an extended focal length (because of the crop factor). But you will find the constant fast wide aperture great to shoot with. Sigma 18-35mm F1.8 Art DC HSM Lens for Canon, Black (210101) F1.8 maximum apertureF16 minimumRing-type ultrasonic-type AF motor with full-time manual focusing, 72mm filter sizeMinimum focusing distance 28 cm/ 11.0 in. USB Dock compatible, MC-11 compatible.Available in Canon EF (EF-S), Sony Alpha (dot), Nikon f (DX) mounts CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-06. We may get a commission. 2. Telephoto Zoom. The one lens that almost every beginner photographer with a kit lens longs for is the telephoto. The reason is with the limited zoom on a kit lens, the inability to use digital zoom on a DSLR camera accentuates the demand for a lens that helps you to get to where the action is. Two lenses are what most beginner photographers settle for. The first one is the 55 – 250mm and the other is the 55 – 300mm. The first one is produced by Canon and the second one is produced by Nikon. Both these lenses have an aperture range of f/4.5 – f/5.6. Canon EF-S 55-250mm F4-5.6 IS STM Lens for Canon SLR Cameras High magnification, compact and lightweight EF-S telephoto zoom lens with Image Stabilization for up to 3.5 equivalent stops...One UD lens element reduces chromatic aberration throughout the zoom range, for excellent image quality with high resolution...New six-group zoom system provides a compact design while achieving a maximum magnification of 0.29x at the telephoto end.Minimum focusing distance: 2.79 feet; 0.85 meter (full zoom range).Kit Inlcudes lens, lens cap E-58II, lens dust cap E, instruction book, warranty card CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-05. We may get a commission. Nikon also produces a decent 55-200mm. This one too has an aperture range of f/4.5 – f/5.6. You could pick any one of these telephoto lenses. If you want something better, then neither of these would be your first choice. NIKON AF-S DX NIKKOR 55-200mm f/4-5.6G ED VR II Lens - White Box (New) Compact telephoto zoom that's great for action, people and travel. Metering - Full apertureFocal Length Range : 55 -200 mm, Minimum Focus Distance : 3.7 ft. ( 1.1 m). Maximum angle of view (DX-format): 28°50',...Super Integrated Coating (SIC) delivers superior color quality while reducing ghosting and lens flareExtra-low Dispersion (ED) glass nearly eliminates optical distortion, while a rounded seven-blade diaphragm makes out of...Nikon Vibration Reduction (VR) image stabilization provides 4.0 stops of blur free handheld shooting, assuring dramatically... CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-03. We may get a commission. The Nikon 55-200mm comes with Nikon’s VR II technology. That means you get better stabilization when hand-holding the camera compared to when you are shooting with the older VR lens. This would be a better choice for hand-held shots though you will sacrifice some of the focal length reaches of the longer lens. The Canon option is a good one as well. The Canon lens has one special feature that older lenses from the same manufacturer did not have. This lens has STM auto-focusing motor. STM stands for Stepping Motor. Stepping Motor is a slower but more accurate focusing motor technology. Canon developed this in the last few years and it which works in tandem with Canon’s dual pixel CMOS auto-focusing technology. Both these technologies are primarily designed for shooting videos. Please note, that these are all budget lenses and you shouldn’t be comparing them with some of the premium quality glass that are made by the same manufacturers. Premium Zoom Lenses. Speaking of premium zoom lenses, these are some of the lenses that you can look into. My top choice in the mid-range is the 70-200mm f/2.8. Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS II USM Telephoto Zoom Lens for Canon SLR Cameras 70-200 mm focal length and 1:2.8 maximum apertureLens construction consists of 23 elements in 19 groups (1 fluorite and 5 UD elements)34-Degree - 12-Degree diagonal angle of viewInner focusing system with USM and full-time manual focus option77 mm filter size. Extenders Compatible CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-02. We may get a commission. Both Nikon and Canon make two optically similar 70-200mm f/2.8 lenses. They are extremely sharp, come with image stabilization and have premium build quality. Nikon AF-S NIKKOR 70-200mm f/2.8E FL ED VR Lens Minimum Focus Distance- 3.6 feet (1.1 meter)Diaphragm blades: 9. Format: FX/35 millimeter. Minimum Aperture: f/ 22Focus distance indicator- 1.1 am to infinityAccepts Filter Type: Screw-onCompatible with new Z Nikkor lenses, over 360 F-mount Nikkor lenses and a variety of Nikon system Accessories CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-05. We may get a commission. These lenses are a good complement for the 18-55mm lens, though they are much better built and are optically far superior compared to the kit lenses. Additionally, these lenses are designed for full-frame cameras. That means when you mount them on a crop camera their effective focal length becomes longer. The focal length is perfect for shooting portraits, a bit of wildlife life, sports and other fast action. Ideal for outdoor use too as these lenses come with fluorite coating and moisture resistance built into them. 3. Wide Prime. Now comes a very interesting selection of lenses. Wide primes. This selection of lenses includes the 50mm, the 35, the 40mm and the 28mm. The last two lenses are made by Canon are they are really cheap. Yet they give fantastic results. There are several versions of 50mm and 35mm lenses manufactured by a host of manufacturers. Apart from Nikon and Canon’s sumptuous selection of f/1.8, f/1.4 and f/1.2 50mm and f/1.4 and f/1.8 35mm, there are the Pentax options and finally, the Sigma Art series lenses which give any other makes a run for their money. As a matter of fact, I would recommend you to try out both the Sigma 50mm f/1.4 Art and the 35mm f/1.4 Art before deciding on a standard prime (50mm or 35mm). Sigma 50mm F1.4 Art DG HSM Lens for Canon 50mm focal length75mm equivalent focal length on APS-C cameras, 80mm equivalent focal length on Canon APS-C camerasF1.4 maximum aperture; F16 minimumRing-type ultrasonic-type AF motor with full-time manual focusing77mm filters.Angle of View (35mm):46.8° CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-04. We may get a commission. Sigma 35mm F1.4 Art DG HSM Lens for Canon, Black, 3.7 x 3.03 x 3.03 (340101) High speed with large apertureHSM (Hypersonic motor) and inner focusing systemAccessories include: Lens Hood (LH730-03), carrying case35 MM Focal length, Lens not zoomable67mm filters CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-02. We may get a commission. The 50mm Prime. In terms of cheaper options, the Nikkor 50mm f/1.8D is a great piece of optic. However, this lens will not auto-focus with a majority of the entry-level Nikon DSLRs. These include the D5000 series and the D3000 series. If you have a DSLR from the D7000 series or the D750 this lens will be a good fit. Nikon AF FX NIKKOR 50mm f/1.8D Lens for Nikon DSLR Cameras Note : Autofocus system is compatible with select Nikon DSLRs that support D-type lenses, and offers quick and precise...Lens not zoomable. Focal Length : 50 millimeter , Minimum Focus Distance - 1.5 ft.( 0.45 meter)FX in DX Crop Mode 35 millimeter Film; Lens Case: CL-30SNOTE: Refer the User Manual before use. Maximum angle of view (DX-format) 31°30'NOTE: Autofocus is not supported by DSLRs lacking an autofocus motor, such as the D3000-series, D5000-series, D40, D40X, and... CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-05. We may get a commission. For entry-level DSLRs such as the D3300 and the D5300, pick something like the Nikkor AF-S 50mm f/1.8G. This lens has a built-in AF motor and does not depend on the camera for auto-focusing like the 50mm f/1.8 D. Nikon AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.8G Lens Fast, upgraded f/1.8, compact FX format prime lens. The picture angle with 35 millimeter (135) format is 47 degree and the...Focal length 50 millimeter, minimum focus distance 1.48 feet (0.45 meter)Newly developed optical system with aspherical lens element, exclusive Nikon silent wave motor (SWM)M/a focus mode switch, filter thread 58 millimeter, autofocus: Yes. Dimensions (approx.) (from the camera lens mounting...Optimized for edge to edge sharpness on both fx and dx format d SLRS CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-03. We may get a commission. For Canon users, the EF 50 f/1.8 STM is a good choice. This lens supports the dual pixel CMOS autofocusing technology that modern Canon DSLRs come with. This is perfect for shooting movies. Canon EF 50mm f/1.8 STM Lens 50 millimeter focal length and maximum aperture of f/1.8Great for portraits, action, and nighttime photography; Angle of view (horizontal, vertical, diagonal): 40º, 27º,46ºMinimum focusing distance of 1.15 feet (0.35 meter) and a maximum magnification of 0.21xStepping motor (STM) delivers near silent, continuous move Servo AF for movies and smooth AF for stills80 millimetre effective focal length on APS C cameras, 50 millimetre on full frame cameras. Lens construction: 6 elements in... CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-02. We may get a commission. The 35mm Prime. While still on the topic of wide primes, I would like to briefly talk about the 35mm prime lens. The 35mm is a favorite among full-frame users, especially street photographers. But because of the 1.5x (or the 1.6x) crop factor when used with crop sensor cameras, the 35mm is a favorite with crop camera users as well. I love the 35mm lens because of the extra wide angle of view and the sharp optical quality that these prime lenses possess. Canon EF 35mm f/2 IS USM Wide-Angle Lens Focal length and maximum aperture: 35mm 1:2Lens construction: 10 elements in 8 groupsDiagonal angle of view: 63 DegreeRear focusing system with USM focus adjustmentClosest focusing distance: 0.24m/0.79 ft,Focal Length : 35mm Comparable APS-C 1.6x Focal Length: 56 mm.Lens Construction:10... CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-05. We may get a commission. Nikon AF-S DX NIKKOR 35mm f/1.8G Lens with Auto Focus for Nikon DSLR Cameras, 2183,... F mount lens/DX format. Picture angle with Nikon DX format 44 degree52.5 millimeter (35-millimeter equivalent). Rear focusing; Manual focus overrideAperture range: F/1.8 to 22; Dimensions(approx.) 70 x 52.5 millimeterSilent wave motor AF system. Accepts filter type is screw on. Lens construction: 8 elements in 6 groupsCompatible formats is dx and fx in dx crop mode. Maximum reproduction ratio: 0.16x CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-02. We may get a commission. Finally, three more lenses that I should talk about. Two of these are usually termed as pancake lenses. Pancake lenses refer to those which are extremely slim almost to the point of being flat. The lenses I am referring to are the Canon EF-S 24mm f/2.8 STM. Related Post: Best Lenses for the Canon 80D Canon EF-S 24mm f/2.8 STM Lens Wide angle lens for Canon APS C cameras (equivalent to 38 millimeter on a full frame camera)Focal length & maximum aperture: 24 millimeter 1:2.8, maximum magnification of x0.27Slimmest and lightest lens of the EF S seriesCircular aperture (7 blades) delivers beautiful, soft backgroundsFull time manual focus allows manual focus adjustment while in One Shot AF mode CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-05. We may get a commission. and the Canon EF 40mm f/2.8 STM. Canon Cameras US 6310B002 EF 40mm f/2.8 STM Lens - Fixed Black 40mm focal length, Lens not zoom able, 64mm equivalent focal length on Canon APS-C CamerasMinimum focus distance at 0.30m/11.81 inch, F2.8 maximum aperture, F22 minimumStepper type AF motor with full time manual focusing52mm Filters, Lens Construction: 15 Elements in 12 GroupsFocal Length and Maximum Aperture: 100mm 1:2.8 CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-03. We may get a commission. The 24mm is designed for the smaller crop sensor camera. The 40mm is designed for the larger full-frame sensor. But it works with crop sensor cameras as well with an extended effective focal length. Both lenses are reasonably fast and they are both powered by STM AF motor. The 85mm Prime. Finally, I would like to talk about the 85mm prime. The 85mm is arguably the best lens for shooting portraits on a full-frame camera. But on a crop camera and with the effective focal length extended this becomes a medium telephoto. Still good enough for great portraits. Canon’s EF 85mm f/1.8 USM is a good choice. Canon EF 85mm f/1.8 USM Medium Telephoto Lens for Canon SLR Cameras - Fixed 85 millimetre standard lens with f 1.8 maximum aperture for Canon SLR cameras, Lens Type:Telephoto Zoom LensRing-type ultra-sonic monitor (USM) brings subject quickly into focus, Focal length: 85 millimetre, closest focusing...Natural angle of view and perspective is ideal for portraits and natural imagesDesigned to produce beautiful background blur; weighs 15 ouncesMeasures 3 inches in diameter and 2.8 inches long; 1-year warranty. Refer User manual for troubleshooting steps. CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-05. We may get a commission. If you want to splurge the Canon EF 85mm f/1.4L IS USM is a fantastic choice. Canon EF 85mm f/1.4L IS USM - DSLR Lens with IS Capability, Black - 2271C002 Canon’s First 85mm L-series Lens with IS Capability.Large, Bright f/1.4 Aperture.Image Stabilization at up to 4* Stops of Shake Correction.GMo Aspherical Lens with Air Sphere Coating Technology.Lens Construction: 14 elements in 10 groups CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-05. We may get a commission. Nikon also has a great beginner level 85mm in the AF-S 85m f/1.8 G. Nikon AF S NIKKOR 85mm f/1.8G Fixed Lens with Auto Focus for Nikon DSLR Cameras Fast aperture medium telephoto lensInternal focus, focal length: 85 millimeter, minimum focus range: 0.80 meterSilent wave motor (SWM). Number of diaphragm blades: 7 (rounded diaphragm opening)M/a focus mode switch. Filter-attachment size is 67 millimeter (p=0.75 millimeter)Nikon super integrated coating (sic) CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-05. We may get a commission. Finally, Sigma also has a great 85mm lens with a slightly wider f-number of f/1.4. This is an Art lens which means you can expect some optical nirvana using it. Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art Lens for Canon EF (321954) The Sigma 85mm 1.4 DG HSM Art is the latest addition to the world renowned Sigma Global Vision LineIt has equipped newly designed hyper sonic motor (HSM) for nimble AF control, 1.3 times better torque of its predecessorThis lens is compatible with Mount converter MC-11 , so Sony E-mount users can also enjoy this lens with it CHECK TODAY'S PRICE Product from Amazon. Updated on 2022-01-03. We may get a commission. As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases. Certain content that appears on PhotoWorkout.com comes from Amazon. This content is provided ‘as is’ and is subject to change or removal at any time. About The Author. Rajib Mukherjee. Rajib is an avid travel photographer and an overall shutterbug. He loves to test and review new photography gear. He has been writing about cameras and lenses for over 10 years now.
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                            [title] => A Beginner's Guide for Lenses
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                            [description] => Searching for the right lens can become confusing or complicated, this guide will teach you all the basics things you need to know about lenses, so you will be able to make smart decisions when choosing a lens for your camera
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                            [serp_title] => A Beginner's Guide for Lenses - Photographer Touch
                            [serp_description] => Except for in certain instances, everything you need to know about camera lens basics should be true for both film and digital cameras. While only some lenses ...
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                                    [0] => The Lens: Basic Terms You Need To Know
                                    [1] => Different Types Of Lenses
                                    [2] => Advanced Lens Features
                                    [3] => Other Factors To Consider
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                                    [5] => Lens Accessories
                                    [6] => How To Choose The Right Lens For You
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                                    [1] => Starter lenses:
                                    [2] => Intermediate upgrades:
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                                    [4] => Technology And Durability
                                    [5] => Stabilization And Sensitivity
                                    [6] => Compatibility And Equivalent Focal Lengths
                                    [7] => What Affects The Price Of The Lens
                                    [8] => Special Features And Lens Care
                                    [9] => When You Don’t Do Research
                                    [10] => When You Buy Used And Untested
                                    [11] => When You Store And Handle Carelessly
                                    [12] => Cleaners And Specialty Cloths
                                    [13] => Filter Types
                                    [14] => Cases, Caps, And Adapters
                                    [15] => Identify your budget and needs
                                    [16] => Compare features and prices
                                    [17] => Make a wish list of lenses
                                    [18] => Please Share The Love!
                                    [19] => Related Posts
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                                    [22] => 8 Best Vlogging Lenses For Canon Cameras in 2022
                                    [23] => 5 Of The Best Nikon Lenses for Portraits in 2022
                                    [24] => 9 Best Canon Lenses For Traveling in 2022
                                    [25] => 6 of the Best Nikon Lenses for Sports Photography in 2022
                                    [26] => The 7 Best Canon Lenses for Sports Photography in 2022
                                    [27] => 12 Best Lenses For Nikon Z6: Which One Stands Out the Most?
                                    [28] => The 15 Best Lenses for Sony a6500: Let’s Find the Perfect Choice!
                                    [29] => The 5 Best Nikon Macro Lenses in 2022
                                    [30] => Best Wide-Angle Lenses for Nikon in 2022
                                    [31] => The Best Canon Lenses for Wildlife Photography
                                    [32] => The Best Lenses For Sony a6300
                                    [33] => The Best Lenses for Canon 80D in 2022
                                    [34] => The Best Lenses for Canon 70D in 2022
                                    [35] => The 9 Best Nikon Lenses For Traveling in 2022
                                    [36] => How To Remove White Background In Photoshop
                                    [37] => How Do You Take Professional Photos in a Car?
                                    [38] => How Do Hidden Wireless Cameras Work?
                                    [39] => What Is Image Masking and How it Works?
                                    [40] => How To Add Watermarks In Lightroom
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                                            [13] => stdClass Object
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                                            [15] => stdClass Object
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                                            [16] => stdClass Object
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                                            [29] => stdClass Object
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                                            [30] => stdClass Object
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                            [body] => A Beginner’s Guide for Lenses By: James Miller September 15, 2021 Whether you’re a beginner or a professional photographer, buying lenses for your camera is a highly specific process that requires knowing a few different factors before making your purchase. Sometimes, searching for the right lens can become confusing or complicated when there are so many terms and details to remember.Don’t be intimidated by all the information available — this guide walks you through each step of choosing a camera lens with a combination of in-depth analysis and market basics. You don’t have to be a professional to understand the information here, and photography experts can find this handy reference guide gathers all the industry tips and tricks together in one place.Except for in certain instances, everything you need to know about camera lens basics should be true for both film and digital cameras. While only some lenses and advanced technology are available for digital cameras, many of the principles for finding the right lens remain the same in either case. Table Of Contents The Lens: Basic Terms You Need To KnowThe lens body and its functions:Different Types Of LensesStarter lenses:Intermediate upgrades:Specialty grade:Advanced Lens FeaturesTechnology And DurabilityStabilization And SensitivityOther Factors To ConsiderCompatibility And Equivalent Focal LengthsWhat Affects The Price Of The LensSpecial Features And Lens CareCommon Mistakes When Choosing A LensWhen You Don’t Do ResearchWhen You Buy Used And UntestedWhen You Store And Handle CarelesslyLens AccessoriesCleaners And Specialty ClothsFilter TypesCases, Caps, And AdaptersHow To Choose The Right Lens For YouIdentify your budget and needs.Compare features and prices.Make a wish list of lenses.The Lens: Basic Terms You Need To Know. Because many lenses can be used for more than one purpose, you’ll need a functional knowledge of the most common terms in order to shop the selections you’ll find. There is a lot of technical jargon to throw around when you’re talking about camera lenses. Let’s break that down.The lens body and its functions:. Focal length. This refers to the level of magnification a lens provides. The focal length is measured by the millimeter; lenses with a range between a high and low focal length are known as zoom lenses, while those with a fixed focal length are called prime lenses. In terms of what a human eye might see, a lower number takes in a larger view than your natural sight. A high number means a smaller viewing aspect.Aperture. Also known as the f-stop number, aperture can be a difficult term to master when beginning photography as a hobby or profession. Basically, the aperture setting changes how much of the image will be in focus in a final picture by changing how much light filters through the lens and to the sensor. In low-light conditions, you will look for the lower numbers f-stop.Shutter speed. The shutter controls how long the sensor is exposed to light, which affects the quality and clarity of the image you’re photographing. Typically, a faster shutter speed equals a cleaner image, especially when you’re photographing subjects while you or they are moving.Sensor sizes. The size of a camera’s sensor will determine if the camera is considered a full-frame or cropped-sensor camera, also known as an APS-C camera. Understanding how does sensor size affects focal length will help you determine what lens will work for the shot you want. A lens that can work with various sensor sizes will produce different results despite the fact it’s the same focal length. Knowing how to calculate according to the crop factor will help you determine which lens to buy, and we explain that in depth below.Lens mount. For a lens, this term indicates the ring that allows the lens and camera to connect. Certain adapters can be used for some types of lenses so that they can be used with cameras from different manufacturers.Compatibility. For a lens, this refers to both the camera’s sensor size and connection ring to the camera. Traditional film cameras and most professional DSLR camera lenses are compatible with the aspect ratios of APS-C cameras. However, lenses made for cropped-sensor cameras are not compatible with the aspect ratios of full-frame cameras. As well, certain adapters can be used for some types of lenses so that they can be used with cameras from different manufacturers.Field of view. What the camera sees is called the field of view and can be observed through the viewfinder for each camera. Understanding how the camera will frame a picture in its final form is an essential part of photography.Depth of field. How much of the photo is in focus gives the viewer a sense of positioning within the scope of the picture’s composition.Optical lens. This might be a single pane of highly specialized glass or more usually an assembly of them for any given camera lens. The quality of the manufacturing impacts the clarity and longevity of the lens.Focusing ring. Whether manually used or automated on digital lenses, this controls how off your frame is in focus. Many modern lenses have indicators and settings that allow a combination of manual and auto-focusing techniques.Hoods and caps. Hoods for your lens are used to prevent rain from hitting the lens or help reduce how much light is filtering through. Caps can snap, push or screw onto the front and back of a lens for added protection before and after use. Different Types Of Lenses. Now that we have the basic vocabulary covered, let’s talk about the specific types of lenses you’ll find on the market and when you might need to use them. Think about your camera lens in terms of how you want your final picture to come out. This will help you identify the type of lens you need for the perfect shot of your dreams.Most general purpose zoom lenses offer the new photographer many opportunities to practice mastering focus and depth of field principles. More practiced photographers also need a go-to classic for capturing shots from many angles and perspectives. Functionally, any fixed lens is considered a prime lens and requires the photographer to understand the focal length between their lens and their subject. Higher quality brands achieve faster shutter speeds and might then call their lenses “fast prime” to further differentiate them from standard fixed lenses.Starter lenses:. Standard. A standard lens can also be called a “normal lens” and is usually included with new camera purchases. Every beginner should be comfortable using the standard lens and its settings while they explore their photography skills. Most standard lenses are meant to render pictures that have a natural-looking angle as if seen by the human eye.Macro. While zoom lenses can get you a close shot, a macro lens will get you the closest shot possible. Hyper-sensitive to the smallest of details, getting started with a macro lens means even a single rose can be captured through a variety of tight shots.Intermediate upgrades:. Fisheye. Measuring between 8-16mm, a fisheye lens uses focal lengths far below what the natural human eye sees and the edges and corners of a shot distort due to the extremity of the wide angle. Photographers often choose this lens for architectural shots or artistic angles for landscape and sporting pictures. When you’re ready to take your beginner skills up a notch, playing around with the interesting perspectives you can find through a fisheye lens is a great workout for your focus-finding and depth of field skills.Wide-angle. Perfect for capturing breathtaking views and a favorite of travel photographers, a wide-angle lens broadens the possibilities for rich composition and impressive scope for your photographs.Telephoto. As a lens with focal lengths anywhere from 55-70mm at the mid-range zoom to extreme 1700mm lenses used for sport and wildlife photography, a telephoto lens is used to get a close shot from a distance the human eye wouldn’t be able to see in detail. While a telephoto lens poses a more challenging learning curve than others for the budding shutterbug, there are still brands that offer affordable and accessible versions so you can get used to working with more powerful lenses.Pancake. A slimmed down, fixed lens meant for all-purpose use. While not especially technically challenging, photographers who are still getting used to how their camera processes images might feel more comfortable with adjustable, standard lenses instead.Specialty grade:. Tilt-shift. Turning the subjects of your photograph into toy-like miniatures takes a special lens and some practice to master the trick of taking these kinds of shots. Super telephoto. Maximum zooming capabilities happen with a super telephoto lens. Most landscape and wildlife photographers depend on the superior reach of high-end telephoto lenses.Teleconverter. Called a lens for your lens, teleconverters increase the reach for your telephoto lens by attaching between the lens and the camera body. While some light capture and shutter speed may be affected, this is an inexpensive and versatile option for gaining more capabilities without purchasing a more expensive lens. Advanced Lens Features. Even for the hobbyist photographer, certain advanced features can be easy to use and yield amazing results. For shutterbugs who are looking for more robust techniques, new technology offers a wide array of unique and awe-inspiring opportunities to improve your shots.Just because these are advanced capabilities doesn’t mean you need an advanced level of skill to use them. Taking a little time to understand these features will have any hobbyist shooting like a pro with the lens in no time.Technology And Durability. The build quality for lenses and cameras can vary greatly and is the main factor in determining the price point of any given lens. While in most cases this means a higher cost equals higher quality, it’s important to shop around for the kind of build that suits your needs and your camera best. As new synthetic compounds hit the market, manufacturers are experiment with how to improve the durability and longevity of their lenses.Most innovation answers a demand that comes from having a problem and struggling to solve it. Reverse lensing, where you turn your lens around and mount it to the camera with an adapter, is a helpful and inexpensive alternative to purchasing separate macro lenses. Now, some manufacturers may be working on camera lenses that have mounts on both ends in order to remove the need for special adapters on certain cameras.While smartphones and other mirrorless or lensless cameras make their move on the market, none of them yet compare to the crisp and saturated qualities a photographer can achieve with a variety of traditional lens structures. Because of the way it captures and renders light, photography with formal lenses achieves the most accurate vision of what the human eye sees and what a camera can do to enhance it.Stabilization And Sensitivity. As shutter speeds and sensor sensitivity increases with technological advancements in photography, the need for stabilization features and fast-response focusing capabilities rise, as well. Many photographers may prefer their image stabilization mechanisms to be in the lens itself as opposed to the camera body. For most lenses, it’s assumed that the fine-tuning required for proper stabilization will be most accurate when calibrated inside the lens instead of the body.Sensor stabilization has its place, too, especially for photographers trying to achieve a variety of different shots on a more budget-friendly basis when they can buy less dynamic lenses. Stabilization features in a lens can often mean a higher price tag, but many are becoming more affordable as the industry advances.Autofocus and manual override mechanisms also continue to improve with the quality of components being made at better manufacturing rates. The more these two functions can work in tandem together, the more flexibility you have as a photographer to capture moments between movements and incredible detail for important shots.Other Factors To Consider. Once you know the kind of shots you want to take and what type of lens works best, you’ll need to consider several other minor and major factors that could affect your image quality or your choice in equipment.Certain photographers prioritize weight or price, while others look at build qualities and special features before determining which lens to include in their kit. Knowing all your options is an important step when developing your own preferences.Compatibility And Equivalent Focal Lengths. While most lenses will list lens mount compatibility by brand somewhere in their specs, you can match their measurements or your own camera’s specs to find the right match. Comparing lenses with sensor sizes in order to know what image quality to expect is a trickier business. While there are calculators to help you estimate outcomes with different pairings, it’s important to remember a couple of basic factors.A full-frame sensor is typically found in 35mm film cameras and the higher quality DSLR cameras most often used by professional photographers. The bigger sensor typically means a better quality photograph due to larger individual photosites collecting light on the sensor’s surface.Most mid-range and average DSLR cameras have cropped sensors roughly half the size of those full-frame cameras; these cameras are referred to as Advanced Photo System type-C cameras.Full-frame lenses can be used on either type, but the difference in sensor size affects the focal length. Photographers need to know the equivalent length if they’re using a full-frame lens on a cropped-sensor camera in order to frame their picture appropriately. For quick reference, multiplying the focal length of an APS-C camera by 1.6 for Canon lenses or 1.5 for Nikon lenses should give you the appropriate equivalent ratio.If you currently have an APS-C type camera, it’s important to note that if you switch to a full-frame camera then you won’t be able to use APS-C lenses with your upgrade. This could affect your purchasing choices now if you’re investing in quality lenses with full-frame photography in mind.What Affects The Price Of The Lens. With better quality comes higher prices, and this is certainly true of sensitive and finely-tuned equipment like camera lenses. The mechanisms that make the auto-focus operate or the shutters of the aperture opening flex faster or slower require expertise to put together and materials made to exacting specifications.With that level of craftsmanship or specialty, materials comes not only a rising price but can often determine how large or heavy a lens may be. This is something to consider when putting together a kit not only because of your budget but how easily you can use and store the lens as well. It might not seem important, but when you’re holding a camera for long minutes to try and get the perfect shot, a lens that’s lighter than others by even a few ounces makes a huge difference.Some cameras may be calibrated to work best with lenses manufactured by the same brand, but many third-party manufacturers are developing quality lenses that can be used with more and more cameras every day. This provides an affordable alternative for hobbyists who want more powerful components but can’t afford the brand name price tag.Special Features And Lens Care. As technology continues to innovate with the digital capabilities of modern lenses, their functionality improves. With this comes a shift in industry standards and expectations. Newer lenses on the market target the need for more video capture now that so many photographers have cameras capable of both formats, which means big moves in the auto-focus and image stabilization area of development. High-end lenses focus almost instantly and combined stabilization in the lens and camera body itself makes video capture cleaner and clearer.Weather sealed lens increases the longevity and durability of camera lenses against wear and tear and other difficult conditions, like harsh elements and high humidity. New products that coat the lenses in order to reduce reflections and distortion can also protect the glass against minor damage, too.All of this also means an expanded need to care for your camera lenses carefully. Most photographers already know they might need specialty cleaners and cloth for the front and rear panes, but proper care of a lens requires several tools in your kit. It’s important to know that proper care doesn’t mean constant cleaning — in fact, too much handling and cleaning can raise the risk of damages!Whether you’re cleaning the lens at home or in the field, keep on hand a blower or a brush with soft bristles for your camera lenses in addition to the cleaning solution and microfiber cloth that should be standard items in every kit.For quick fixes of smudges or fingerprints, dust the lens and apply the solution before using gentle, circular motions that work from the inside out. When you’re able to manage more in-depth maintenance, use a special little blower that puffs gentle bursts of air into the crevices and rings to rid them of debris or dust. Never blow with your mouth, as it could leave saliva or impart humidity into the camera.Common Mistakes When Choosing A Lens. Don’t worry, everybody makes mistakes when there’s so much information, terminology, and technology to understand. The good news is that this list can help you avoid common problems and challenges you might face when buying a camera lens. Double-checking before your purchase for any last minute faults can often do the most in helping you avoid irreversible issues.When You Don’t Do Research. The most common cause of problems when purchasing a new lens happens you have haven’t done the right amount of research. Either your lens doesn’t fit or you’re not getting the shot you want. Sometimes, it’s hard to find the most accurate information and it can take some digging around before you have all the answers you need.Making sure your lens is compatible with the sensor size of your camera and that the lens mount will attach properly to your camera’s body are the most important factors to understand fully before buying.Professionals can struggle with this as well as beginners, so don’t worry if you find yourself flailing around in comment threads and review lists wondering what your question was in the first place. Also, remember that understanding each lens has a specific set of purposes, can help you narrow down the ones you need and the settings you prefer.When You Buy Used And Untested. Many photographers score great gear by swapping with other enthusiasts or buying secondhand lenses through reputable hands. Many eager beginners can get caught up in a nice looking price tag and figure that it’s okay to buy it used since they’re just getting started. The problem with buying secondhand lenses from stores or people who don’t understand the special care and requirements of these sensitive pieces means you might be buying excessively damaged goods.When possible, you should consider purchasing a lens brand new so you can rest easier with a knowledge of factory-fresh components and zero damages. Many manufacturers offer warranties, some that last the lifetime of the camera, that can only be activated by the original purchaser and may require receipts to be shown for proof of purchase.When You Store And Handle Carelessly. While some repairs can fix certain problems with camera lenses, their highly sensitive nature leaves them vulnerable to permanent damage very easily. Not taking the time to properly store and maintain your lenses can result in costly fixes and replacements down the road. Not only do you need to look out for damage to the lens glass itself, but dust can damage adjustments and other finely-tuned calibrations.Dirt and sand can also work their way into the crevices between components, and even foggy or humid conditions can permanently damage the lens with condensation or mold. Knowing what kind of fabrics and casings to use for your chosen brands will help you sustain the lifetime of your lens.Lens Accessories. While not always necessary, some accessories can become indispensable pieces to keep in your photography toolkit. Highly sensitive or specialty lenses need extra care when cleaning and storing them for use. Others offer exciting new possibilities for your shots when used with certain filters.Cleaners And Specialty Cloths. Because of the highly sensitive material lenses are made from and the fact that keeping a clear, smooth surface on the glass is paramount to taking perfect pictures, it’s important to use the right cleaning tools. Spray cleaner for windows and a couple of paper towels aren’t going to cut it — or rather, they are since they might scratch the lens and ruin it for good.Microfiber cloths and gentle, specialty cleaners should be kept on hand for cleaning in between shots or in case of accidents. Regular dusting, cleaning, and maintenance can also increase the longevity of your lens.Filter Types. UV/protection filters. These can be necessary for protecting your lens from wear and tear that can lead to cracks or scratches on the glass. UV filters do not impact photo quality though it may affect how stylized filters photograph.Polarizing filters. Making the colors of your photograph pop can start with using different polarizing filters. These change how the lens captures and renders reflections and color saturation, though they may not be suitable for all types of lenses.Neutral density filters. In order to reduce how much light is entering the lens, you can use a neutral density filter. This helps to decrease the shutter speed, which means longer exposure time. Photographing with this technique lends a sense of natural movement to finished photos or videos.Cases, Caps, And Adapters. Cases are an incredibly important and often overlooked component of any photographer’s personal kit. While there are many different brands and styles to choose from, you should look for water-resistant fabric and an appropriate level of padding. Some cases come with straps and others are slimmer in order to fit better inside your camera bag. Good lens cases aren’t the only way to protect your camera lens. Fitting the right size caps to either side of your lens takes that protection one step ahead and prevents any scratches or accidents from happening if the case isn’t enough to keep the glass safe. One of the more overlooked pieces is the rear caps, which can be inconvenient to reattach when photographers are switching between lenses. Sometimes, adapters can help you use lenses from different manufacturers on your camera. This can make space in your camera bag, shave seconds off your shoot time and save dollars from your wallet. While using lens adapters might add more time to your setup for certain shots, the benefits of flexibility between products can often outweigh the added step.How To Choose The Right Lens For You. Only you know the vision you have in your mind of the photographs you want to take. However, knowing what to expect from your search for the perfect lens will help you target the right choice at the right time. Most photographers, even beginners, find they make frequent use of a few lenses at a time for any project. Plan ahead when you can and have a couple of go-to choices you know work best for your everyday needs. Identify your budget and needs.You may want one of the most expensive lenses ever, but chances are that you don’t need one unless you have a highly specialized opportunity and the room in your budget for that kind of purchase. Most photographers have to balance their wish list of gear with a wallet that needs a break every now and then. It doesn’t hurt to dream, and it’s important to validate your goals with quality purchases like specialty lenses and equipment.When certain brands or types of lenses are out of reach, look around for alternatives that produce similar effects or can achieve a comparable level of focus and light balance. A little extra footwork and setup might be required to fine-tune that shot to the vision in your mind, but one of the engaging elements of photography is using your learning to strike that balance between your eye and the equipment you’re using.Compare features and prices.While there are several ways to compare one lens to another, you may want to use a variety of sources to see how the different features and brands stack up and where they stand on price points. Sometimes, you can achieve taking the kinds of photographs you want in your portfolio or collection by combining a filter and lens or stacking a telephoto with a teleconverter lens. While the kind of camera you have will make a difference in what lenses you’re looking for, many third-party manufacturers offer quality options at affordable prices when compared to brand-specific choices. If you’re finding that the lens in your camera’s brand has a prohibitive price or you want to see how the calibrations of a different manufacturer affect the outcome of your pictures, consider if a third-party brand of lenses might work for you.Depending on your priorities for your shopping or your project, the price may be the biggest concern. For photographers just getting started, think about the features you need to get the shots you want and then find the lens that best fits those specifications in your budget. High specialized lenses often cost more, and you may want to wait until you’re more comfortable with the camera you’re using before making that purchase.Make a wish list of lenses.Keep tabs on your inventory and what you hope to add to it as you continue your journey with photography. Plan for the shots you want to take and maintain a running list of lens brands and styles you’d like to try to see if they’re what you need.If you want, make a literal digital wishlist through any of the usual online retailers that you think your friends and family may want to consult for any potential gift-giving ideas. This is a great way to round out your collection and share memorable moments by capturing even more of them with your loved ones.Keeping a list of your preferences will help you when you’re making your purchases for yourself, or if you’re considering renting or buying lenses second hand. Knowing the current market value of a lens before spending the fees to borrow or risking the chance of a secondhand buy will make sure you’re negotiating for your best interests.Renting or borrowing lenses from friends or sharing communities can also be a great way to narrow down your wish list once you’ve tried a brand or style and find it doesn’t suit your needs after all. Whether you’re just getting started or you’ve become a seasoned pro, the market is always shifting and technology promises new products that will revolutionize your next shot.Staying up to date on the latest industry developments, releases and trends keep your knowledge fresh and your skills sharpened so you can keep taking the photos you want in the style that fits you best. Please Share The Love!If you found this post useful, please let others know about it by sharing it. Share on facebook Facebook Share on twitter Twitter Share on pinterest Pinterest Related Posts. The 9 Best Nikon Lenses For Traveling in 2022 . 10 Best Nikon Lenses For Videography in 2021 . 8 Best Vlogging Lenses For Canon Cameras in 2022 . 5 Of The Best Nikon Lenses for Portraits in 2022 . 9 Best Canon Lenses For Traveling in 2022 . 6 of the Best Nikon Lenses for Sports Photography in 2022 . The 7 Best Canon Lenses for Sports Photography in 2022 . 12 Best Lenses For Nikon Z6: Which One Stands Out the Most? . The 15 Best Lenses for Sony a6500: Let’s Find the Perfect Choice! . The 5 Best Nikon Macro Lenses in 2022 . Best Wide-Angle Lenses for Nikon in 2022 . The Best Canon Lenses for Wildlife Photography . The Best Lenses For Sony a6300 . The Best Lenses for Canon 80D in 2022 . The Best Lenses for Canon 70D in 2022 . James Miller. Hey there, my name is James and I am the creator and editor of this site. I have been photographing for the past 20 years and my mission is to simplify this misunderstood art of taking and processing photographs I love. The 9 Best Nikon Lenses For Traveling in 2022 . How To Remove White Background In Photoshop . How Do You Take Professional Photos in a Car? . How Do Hidden Wireless Cameras Work? . What Is Image Masking and How it Works? . How To Add Watermarks In Lightroom . We use cookies for various purposes including analytics and personalized marketing. By continuing to use the service, you agree to our use of cookies. - Cookie Policy I agree Protected by Patchstack
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                                    [18] => Take Workshops or Courses to Improve your Skills
                                    [19] => Take Lots of Photos!
                                    [20] => How to Protect your Mirrorless Camera
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                                    [22] => Tips for Travelling with a Mirrorless Camera
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                                    [24] => 1. Canon EOS M200
                                    [25] => 2. Sony A6600
                                    [26] => Leave a Reply Cancel reply
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                            [body] => How to Use a Mirrorless Camera: A Beginner’s Photography Guide Last updated: January 6, 2022. Written by Laurence Norah - 4 CommentsSo you’re the proud owner of a new mirrorless camera. Awesome! Mirrorless cameras are a wonderful bit of photography kit, with a number of advantages over other types of camera. They’re also one of the best cameras with which to learn photography on, because you can see the changes you make to various settings in real time. However, a mirrorless camera is a complicated piece of equipment. As such, you definitely need to spend a bit of time learning how to use it properly so you can unlock its full potential. Which is where I come in. I’ve been taking photos for over thirty years with a wide range of cameras, from a film SLR through to compact, mirrorless, and DSLR cameras. I also teach an online photography course, lead photo workshops, and give talks on photography around the world. So those are my qualifications. Today, I’m going to share with you all the key things you need to know in order to get the most out of your new mirrorless camera. I’m going to tell you all the major functions it has, the settings you need to master, explain how to get great photos with your new camera, and then go over some tips for caring and looking after your new investment. This guide is written on the assumption that you have no previous photography experience, so we will start with the basics and work our way forward. Of course, if you have photography experience that’s great, however, refreshing yourself on the basics never hurts in my opinion. At this point, I would like to quickly say that photography is not a simple subject. It can take time to grasp many of the concepts, and practice with your gear is the best way to get a handle on it. Reading a guide like this is a great starting point, but I urge you to get out there and take photos as much as you can. Digital film doesn’t cost anything, and as you use your camera more and more the various settings and features will all start to make more sense. Please don’t get too frustrated if you feel overwhelmed. Photography is complicated, and like any skill, it takes time to master. Perseverance and patience are key! Feel free to bookmark this page and come back to it for reference as your photography journey progresses. Now, let’s start with the basics of what a mirrorless camera actually is. Contents: What is a Mirrorless Camera? A mirrorless camera is a type of digital camera. There are a number of types of digital cameras on the market, such as DSLR cameras, compact cameras and even smartphone cameras. These cameras actually have more in common with each other than differences. In fact, the basic principle of how a camera works hasn’t changed a great deal since photography was invented. At its core, a camera is a device which is used to record light information, to create an output we call a photograph. The medium for recording light was initially a chemically photosensitive piece of film, but that has been replaced by a digital sensor in most modern cameras. All types of digital cameras take light from a scene, focus it through a lens, and record it onto a sensor. The differences between the various types of digital cameras are largely around some of the components that make up the camera. Key differences include: the size of the sensor inside the camera. Smaller cameras usually have smaller sensors the size of the aperture inside the lens the level of manual control a user has whether or not it supports different lenses or not A mirrorless camera is very similar to a DSLR camera in most regards. Most mirrorless cameras have relatively large sensors, produce high quality images, have full manual controls, and have interchangeable lenses. The difference is that a mirrorless camera, as the name suggests, does not have a mirror inside it. In a DSLR, the mirror is used to redirect the light passing through the lens to the optical viewfinder. This means the photographer sees the actual scene when looking through the viewfinder. A mirrorless camera does not have this mirror, and as such, it does not have an optical viewfinder. The image that the photographer uses to compose the shot is either displayed on the screen on the back of the camera, or on some mirrorless cameras, in the electronic viewfinder. In both of these cases, the image is the result of the light hitting the camera sensor, being processed by the cameras electronics, and then output to the screen as a digital image. This is actually the same with smartphones and most compact cameras, which also do not have a mirror inside. However, because the mirrorless camera arose as a direct competitor to the DSLR, and the key difference is the lack of mirror, the name stuck. Mirrorless cameras have a number of advantages over DSLR cameras. They tend to be lighter and smaller whilst producing similar image quality. They are easier to use in many cases because what you see on the screen is exactly the image you get when you press the shutter button. Plus they have the same advantages that a DSLR camera has, including interchangeable lenses, support for RAW shooting, and full manual controls. The main disadvantage is price, as most mirrorless cameras tend to be a little bit more expensive than their equivalent DSLR product. There is also a very slight delay between reality and the image seen on screen due to the processing. This isn’t noticeable or even a factor for most photographers, however high end sports photographers have largely stuck with DSLR cameras for this reason. In addition, there is still a wider selection of lenses for DSLR cameras as they have been available for longer, and battery life on a DSLR is better than on a mirrorless camera.   Mirrorless Camera Controls: A Guide to Using Your Mirrorless Camera. When you take a mirrorless camera out of the box, you will probably notice that it has a lot of buttons and controls, with a range of obscure labels and markings. This can be a bit overwhelming, and you might be tempted to leave it in auto mode as a result. This is definitely a natural reaction. However, to get the most out of your camera, it is definitely worth learning what at least some of the buttons do. The good news is that once you have done this with one camera, you can transfer your knowledge to other cameras which are all fairly similar. I am now going to go through the major controls, features, and buttons that most mirrorless camera have. The exact controls, features and naming conventions might vary from camera to camera, but this should cover most of the key elements you should be looking to master on your new camera.   Shutter Release. Probably the most obvious button on your camera, the shutter release is the button you press to take a photo. This will usually be located at the top right of the camera, to be operated by the index finger on your right hand. Left handed photographers are out of luck, as far as I know there has never been a left handed camera design with the shutter button placed for left handed use.   Mode Dial. Like DSLR cameras and some advanced compact cameras, a mirrorless camera has a range of modes that you can operate it in. These modes are generally used to define how much degree of manual control you want over the camera. They will range from full Automatic modes where the camera does everything for you, through to a fully manual mode where you are in charge of everything. To change the mode the camera is in, you just rotate the mode dial to the mode you want. This will instantly change the mode the camera is in, and the new mode is usually displayed on screen as well when you change operating mode. The exact modes available will vary by camera model, but should be similar to the following: Auto. This is the default mode that most cameras will come set to. In Automatic mode, the camera will handle everything for you, including setting the shutter speed, aperture, and ISO. It will also often pick the focus point, and may fire the flash if you have one. Auto is designed so you just have to point the camera at your subject and press the shutter button. Additional Auto modes. As well as the default auto mode, the camera may also come with a number of additional auto modes, which are usually referred to as “scene” modes. For example, there may be a landscape auto mode, a portrait auto mode, a night scene mode, and a macro auto mode. These modes exist to give the camera a clue as to what you are taking a picture of, so it can adjust the settings for you. P mode. “P” mode stands for Program Auto. This is basically a slightly advanced version of automatic mode, where the camera lets you make some adjustments to the shot. These include increasing and decreasing the brightness of the image with exposure compensation, adjusting the ISO, and changing the white balance. It’s a stepping stone to the more manual controls, but I’d suggest ignoring it and moving to one of the modes below instead. “A” or “AV” mode. This is aperture priority mode. Aperture priority lets you set the aperture, and then the camera will evaluate the light in the scene, and set the appropriate shutter. You can also adjust the ISO in this mode, as well as adjust the brightness using exposure compensation. Aperture allows you to control depth of field, and this mode works well for both portrait shots and landscapes. “S”, “T”, or “TV” mode. This is the shutter priority mode. Shutter priority lets you set the shutter, and then the camera will evaluate the light in the scene and set the appropriate aperture. You can also adjust the ISO. This mode is essentially the same as aperture priority, except you control the shutter. You can also adjust the brightness using exposure compensation. Shutter priority is great for when you want to control motion in the shot, such as freezing a fast moving subject. “M”. This is full manual mode. In this mode you control the aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. The camera will use the exposure meter to tell you if you are under or over exposing the image, but it won’t stop you from doing either. You can’t use exposure compensation in this mode because you have full control over the exposure. You can also adjust ISO in this mode. Although out of the box, you may want to start just shooting in Auto to get a feel for the camera, I would recommend that you aim to eventually shoot in aperture priority, shutter priority or manual modes. These modes give you the most control over the final look of the image and the composition. Aperture priority lets you control the aperture, which adjusts the depth of field of the shot. This works well for portraits and landscapes, or any shot where the depth of field is a key part of the composition. Shutter priority for me is all about controlling how motion appears in your shot. If you want to show some motion blur, you’d use a slow shutter speed. If you want to freeze the action of a fast moving subject, you’d use a high shutter speed. Exactly how aperture, shutter speed, and ISO work together to create a correctly exposed final image is a concept known as the exposure triangle. This is a bit beyond the scope of this post, but I have written a detailed guide to the exposure triangle which I think you will find useful. Finally, don’t worry too much about jumping all the way to manual mode. Whilst manual mode is useful for specific photography situations like long exposure photography or astrophotography, I generally find that for my photography needs, I work 90% of the time in either aperture priority or shutter priority mode. These modes let me control a specific compositional element of the scene, like depth of field or motion, whilst not having to worry too much about the other settings at the risk of missing the shot.   Control Wheel. Depending on the camera you have, you will have one or more control wheels to play with. These may be located in different places on the camera. A common place for a control wheel is near the shutter button, so it can be easily adjusted with your index finger. Control wheels can also often be found on the back of the camera or on the top of the camera. For example, on my Lumix GX8 mirrorless camera, there’s a control wheel around the shutter button, and a control wheel on the top of the camera behind the shutter button. Usually, a control wheel is used to adjust a specific setting. What it changes will vary depending on the mode the camera is in. In aperture priority mode for example, the control wheel can usually be used to increase or decrease the aperture. In shutter priority mode, the control wheel will usually increase or decrease the shutter speed. If your camera has multiple control wheels, then in manual mode one wheel will adjust the aperture, and the other will adjust shutter speed. Depending on your camera, you might be able to change exactly what each control wheel changes. For example, you might be able to set it up to manage exposure compensation, ISO settings, white balance settings, and so on. The default settings will usually be fine, but every photographer is different, so do feel free to adjust these to your needs as you progress on your photography journey.   ISO Button. Nearly every mirrorless camera should have a dedicated ISO button on the back or top of the camera. Pressing this button will take you directly to the ISO settings. Often, pressing the ISO button will also mean the control wheel adjusts ISO. ISO is one of the three sides of the exposure triangle. If you put the camera into manual mode and leave the aperture and shutter speed as they are, when you increase or decrease the ISO you will see the image getting brighter and darker on the screen. A side effect of increasing the ISO is that your images will get more noisy. Most modern mirrorless cameras perform admirably at an ISO range of 100 – 800 (for daily use I recommend 100-400 range), and noise will start to creep in from ISO 1600 and higher. Noise appears as blotches of grain or color on your images. It can be hard to see on the camera’s screen, but when you look at your images on a computer screen at 100%, it will be very obvious. Because of the noise issue, ISO is often the last control we want to use to adjust the brightness of an image. Ideally, you will be able to get the correct exposure by adjusting the aperture and shutter speed, and using a nice low ISO. Of course, this isn’t always possible. When you are shooting in low light, you might need to increase the ISO. However, it is really important to remember to reduce this back to a normal range of 100 – 400, which should work in most photography situations. If you leave the ISO too high, you run the risk of all your images turning out noisy, which is not something you want.   Exposure Compensation Button (+/-). Exposure compensation is a common feature across the majority of cameras, including smartphones and compact cameras. It’s basically a quick override button that lets you brighten or darken an image without having to play around with any settings. The technical term for capturing an image in photography is actually an exposure. This is because you are exposing the camera’s sensor to the light for a defined period of time (the shutter speed), with the exposure being the end result. In most situations you want a correctly exposed image, which is not too bright and not too dark. Camera’s use a variety of methods for calculating the correct settings for this correct exposure, but they don’t always get it right. For this reason, you can quickly tell the camera to increase or decrease the brightness of the image using the exposure compensation button. Usually this will be marked with a +/- button. When you press the button, you will be able to increase the exposure compensation, or decrease it. This might be done on screen, or by using the control wheel when exposure compensation is selected. Some cameras have a dedicated exposure compensation wheel rather than a button. This achieves the same effect, it’s just a little faster to do. On a mirrorless camera, the change to your image should be immediately apparent on screen, as it brightens and darkens the shot. When you make changes to the exposure compensation setting, you should see the camera making adjustments to the aperture, shutter speed, or ISO in order to actually make the image brighter or darker. The numbers for these settings will appear on screen. As with ISO, it’s really important to remember to put your exposure compensation back to zero after you have finished using it. I have spoken with folks learning photography who have accidentally set their exposure compensation to a high number at some point, and then they can’t figure out why all their images end up being way too bright. This is a common photography mistake, so try to avoid it if you can.   Flash Button. Many of the mirrorless cameras on the market today feature some sort of built-in flash. We’ve written a couple of guides to flash in photography, specifically around how to turn off flash on your camera, and reasons to turn off flash on your camera. Suffice to say, we aren’t huge fans of the built-in flash on most cameras as the results are sub optimal. In addition, there are many locations where flash photography isn’t allowed. Still, folks are used to having a flash and manufacturers are used to putting them into cameras, and flash does come in handy at times. The good news is that it’s quick and easy to adjust the flash settings on your camera, as most mirrorless cameras feature a dedicated flash button (assuming they have a flash built-in). My mirrorless camera doesn’t have a flash built in, but as the flash button is pretty universal, this image of a compact camera flash button should do! The flash button is the little icon on the right side of the back of the camera. Pressing this button will take you to the flash settings menu, where you can enable or disable your auto flash settings. We’d recommend disabling it for most situations unless you really want to use it. This will stop it from going off when you don’t want it to. If you have an external flash unit, this will normally be controlled via it’s own menu system and buttons, although you will need to configure the camera via the menu as well.   Focus Mode. When we take a picture, we want our subject to be nice and sharp. This sharpness is achieved by adjusting the focus. An in focus image will be sharp, whilst an out of focus image will be blurry. Most mirrorless cameras on the market today ship with a variety of focus modes, which allow you to adjust how the camera focuses. The focus mode button on the camera, which may also be a dial or toggle, lets you quickly switch between some of these modes. If you are looking for the button on your camera, it will usually be labelled something like “AF”, which stands for Autofocus. If it’s not accessible via a button, you might have to go into your camera’s settings menu, where it will be called something like “focus mode”. The exact modes your camera has will depend on your manufacturer, but usually there are at least three modes you can access quickly. The first of these will be the standard focus mode, perhaps called auto focus single. This is the focus mode you would use for subjects that are not likely to move. In this mode, the camera will focus on the subject, and then lock the focus. The next mode will be called something like auto focus continuous. In this mode, once you have a subject, the camera will do it’s best to track focus on the subject even if it’s moving. This means you will get sharp shots of your subject even if it moves as you take one or more shots of it. Continuous focus is good for any moving subject, including photos of wildlife, photos of sporting events, or photos of people moving. The third mode you should also have access to will be a manual mode. Manual mode means that you have total control over the focus. Usually, there will be a focus ring on the lens itself, which you twist to change focus. I should add that many cameras have additional versions of the above modes. For example, many cameras offer some sort of face or eye detection for focus, meaning the camera will automatically detect and track focus on a subjects face or eye. This can be especially useful for taking pictures of people in motion.   Zoom / Focal Length Ring. A mirrorless camera, like a DSLR camera, lets you change the lens depending on what you are shooting. There are two types of lens that you can get. These are “prime” lenses, where there is no zoom, and “zoom” lenses, where you can zoom in and out on the scene. In photography terms, this “zoom” is known as a focal length. This is a number in mm. The smaller the number, the wider the shot, and the more of the scene you will be able to see. The larger the number, the narrower the shot, and the larger your subjects will be. Most lenses have a dedicated focal length / zoom ring on the lens itself, which you can twist to increase or decrease the zoom amount. Some lenses do not have this however, in which case there will be some sort of button on the camera body itself which you can use to electronically zoom the lens in and out.   Metering Mode. Another button that you might find on the back of the camera will let you quickly change the metering mode. As previously mentioned in this guide, before you actually take a photo your camera calculates the correct settings by measuring the amount of light in the scene. This is so you get the correct exposure, and the image is not too bright or too dark. The way the camera measures the light is through a process known as metering. By default, most cameras are set up to evaluate the whole scene that is in frame to create a balanced exposure. However, there are some scenarios where this will not give the best results, such as a scene with a very strong contrast between the dark and bright areas. In order to shoot in these more challenging situations and still get good result, you can set your camera to different metering modes. This will help the camera zero in on the part of the scene you want to expose correctly for. Different cameras have different metering modes. Most cameras will have have a spot metering mode, which only uses the light information in the very centre of the image. For other cameras, you might be able to set the metering point to be the focal point, which is also a good option in many cases. The camera I am using to demonstrate does not have a metering mode button, but this function has to be accessed via the menu system.   Shooting Mode. Next up, the shooting mode. If you’ve ever wanted to take a picture of yourself, this is the mode you want to adjust. Shooting mode tells the camera how to take the picture. Most cameras will have a single shot mode, a continuous shooting mode, and a timer mode. The single shot mode will take one photo when you depress the shutter button. To take another photo, you have to raise your finger off the shutter button and then depress it again. Continuous shooting mode will have the camera continue to take photos while you hold the shutter button down. As long as you depress the shutter button, it will keep taking photos. This is good for capturing action shots of something happening over time. Note you will need to use this in conjunction with a continuous focus mode in order for all your shots to be sharp and in focus. Finally, most cameras on the market today come with some form of timer mode. This lets you press the shutter button, and the camera will take an image after a period of time, often 10 seconds. This is useful for capturing self portraits and group shots.   Video. This article is primarily about photography rather than video, however these days all the mirrorless cameras on the market also have the capability to shoot video. As such, there are usually buttons dedicated to video on the camera as well. These normally let you quickly toggle the camera between photo mode and video mode, and there may also be a dedicated button to stop and start video recording as well. When in video mode, most the other buttons on the back of the camera will work in the same way (video is after all very similar to photography), but it is definitely worth checking your specific camera manual for any differences if you do intend to use your mirrorless camera for video.   What The On-Screen Display Tells You. Lastly, your mirrorless camera will have a screen. This may or may not be a touchscreen. If it is a touchscreen, you will likely be able to access many of the above controls and settings through the touchscreen interface as well as the buttons. In addition, the display will overlay a lot of information on the image. This information will relate to various camera settings, and it’s important to understand what is being displayed so you can be sure the camera is set up correctly. Exactly what is displayed will vary from camera to camera, and also depending on how you have your camera set up. Usually there’s a “display” or “disp.” button to toggle different levels of information. However, here are some of the key pieces of information you will likely find on the screen of your mirrorless camera. This information will usually also display on the electronic viewfinder if your camera has one. Current mode the mode dial is set to Aperture Shutter speed ISO Remaining battery Remaining images Focus mode Flash status Whether you are shooting in RAW, JPG, or RAW+JPG Exposure compensation WiFi / Bluetooth / GPS status Current focus point White balance If image stabilization is active Of all the above, the most important readouts to keep an eye on are the current ISO, aperture, and shutter speed. Some cameras can also overlay a horizon levelling tool so you can see if you are holding the camera level, as well as a grid that follows a compositional rule like the rule of thirds. You can see both of these features enabled in the image below on my mirrorless camera example.   How to Get Better Photos With A Mirrorless Camera. In this part of the guide I am going to go through some tips for using your mirrorless camera, to help you start getting better photos right away. I’m also going to include some areas you should focus on in your photography generally, which are camera agnostic, but still important. Hold Your Mirrorless Camera Properly. The first thing you need to do when using your mirrorless camera is to learn how to hold it properly for taking photos. This advice applies to all types of camera. Holding your camera properly will make it more stable and will result in fewer blurry pictures as a result of camera motion whilst you take the shot. To hold your mirrorless camera, your right hand should grip it around the right side of the camera, with your right index finger over the shutter button. Most mirrorless cameras have a grip in this position which makes positioning your right hand quite easy. A common mistake at this point is to shoot one handed. You definitely don’t want to do this. Holding the camera with both hands will hugely increase the stability and result is less lost shots. This is particularly important when shooting indoors or in any situation where there is limited light available, as the camera will use lower shutter speeds. When taking a picture, your left hand should be supporting the camera lens. Usually this will be in a palm up manner. You might need to rotate your hand to adjust focus or zoom, but when you are ready to shoot you will ideally return to the palm up position. For maximum hand held stability, tuck your elbows tight to your body. This reduces how much your arms can move during shooting. If you find yourself struggling to hold your camera steady even following the above steps, then you should consider investing in a travel tripod which will let you keep the camera totally still in every situation. This will guarantee sharp photos.   Understand the Settings and Modes. In the first part of this guide I went through a variety of the controls, modes, and settings that you have available to you on your new mirrorless camera. Really, I just want to reiterate that it is important to learn what these modes, settings and controls do. It is true that as the technology inside a camera gets better, many cameras work very well in automatic mode. They are great at figuring out the light, figuring out what you are taking a picture of, and identifying and even tracking your subjects. So for many photographers, you will find that in automatic your camera will get good to great shots at least eighty percent of the time. However, you don’t want to miss a shot because the camera accidentally picks the wrong subject, or misjudges the lighting conditions, or just gets the settings wrong. It is for this reason that you want to take full control of your camera, or at least know how to do this. A mirrorless camera is after all an expensive and capable bit of equipment, and the best way to get the most out of it is to full understand how to use it. I would add also that you should read the instructions’ manual – it often comes in paper form with the camera or you can look it up online. Each camera is a bit different and its important to know how to use your particular camera and get the most of its functionality. The best way to do that is to check out the instruction manual.   Learn About the Exposure Triangle. When it comes to photography, one of the most important concepts to understand is the exposure triangle. I have touched on this in this guide a few times already. The exposure triangle can be a complicated seeming concept that takes a while to grasp. It’s also a fairly large topic, and I’ve put together a detailed guide to the exposure triangle here, which is worth reading. However, as a summary, the exposure triangle simply refers to the three controls that all mirrorless cameras offer you to control the exposure of the image. It’s called a triangle because there are three controls, like the three sides of a triangle. These three controls are aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. These are terms that I have touched on already in this post, and are three of the most important photography concepts to get to grips with. Changing any of these three controls will result in a change to how bright the image you capture is – the exposure. In addition, changing each of them will also change how the image looks in a different way. If you change the shutter speed, you change how motion appears in your image. A very fast shutter speed for example, like 1/2000th of a second, can be used to freeze fast action motion like a race car. However, a fast shutter speed lets less light in, and can result in a darker image. Changing the aperture changes the depth of field of your image. Again, this is an important concept to get to grips with, and I’ve written a guide to depth of field in photography to help. I also expand on this a little further on in the post. However, put simply, depth of field controls how sharp the foreground, midground, and background of your image are. Finally, the last control you have over exposure is ISO. Increasing the ISO from say 200 to 600 will increase the exposure of your image. It will also make the image grainier. As a general rule, ISO is the last side of the exposure triangle that you want to change. However, if you can’t achieve what you want by adjusting the shutter speed or aperture, then it is definitely a handy option to have.   Learn the Basics of Composition. This post has largely been about the more technical side of photography, covering how your camera works, and the various settings you have available to you. However, obviously photography is about much more than understanding how your camera works. Generally, I believe there are three main components to becoming a photographer. These are: Understanding how your camera works Learning what makes a great photo Mastering photo editing This post has focused on the first of these three, but the other two are just as important in my opinion. The second point is all about learning how to put together, or compose, a great shot. Composition covers a great many things, but in summary you need to: consider where your subject is placed relative to other elements in the shot get to grips with concepts like the rule of thirds understand how colors work with each other learn how the eye searches out patterns like leading lines and symmetrical subjects start to think about how you can frame subjects think about how to balance your composition There are of course more compositional concepts that you can get to grips with. By learning some of these tips and techniques, you can effectively shortcut your way to developing what many refer to as a photographer’s eye. I’d advise reading through my more detailed guide to composition in photography for more tips. Finally, whilst I’m not going to cover photo editing in this post, it is important. See my guide to the best photo editing software which will give you some pointers as to what options are on the market for photo editing.   Master Depth of Field. Getting to grips with depth of field is another great way to start taking better pictures. You have no doubt seen depth of field in photos, even if you weren’t aware what it was. If you think of a portrait of a person, very often the person will be sharpy in focus, whilst other elements of the shot like the background and even the foreground, will be pleasingly blurry. Modern smartphones can even achieve this affect with special “portrait” modes, where the effect is usually simulated through clever software. However, traditionally this effect has been achieved through changing the settings on your camera. Specifically, as mentioned in the section on the exposure triangle in this guide, by adjusting the aperture on your camera, you can control the depth of field. If you set an aperture number of between f/1.2 and f/4 for example, you will get a shallow depth of field. This means only your subject will be in focus, whilst the parts of the image between the camera and your subject, and behind your subject, will be out of focus. You would use this effect primarily for portraits, or when you want to isolate your subject from the background. If you set the aperture to a higher number, like f/8 – f/16, then more of the scene will be in focus. You would typically do this for landscape shots, or any shot where you want as much of the image to be sharply focused as possible. To practice your depth of field, I recommend putting your camera in aperture priority mode, and shooting the same scene and subject at different aperture settings to see the difference. I also have a complete guide to depth of field in photography here for more information and tips.   Understand Light. As I’ve mentioned throughout the post, a camera is just a device for recording an image, which it does by capturing light information. As you would imagine, light is therefore quite an important part of photography. However, not all lighting conditions are the same, and understanding different types of light and lighting conditions is key to taking better photos. To start with, there are different sources of light out there. The sun is generally the first light source you will think of, but there are other light source, from indoor lights to stadium lights to camera flashes. Even at night, the moon and stars, or even the Northern Lights, can be a light source. Different light sources have different qualities, and can result in different images. This may be due to their relative strength or weakness, due to the color of light they emit, or simply as a result of the angle you are shooting them. Shooting a photo towards the sun will give very different results to shooting the same photo with the sun behind you for example. In addition, our primary light source, the sun, gives different lighting results at different times of day and in different weather conditions, as the light is affected by the earth’s atmosphere. I’m not expecting you to become a meteorologist of course! There are however some simple rules of thumb around light that can help you get better photos. These are: Generally, shooting with the sun somewhere behind your shoulder rather than in front of you will get better photos If it’s a partly cloudy day, if you can be patient and wait for the sun to come out, you will usually get better photos with more colour and contrast Shooting with the sun directly overhead results in flat looking images, so try to avoid this if possible Shooting at sunset and sunrise, when the light is a more golden tone, often results in the best images. This is known as the “golden hour” in photography, although how long it lasts will depend on where you are in the world Hopefully these tips on light give you some pointers for improving your photos.   Take Workshops or Courses to Improve your Skills. Another great way to improve your photography and take better photos is to take part in some form of leaning program. There are a range of different options, from in person workshops, to photo walks, to local seminars. Some universities and colleges offer courses you can sign up for. If you’ve found this post useful and found my style of explaining photography concepts works for you, you might also be interested in my online photography course. I’ve taught thousands of students how to improve their photography in this course, and I’d love to help you out as well. I think that for what it includes, it’s also incredible value. You can read all about that and buy it for yourself, here.   Take Lots of Photos! Last but not least on my list of ways to start getting better photos is, well, to practice! One of the joys of mirrorless cameras, and digital cameras in particular, is that once you have invested in the equipment, you don’t have to worry about the costs of getting film developed. This means you can take as many photos as you want, try different settings, and really see how they change the look of a shot. A mirrorless camera is particularly good for learning on because as you change settings on the camera, you will see the results in real time on the screen or through the electronic viewfinder. So you can tell quickly what’s in or out of focus, and if the image is too bright or too dark. If you are struggling to find subjects or topics to photograph, then I can recommend trying to set yourself challenges around different subjects or themes, like wildlife, portraits, moving objects, landscapes and so on. Getting used to taking your camera with you everywhere you go will also help you on your photography journey.   How to Care For and Protect Your New Mirrorless Camera. A mirrorless camera is a serious investment, so you will want to keep it in good condition so you can take photos for years to come. Based on our years of international travel with a whole assortment of photography gear, I wanted to share some tips for keeping your gear in tip top condition.   How to Protect your Mirrorless Camera. Whilst mirrorless cameras are generally fairly well built bits of equipment, they are still ultimately an electronic device which has, amongst other things, components made of glass. As a result, they can of course be damaged. There are a number of options you have for protecting your mirrorless camera. The first two products we use on all of our cameras are a lens hood and a UV filter. These are two inexpensive products that will help protect the lens on your mirrorless camera. A lens hood, also known as a sun hood, sits over the end of your lens and is primarily designed to reduce lens flare from the sun. However, in my experience, it also works very well to protect the end of your lens from bumps and scrapes when you have the camera slung over your shoulder, and I never go anywhere without my lens hood on my camera. A UV filter is a screw in filter that attaches directly onto your lens. On a digital camera, the only function these serve is to protect the glass element on the end of your lens. However, as lenses can be expensive to replace, and UV filters run around $15 – $40, a scratched lens filter is a lot cheaper to replace than your whole lens. I have literally dropped a camera from a few feet in the air onto concrete, and shattered both my sun hood and UV filter. However, the camera and lens have been fine, because the impact was cushioned and absorbed by these components. I’m not saying a UV filter and lens hood mean you can go around dropping your camera onto concrete, but they are definitely a worthwhile investment in my opinion. Another must-have accessory in our mind is a camera strap. Whilst most cameras come with the manufacturer’s strap, we think a third party strap is often more comfortable and functional. My favorite straps are the Peak Design ones, and we use both a sling strap and a hand strap. Jess likes personalized straps such as those available on Etsy and the colorful camera straps by iMo. I can also recommend investing in a decent camera bag for your mirrorless camera, which I go into a little bit more in the section below on travelling with your mirrorless camera. Finally, it might be worth purchasing a specific warranty or accidental damage cover for your camera when you buy it, or even shortly afterwards if possible. This will cover your camera against a variety of mishaps, and is usually a worthwhile investment. You can see some options here.   How to Clean your Mirrorless Camera. To be honest, I don’t do much cleaning with my camera beyond keeping the lens clean and trying to ensure there’s not too much dirt or dust on the outside of the camera. To achieve that, I use an air blower like this,and micro fibre cloths like this. It is true that the sensors in mirrorless cameras are particularly prone to getting dust on them, which can become apparent in your images. Sometimes I will use my air blower to try and dislodge the dust, which will work to a point. However, for more thorough cleaning I personally use a professional. See the section below on camera servicing for more tips on that. I’d also advise checking your manual, which will likely have advice on any cleaning and care steps that manufacturer recommends for your particular camera model.   Tips for Travelling with a Mirrorless Camera. For many people, a camera is most commonly used when travelling, and as travel bloggers, this is definitely true for us as well! If you are planning on taking your camera travelling, then I can highly recommend picking up a proper camera bag to put it in. Unlike a normal bag, a camera bag has lots of nice soft padding to keep your gear safe and protected from the various bumps and knocks that are par for the course when on the road. There’s a wide range of camera bags on the market. When looking for a bag, I’d suggest finding one that will fit your camera as well as a few accessories, so you have plenty of room. Of course, the ultimate decision on the right bag for you lies with you. Personally, I use and travel with Vanguard bags. They make a wide range of camera bags, as well as other photography accessories, and I’ve always found their equipment to be well made and durable. For example, they have this relatively compact camera bag, this shoulder bag, and this backpack, all of which would work well for a mirrorless camera system. Make sure if travelling by air that you check the airline regulations. As we often discover, weight can be an issue with cabin luggage, especially if you have a lot of photography gear. As such, you may need to check certain items like tripods although most airlines will let you fly with them as carry-on. Also you should be aware that some items, particularly batteries, are not permitted in checked luggage. Finally, I can also suggest ensuring that your insurance policy covers your cameras. Many travel insurance policies have relatively low single item limits, meaning that loss, damage or theft of your equipment might not result in you getting the full value of your item back. Instead, you might find that your home insurance policy can be upgraded to include more expensive items away from the home. This is how we cover our camera equipment.   Should you Service your Mirrorless Camera? If you want to keep your camera in great condition for a long period of time, then I would definitely recommend you consider getting it serviced from time to time, perhaps every couple of years at least. In particular, you will want to get the sensor on your camera professionally cleaned. This shouldn’t cost too much (around $30 – $70 most likely), and will ensure your images are free of any imperfections. I try to get my cameras cleaned by a camera servicing professional at least once a year since they are used so regularly and endure quiet a bit with all our travelling. You should be able to find a service either online, or with your local camera shop.   Best Mirrorless Camera for Beginners. If you don’t actually own a mirrorless camera yet, but this post has inspired you to get out there and get one, I wanted to provide a couple of tips for the best mirrorless cameras for beginners. We also have a more detailed guide to the best mirrorless cameras which I recommend you check out, but here are two options that would make a great starter mirrorless camera at a reasonable price point. 1. Canon EOS M200. I’ve been a Canon user since I was 13 years old, and I think they produce an incredible range of great cameras. The EOS M100 is no exception – it’s a wonderful bit of kit that is available at a great price point. For your investment you get a 15-45mm lens, and APS-C sized 24.2MP sensor (the same as you’d find in a larger Canon DSLR), as well as WiFi and bluetooth support. It has a nice touchscreen interface on the back, and supports 4k video, but is lacking an electronic viewfinder. It is also missing in-body image stabilization, however this is rare at this price point in either a mirrorless camera or DSLR. You can see the latest prices and buy it online here.   2. Sony A6600. I’ve been recommending a camera from the Sony A6xxx as a great beginner’s camera for years. There are a number of these at difference price points, from the original a6000 (discontinued but can still be found), to the high end a6600. We would recommend the a6600 if your budget allows it. For your money you get super fast autofocus, a 24.2MP APS-C sized sensor, a flip out touchscreen, in body image stabilization, an electronic viewfinder, and up to 11fps shooting speeds. It also has WiFi. If we had to find fault, it would be that we find the menu system to be a bit of a challenge, but that might be because we are so used to the Canon interface! You can see the latest prices and buy it online here.   Further Reading. Well, that was quite a lot on the topic of mirrorless cameras! Before you go though, I did want to share some more guides we’ve written on the subject of photography which I think will help you on your photography journey. Whether you’re a beginner or intermediate photographer, I’m sure you’ll find something in these guides that will help you. We have a similar guide for how to use a DSLR and how to use a compact camera. We also have a guide to how a DSLR works Knowing how to compose a great photo is a key photography skill. See our guide to composition in photography for lots of tips on this subject Once you’ve mastered aperture, you can control depth of field. Read more about what depth of field is and when you would want to use it. If you have a lens with a zoom feature, you can take advantage of something called lens compression to make objects seem closer together than they are. We are big fans of getting the most out of your digital photo files, and do to that you will need to shoot in RAW. See our guide to RAW in photography to understand what RAW is, and why you should switch to RAW as soon as you can. You’re going to need some way of editing your photos. See our guide to the best photo editing software, as well our our guide to the best laptops for photo editing. We also have a guide to getting the best performance out of Adobe Lightroom, our preferred editing software. If you’re looking for advice on specific tips for different scenarios, we also have you covered. See our guide to Northern Lights photography, long exposure photography, fireworks photography, tips for taking photos of stars, and cold weather photography. You may hear photographers talking about a concept called back button focus. If you’ve ever wondered what that is, and want to know how to start using it, see our guide to back button focus. For landscape photography, you might find you need filters to achieve the look you want. See our guide to ND filters for more on that. If you’re looking for a great gift for a photography loving friend or family member (or yourself!), take a look at our photography gift guide, If you’re in the market for a new camera, we have a detailed guide to the best travel cameras, as well as specific guides for the best cameras for hiking and backpacking, the best compact camera, best mirrorless camera and best DSLR camera. We also have a guide to the best camera lenses. If you want a camera or lens, but the prices are a bit high, see our guide to where to buy used cameras and camera gear for some budget savings options. We have a guide to why you need a tripod, and a guide to choosing a travel tripod Ever wondered how to easily replace the sky in an image? Check out our guide to sky replacement in photography for an easy process anyone can do. Finally, if you want to improve your photography overall, you can join over 2,000 students on my travel photography course. I’ve been running this since 2016, and  it has helped lots of people take their photography to the next level. And that’s it for our detailed guide to getting the most out of your new mirrorless camera. As always, we’re happy to take feedback and answer your questions – just pop them in the comments below and we’ll get back to you as soon as we can. Enjoyed this post? Why not share it!Home » Photography » Photography tips » How to Use a Mirrorless Camera: A Beginner’s Photography Guide Leave a Reply Cancel reply.
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                            [body] => Camera Lens Terms Explained for Beginner Photographers 43.1K 43.1K Camera Lens Terms. Just one look at a camera lens and it's easy to get overwhelmed.How does it work?What does that rotating ring do?What the heck are all those numbers?These are just a few questions a beginner photographer might have...To clear things up a bit, I've put together this quick guide on a few terms related to lenses.Focal Length. Part of what can be confusing about lenses is some of the terms that are thrown around when discussing them.Focal length is one such term.If we are to give focal length a technical definition, it would be this: the distance from the camera sensor to the center of the lens when the lens is focused at infinity.Say what?!In much simpler terms, it's the measurement (in millimeters) of how long your lens is. Therefore, an 18mm lens is quite short; a 200mm lens is quite long.The focal length of your lens can be found in a couple of places: one, on top of the lens, toward the base where it connects to the camera, and two, on the end of the lens. If you have a zoom lens, you can also see the focal length on the top of the barrel of the lens.Looking at the image above, you can see that the focal length of that lens is 24-105mm.Focal Length Multiplier. Another factor influences the focal length of a lens, and that's the type of sensor in your camera.I have a 50mm prime lens (like the one shown above) that has a fixed focal length.However, the effective focal length of that lens is different depending on the camera I use.For example, if I use it with a full frame camera, it's effective focal length is unchanged - it's still 50mm.If I use it on a crop sensor camera, though, the effective focal length changes to 80mm.But why? Check out the video below to get an in-depth explanation from Strome Breaker:Basically, a crop sensor camera has a smaller sensor than a full frame camera. It effectively crops out the outer edges of the scene, meaning you see less of what's in front of you than if you were taking the same photo with a full frame camera.That's because a smaller part of the lens's imaging circle is filled with the image due to the smaller sensor.Think of the resulting image as being magnified.As a result, crop sensor cameras give lenses a longer effective focal length, much like I described my 50mm lens acting like an 80mm lens when I use it on my crop sensor camera body.Different camera manufacturers have different focal length multipliers. For example, Canon crop sensor cameras have a magnification of 1.6x. Nikon and Sony crop sensor cameras are usually 1.5x. Micro four thirds cameras have a multiplier of 2x.Angle of View. Angle of view refers to the angle from the middle of the lens (the optical center) to the outer edges of the image that's viewable through the lens.In other words, angle of view is how much you can see with the lens you're using.It's measured on three axes: horizontal, vertical, and diagonal.For example, my 50mm f/1.8 lens has a horizontal angle of view of 40 degrees, a vertical angle of view of 27 degrees, and a diagonal angle of view of 46 degrees.So what's all that mean?It tells you how much of a scene will be captured by a lens. The wider the lens's angle of view, the larger the area of the scene will be captured.In looking at the two images of the Tetons above, you can see how the first image has a wider angle of view than the second.That's why landscape photographers often use wide-angle lenses - they have a wide angle of view that allows them to capture more of the scene in the image.Conversely, wildlife photographers tend to use telephoto lenses because their narrow angle of view allows them to get a close-up shot of the animal, even from a great distance away.When it comes to lenses, on a full frame camera, a 50mm lens roughly reproduces the angle of view that we have with our eyes.That means that a lens that's shorter than 50mm will produce images with a wider view and images that are longer than 50mm will have a narrower view.Aperture. The aperture of a lens is the hole through which light passes through the front element into the barrel of the lens. It's just one of the essential camera parts that allow the camera to capture images.The size of the aperture is controlled by a diaphragm like the one shown above, which opens wider to allow more light in and closes down to restrict the amount of light.Aperture is measured by dividing the focal length of the lens by the diameter of the aperture opening. This results in an f-number like f/4, f/8, or f/11.Learn more about aperture and f-numbers in the detailed tutorial below by Dylan Bennett:F-numbers are consistent across all lenses, so even if the diameter of the aperture opening is different from one lens to the next, if two lenses are using the same aperture value, both lenses will allow the exact same amount of light into the lens.For example, if I'm using my 50mm lens and my 85mm lens and both are set to an aperture of f/4, both lenses will allow the same light into the lens.Aperture gets a little tricky though because the f-numbers are inversely related to the size of the opening.For example, you might think that f/22 is a larger aperture than f/4, simply because 22 is a bigger number than 4. However, this is not the case.Smaller aperture numbers represent larger aperture sizes, so f/4 is quite a large aperture while f/22 is quite small.If you think of f-numbers as fractions, this becomes much more clear: 1/4 is bigger than 1/22, so f/4 is also bigger than f/22."Fast" Lenses. Another aspect of aperture values is that the larger the maximum aperture a lens can achieve, the faster that lens is said to be.So, my 50mm f/1.8 has a much larger maximum aperture than my 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 kit lens.As a result, my 50mm lens is said to be faster.This is because it can allow more light into the lens than my kit lens. The more light it allows into the lens, the faster the shutter speed I can use.You can see this in the chart above: by shooting at f/2.8, your lens gets much more light than if you're shooting at f/5.6 because the size of the hole through which light can pass is much larger.Zooms vs. Primes. In an earlier article, I offered up an essential guide to prime lenses. You can check that out for a more thorough look.But in a nutshell, there are a few primary differences between zoom and prime lenses.Where zoom lenses have a variable focal length, prime lenses have a fixed focal length.For example, the kit lens that came with my first camera is an 18-55mm zoom. I can shoot wide-angle shots at 18mm, short telephoto shots at 55mm, and everything in between. Alternatively, the lens in the image above has a focal range of 28-135mm, so it's got a much wider focal range.On the other hand, I have a 50mm prime lens, and it's always 50mm - there's no changing the focal length.Because zooms have a variable focal length, they are more versatile. You might be able to carry a single zoom lens where you'd need a couple of prime lenses to cover the same focal lengths.Another difference is that prime lenses often produce sharper images. This is because they have fewer pieces and parts, so light has fewer obstructions to go through to reach the camera's sensor.Zoom lenses are typically more expensive as well, again, because they have more elements inside. There are pricey prime lenses too, although you can get budget prime lenses that perform far better than budget zoom lenses.Wrapping It Up. There are other things to know about lenses as well.On the side of the lens, you might see AF-MF or A-M, which refers to autofocus or manual focus. Naturally, in autofocus mode, the lens takes care of acquiring the subject in focus. In manual focus, you control that.You might also see something like "stabilizer" on your lens. When on, image stabilization helps minimize camera shake. That means you can use a slower shutter speed when holding the camera with stabilization on than you can if you hold the camera without stabilization.On the end of the lens, you'll see a series of numbers, perhaps like 1:1.8.Those numbers indicate the maximum aperture the lens can achieve, so that lens has a maximum aperture of f/1.8 at all times.However, if you see something like 1:4-5.6, that means the lens has a variable maximum aperture. At the wide end, it can open to f/4; on the narrow end, it can only open to f/5.6 (as seen below).There are also numbers like 49mm or 58mm on the end of your lens.These numbers indicate the diameter of the lens, which also tells you the size of filter that would be used with that lens. In the case of the former, the lens uses 49mm filters. In the latter, it's 58mm. The lens pictured above uses a 67mm filter.With that, you have a good overview of what all those lens terms and numbers mean.It's confusing at first, to be sure, but the more you use your lenses and become familiar with these features, the easier it will become to remember it all.Now it's time to get out there and practice! Facebook Twitter Best Print Product 2021 Try HDR with your photos Print your photos Sell your lens Save $$ on lens Best Camera Strap Backdrops You Need Camera deals you want Hello from PT! . Beginner Photography Tips. Not sure what to photograph next?Go through our 30-Day Creative Eye Challenge and discover the long last secrets to finding awesome shots, anywhere, anytime (with any camera).Not a Member? Join TodayWe Recommend. How to Use Shadows in PhotographyBeginner's Guide to Still Life PhotographyHow to Use Contrast for Better PhotosImage File Types for Photography Looking for the best canvas prints? Check this out.Home LearnPhotography ArticlesCamera Buying Guide Lens Buying GuideHow to Learn PhotographyTime Lapse PhotographyTravel GuidesLearn & Explore Photography How to ArticlesAstrophotographyMaternity PhotographyPhotography BlogFree Photography eBooks Real Estate PhotographyBird & Wildlife PhotographyPhotography Quotes Holiday Gift GuidesBest Canvas Print CompanyCanvas Print FramesBest Workshops & Tours 2020/2021Photography GlossaryPhotography LightingDrone PhotographyPortrait Photography TipsExploreGallery HomeLatest UploadedInspirational Photos ForumPhotography Forum Home Latest PostsGeneral Discussion Taking The Photo & Editing Photo Galleries & Critiques General Manufacturers Equipment Research More Recommended Vendor Recommended GearLensesCamera BagsTripodsFiltersLightingTriggersMobileVendorsBallheadsColor ManagementSoundCamera StrapsSoftwareMaternity GearAboutGet Canvas PrintsCommunity BadgesGet Metal PrintsPT ScholarshipMember Interviews Master ON DemandAdventureFaqPhotography Courses 30 Day Creative Eye ChallengeBird Photography Mastery CourseBusiness Builder Mastery CourseTravel Photography Mastery CoursePortrait Photography Master CourseLandscape Photography Mastery Course
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                            [body] => otomedic. HomeTasters on this siteGuide to camera lensesDepth of fieldAvoid camera shakeRule of thirds in photographyNegative space in photographyWhy avoid digital zoomPortrait photography tipsWhite color balanceTake great photos on EbayMy camera shopScience of color siteColor in light versus pigmentColor symbolism in artColor temperature of whiteHow colors recede & advanceColor bias of pigmentsTonality of colorsTypes of white pigmentTranslucent & opaque colorsMy other art websitesOil painting methods siteOil painting demosOil painting medic blogMy Youtube channelArtclass challenge blogMy Lake District siteBest views in central LakesBest views in north LakesHow to make a viewfinderAll about Wainright's walk guidesPlein air painting in the LakesPretty lakeland tarnsBuy my artbooks My Youtube channel Articles on this site. Essential Photography TipsBasic types of digital camerasBasic anatomy of a digital cameraHow does the Digital Camera Work?Beginner's guide to camera lensesLight settings of a digital cameraWhat is depth of field in photography?What is the camera's resolution?Best use of flash in photographyHow to avoid camera shakeManual exposure settings in photographyThe rule of thirds in photographyNegative space in photographyOptical zoom and digital zoom lens pros and consTips on how to compose a photoTips on portrait photographyTips on child photography for beginnersTips on macro photographyWhite Color Balance in PhotographyNight time photography tips and tricksHow to photograph a black objectTake Great Photos for EbayHow to Make Black and White PhotosPros and Cons of the CameraphoneSitemap Beginner's guide to camera lenses . A camera lens serves three functions: it allows light to pass through the camera; it allows the lens to focus, and lastly, the lens dictates the format of the photo, whether it shows a narrow or wide view. The basic types of lenses on offer in this regard are: standard, zoom and wide angled lenses.Basic Types of Lenses Most digital cameras possess a zoom lens offering a range of focal lengths that are most commonly used. Other cameras possess a fixed viewpoint, which might be the ‘standard’ view. And then there are the digital SLRs who have a lens port that allows detachment and lens changing. The standard lens is 50mm, closely resembling our view in front of us. Millimeters, by the way describes the distance between the centre of the lens and the focal point achieved on the CCD behind it. Varying this factor means objects can be made to appear close-up, or far away without actually shifting our position. With this in mind, what are the main types of lenses?The Standard Lens for Digital Cameras The most commonly used format, the standard lens creates pictures that appear ‘normal’, or in other words how we see the world with the naked eye. Size of objects appear the same or similar in size as the object in real life. There are few distortions; proportions of objects against one another make sense. This, the 50mm lens will often be found on digital cameras including the fixed lens, (although some fixed-lensed cameras might be a little wider than this to accommodate landscape photography).The Wide Angled LensIf we push the ‘frame’ of a normal view outwards, so that more objects can be seen around us, the view would become wide-angled. This is what it is like to peek through a wide-angled lens. Tall objects appear bowed, differences in sizes and distances between near and far objects become more extreme. Wide angle lenses add depth and drama to landscapes, seascapes and other panorama. The widest lens, the fisheye lens is around 20mm. Some estate agents use the wide angled lens to make rooms look bigger than what they actually are in property schedules (I’m sorry but they do!). Telephoto Lens FormatTelephoto lenses work rather like a telescope, bringing far objects closer to the viewer. Objects appear flatter, with less distortions. Far objects appear bigger than in reality, and proportions between large and small and near and far are diminished. Telephoto lenses, opposed to the zoom, are a fixed in focal length offering only one format. This type of lens can be found in a number of sizes from 200mm to 800mm (or more). Powerful telephoto lenses might be ideal for capturing wildlife from afar, or to eradicate distortions from a portrait.Definition of a Zoom Lens in PhotographyThe zoom lens, as the name suggests can be zoomed in or out and therefore offer a range of focal lengths without actually changing the lens. Most digital cameras have a zoom lens of between 40mm and 100mm or so. This offers conveniences and versatility for shooting a range of everyday subject matter. But anything outside this ‘normal’ range will require the use of a digital SLR, as lenses of the everyday digital camera cannot be detached.Camera Lenses for the SLRThe extreme photographer may wish to use an array of lenses, including those that fall outside the norm, as lenses can be detached from the digital SLR. Specialized lenses can be used, not possible on an ordinary digital camera. The only trouble with this is that carrying specialised lenses can be bulky. Comments Sign in|Recent Site Activity|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites
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